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Full text of "A new discovery of a vast country in America, extending above four thousand miles, between New France & New Mexico; with a description [!] of the Great lakes, cataracts, rivers, plants, and animals"

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ington JMemorial . 

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in 2010 witli funding from 

University of Pittsburgli Library System 

(aif:/je/-r: j7 Draft; 


New Difcovery 


Vaft Country in c^merkdy 

Extending above Four Thoufand Miles, 


New France & New Mexico ; 


Defeription of the Great Lakes , £ataraBs, 
Ri'vers^ Flants^ and Animals. - 

Alfo, the Manners^ Cuftoms^ and Languages of the fe-#eral 
Native Indinns \ And the Advantage of Commerce with 
thofe difFerent Nations. 

W I T H A ^ 


Giving an ACCOUNT of the 

fAttertipts of theSieur de U SALLE upon the 
Mines of St. Barbe^ &c. The Taking of Ottehec 
by the EngUjli ; With the Advantages of a 
fhorter Cut to China and Jafan. 

Both Illul^rated with hUps^ and Figures -^ and Dedicated 
to His Majefty King IV I L L I A M. 

By i. He7inefm now Refident in Holland. 

To which are added, Several Keiv Difcoveries in North- 
America , not Publilh'd in the French Edition. 

LONDON^ Printed by for Henry BonroicVe^ at the P^d Lion 
in St. P;iM/'s Church- Yard. 1699. 


T O 
-feis mofl Excellent Majefty 


King of Great Britain^ &c. 


^ I SHis Account of the greateft 
fe I Difco'very that has been 
^-A^ made in this Age , of feveral 
Large Counteries , fituate between 
the Frozen Sea and New Mexico^ I make 
bold humbly to Dedicate to. your Ma- 
jefty. Having liv'd Eleven Years in 
the Northern America^ I have had an 
Opportunity to penetrate farther into 
that Unknown Continent than any 
before me ; wherein I have difcover'd 
New Countries, which may be juftly 
^\V(\t\\^ Delights of that New^ World. 

i A 3 They 


They are larger than Europe^ water'd 
with an infinite number of fine f Ri- 
vers, the Courfe of one of which is 
above 800 Leagues long, ftock'd 
with all Ibrts of harmlefs Beafts, and 
other Things neceffary for the Con- 
yeniency of Life; and blefs'd with fo 
mild a Temperature of Air , that 
nothing h there wanting to lay the 
Foundation of one of the Greateft ] 
Empires in the World. I 

I fliould think my felf very happy,' 
and fufficiently rewarded for my La- 
borious ^.Travels, if they could any 
ways contribute to make thofe Coun- 
tries i3etter known , under the Glo- 
rious Name of our Majefty ; and if 
through Your Royal Proteftion I 
might ferve as Guide to your Subjefls, 
'to carry into thofe Parts the Light of 
the Gofoel, and the Fame of your He- 
roical Virtues : My Name would be 
blefs'd amongft thofe numerous Na,- 
tions,who live without Laws and Re- 
ligion, only becaufe no body endea- 

To the KING. 

vours to inftruft them; and they 
would have the Happinefs of being 
converted to the Chriftian Faith^ and 
the Advantage of feeing at the Tame 
time their Fiercenefs and rude Man- 
ners foftned and civilized, by the Com- 
merce of a Polite and Generous Na- 
tion, ruled by the moft Magnani- 
mous King in the World. 

This Enterprize is worthy of Your 
Majefty, who never frames but No- 
ble Defigns, and purfues them with 
fuch a Prudence and Vigour, that they 
are always crown'd with a Glorious 

I dare not prefume to giv^ here 
a particular Account of what Your 
Majefty's unparallell'd Valour and 
Prudence have done for the Felicity of 
England^ Scotland^ and Ireland^ and the 
Vnited Provinces ; the happinefs of your 
Kingdoms, and the Mildnefs of Your 
Majefty's Government, proclaim that 
Truth to all the World, as alfo the 
Tranquility of the Vnited Nether-^ 
A ^ lajids^ 

To the KING. 

lands ^ amidft a dreadfull War^ wliich 
ravages moft Parts of Europe. Your 
Majefty drove back a formidable 
Enemy, who had penetrated into 
their very Heart, and keeps him (ince 
at fuch ^ diftance, that they have no- 
thing to fear from his Ambitious De- 

The reft of Euroi^e is no lefs inde- 
bted to Your Majefty than your own 
Kingdoms and the Vnited Netherlands ; 
for Your Majefty expofes every Year 
your Life, at the Head of your Ar- 
niiesand theirs, to proted their Coun- 
try and preierve their Liberties from 
a fatal Invafion. The Allies know and 
own with Gratitude, That Your Ma- 
jeftyV Prudence, and the great Re- 
fpedt which fo many Princes have for 
your Perfonal Merit, are the only Ce^ 
ment that was able to maintain the 
Great Alliance, in which Europe is 
entery for its Prefervation. 

Your Majefty 's Glorious Atchieve- 
ments being a Theme above my Pen, 


To the KING. 

I muft not prefume to fpeak of them ; 
but my Religion obliges me to men- 
tion what I have feen with my own 
Eyes, and publifli to all the World, 
That I have feen your Majefty Pre^ 
fer^ing^ ^ with the utmoft Care, Our 
Churches in the Netherlands ^ while 
Others^ who, by a Principle of Con- 
fcience , were oblig'd to Protect 
them, left them expos'd to the Info- 
lence of their Soldiers, violating in 
the face of the Sun the Refpeft all 
Chriftians owe them. 

It is this great Generofity and Equl- 
,ty of your Majefty, as m.uch as your 
other Ineomparabie Exploits, which 
have gain'd you the Efteem and the 
Hearts of all Chriftian Princes, one 
alone excepted ; and have engag'd 
the King of Spain my lavv^ful Sove- 
reign, the moft Catholick Prince in 
the World, to make fo ftrift an Alli- 
ance with Your Majefty. 

That Great Monarch being too re- 
mote from the Netherlands to defend 


To the KING. 

his Dominions, has found in Your 
Majcfty a Valiant and Trufty De- 
fender ; who being feconded by the 
Invincible Eleftor of Bavaria^ pro- 
lefts the Spanijh Dominions againft a 
Prince, who makes all poffible Ef- 
forts to deprive his Catholick Majefty 
thereof, notwithftanding their Proxi- 
mity of Blood, and his profeffing the 
fame Religion. 

His Catholick Majefty having 
therefore fo often experienced, that 
Your Majefty 's Royal Word is more 
firm than other Princes Treaties and 
Solemn Oaths, could not alfo but 
leave his Dominions to your Dif- 
pofal ; ftiewing by that unparallelFd 
Piece of Truft, how much he relies 
upon your Majefty 's Honour, and 
what Efteem he has for your Royal 
Vertues, which are mixed with no 
manner of Imperfections. 

I don't queftion but many out of 
Envy or Malice, will blame me for 
entring into Your Ma jefty's Service; 


To the KING. 

but I care very little for what they fay, 
fince it isby thePermiffion of hisCa- 
tholick Majefty, the Eleftor of Ba^a- 
riay and the Superiours of my Order. 
I defign to keep the Integrity of my 
Faith, and ferve faithfully the Great 
Monarch who has honoured me with 
his Royal Protedion. I owe my 
Services to the Generous Protestor of 
my Country, and of our Altars, who 
befides has fo kindly receiv'd me at 
his Court, while other Princes negledl- 
ed me, or forbad me their Prefence. It 
is then out of Gratitude, that I devote- 
my felf to Your Majefty's Service, 
and in order to contribute to the 
Converfion of the feveral Nations I 
have difcover'd, and to the Advan- 
tage of your Subjects, if they will 
improve this Opportunity, and make 
Plantations in a Country, which is fo 
fertile , as to afford two Crops every 
Year. ' 

The Gentleman with whom I be- 
gan this JDifco'verVj had form'd great 



Defigns, and efpecially upon the 
Mines of St. Barbe in New Mexico ; 
but his Tragical Death prevented 
their Execution. 

I humbly befeech your Majefty, 
to accept this Publick Mark of my 
Relped: and Gratitude ; having pray'd 
the Almighty for the Prefervation of 
Your Sacred Majefty's Perfon, and 
the Profperity of your Reign, I beg 
leave to fubfcribe my felf, with 
all the Submiffion and Refpefl: ima* 


Tour M A J E S T Ts 

Mofi Humble^ moft Faithful, a^d 

Mojl Obedient Servant, 

F. Louis Hennepin^ 

MiJ]ionary Recolleci. 



IF Frefent here the Reader with the Firfi Fart 
j^ of the Account of the Voyage I made from 
the Tear 1679, to the Tear 1682, m the 
Northern America ; in which I difcover'^d a 
Country^ unknown before me^ as Urge or lar^ 
ger than Europe. I had rcfohed long ago to 
oblige the Fublickwith it', but my Refolution 
was prevented by feme ReafonSy which it would 
be too long to relate, 

"^Tis true , I Publijhed fart of it in the 
Tear 1684, in my Account of Louifiania; 
Printed at Paris by Order of the French 
Kj^g \ ^tit 1 was then obliged to fay nothing 
of the Ccurfe of the River Mefchafipi, fror/i^ 
the Mouth of the River of //^e; Illinois dow)% 
to the Sea^ for fear of difebliging M, la 
Salle , with whom I began my Difcovcry, 
This Gentleman would alone have the Glory 
of having difcovered the Coarfe of that Ri- 
ver : But when he heard that I had done 
it two Tears before him^ he could never for-- 
give me^ thouf^h, as I have faid, Irvasfo mo- 

The P R E F A Cfi. 

defi as to fublifi nothing of it. This is the 
true catife of his Malice againfi me^ *and of 
all the hariarom Vfage 1 have met with in- 
France ; which they carrjed fo far^ as to ob- 
lige the Marquis ce Louvois to command me 
to depart the French K^^g^s Dominions j 
which I did willingly^ though t ftrv fufficient 
Grounds to believe this Order was forged after 
Monfteur de Louvois was Dead, 

The pretended Reafons of that violent 
Order^ were^ becAufe I refufed to return in- 
to America ; where I had been already Ele^ 
^en Years ; though the particular Laws cf our 
Order oblige none of m to go beyond-Sea a- 
gainft their Will, I would hajue howeve;t' 
returned very willingly^ had I not fufficien- 
ly known the Malice of M, la Salle, who 
would have expofed m.e^ to make me perijh^ 
as he did one of the Men who accompanyed 
me in my Difcovery. God knows , that t 
am ferry for his Unfortunate Death -^ but the 
judgments of the Almighty are always jufi^ 
for that Gentleman was killed by one of his own 
Men^ who were at lafl fenfible that he expofed 
themtovifible Dangers ^ without any Neceffity^ 
and for his private Defigns, 

I prefented jomeiime after a Petition to 
the French Kj^g^ rvhile he was Encamped 
at Harlemont in Brabant, fitting forth my 
Services^ and the Jnjujlice of my Enemies ; 
but that Prince had fo many Affairs^ 



that^ J ftiffofe^ they hmder'^d him frcm ccn- 
ftdermg my Petitkn; avd. fo I cculd chtmn 
no SatisfaBion. I cent ironed jince at GcUe- 
liers and Aeth ; ard jt/fi as they nere mi- 
fwg another Ferfecuticn again fi me^ the 
Divine Frci'idence Irct/ght n.e accjuainted 
ivith Mr, BJstlnvalt , i^ecretary cf War to 
his Majefy William the Third, Ki^g rf 
Great Britain ; rvho, hy Order of His Ma- 
jejiy^ nrote a Letter to Father Payez , Ge- 
neral Commijfary of our Order at Lcuvain, 
to defire him to gi've me ieai'e to go Miflio- 
nary into America, and to continue in one 
vf .the United Frcnjinces^ till I had dige- 
fiediifto Order the !Memoires of my Dif- 
. covery. This General Commijfary being infor- 
med that the Kjng of Spain, and the Ele- 
Bor of Bavaria ccnfented that I ffjould enter 
into the Ser^vice of His Majefiy of Great 
Britain, granted me what 1 defired^ and 
fent me to Antwerp, to take there in cur 
Con'uent a Fay -Habit ; and from thence I 
rvent into Holland, having receivedfome Mo- 
ney from Mr, Hill, by Order of Mr, Blath- 

/ deftgned to live at Amfterdam for fame 
time ; but fome Reafons obliged me to go to 
Utrecht, rvhere I fmfhed the Firfi Volume 
of the Account of my Difccvery rvhich I 
hope will prove advantagious to Europe , 



and ejfecially to the Englifli Nationy to whofe 
Service I entirely Devote injfelf, 

I cannot fufficiently acknowledge the Favours 
of Mr, Blathwait, who has fo gemroufly 
frovide4 for my Subfifience^ and did me the 
Honour to frefent me to His Majejly before 
His Departure for England. / am alfo ve- 
ry much obliged to the Duke of Ormond, and 
the Earl of Athlone, for the Civilities I 
have Received from them: They have often 
admitted me to their Table^ and granted feve- 
ral Protections in Flanders upon my Recom- 

I hope the Reader will be f leafed with the 
Account of my Difcfovery ; not for the Fine- 
nefs of the Lanmage^ and the Noblenefs of 
the ExpreJJlonj but only upon Account of 
its Importance^ and of the Sincerity where- 
rvith "'tis written,. The Bookfeller has added 
a Maf^ and fome other CuttSy which are an 
Ornament to the Book^ and very ufeful for the 
better underfianding of it. 


The Contents of the Chapters; 

THE Occafwn of m den aklng this Voyage. 
Chap. I . .The A'fotives rvhich engaged the Author 
of this Blfcovery to undertake the Voyage'^ whereof yok 
have here a Relation. 

Chap. 2. The means by which the Author accufiorndhim^ 
felf to endure the Travail and Fatigue of his laborious 
AUjfion. ■ ■ ' i 

Chap. 3. A Defcriftionofthofe Canoiis that they make ufe of 
in the Summer -time in America, /or the convcniency of 
Travelling. " 
Chap. 4. Other Motives that induced the Author more 
forcibly to iindertake thii Difcovcry. 

Chap. 5. A Defcription of Fort CaUYokouy^ called fine e 
Fort Frontenac. 

Chap. 6". A Defcriftion of fome FrejJj-water Lakes^ the 
greatefi and the ^leafanteft in the Vniverfe. 

Ghap.7.^ Befcription of the fall of the River Niagara,f^^t 
is to befeen betvmt the Lake Ontario and that o/Erie; 

Chap. 8. A Defcription of the Lake Erie. 

Chap. 9. A Lkfcription of the Lake Huron. 

Chap. I o. A Defcription of the Lake calfd by the Sava- 
ges Illinoiiack, and by the French, Illinois. 

Chap. 1 1 . Ajloort Defcription 0, the Vpper Lake. 

Chap. 12. What is the Predominant Genius of the Inha^' 
bitants ef Canada. 

Chap. IS' A Defcription of my fir fi Imbarkment in a Canou 
at Quebec, the Capital City </ Canada, being bound 
for the SoHth'JVefi of New-France, or Canada. 

Chap. 1 4. A Defcription of my fecond Embarkment at 
Eon Frontenac, in a Brigantine upon the Lake Onta- 
rio or Frontenac. 

Ghap. 1%. An Account of the Emhajfie f f^e Iroquefe 

Chap. 1 5. A Defcription of a Ship of Sixty Tuns^ which 
-we built near the Streights of the Lake Erie, during the ■ 

£ Winter sndSpringof the Tear 16-]^^ 

B Ch^p. 

! The Contents of the Chapters."* 

Chap. 1 7. The Author* s Return to Fort Frontenac. 
Chap. 18. An Account of our Second Embarlment from 

Fort Frontenac. 
Chap. 1 9. An Account of our Third Emharkment fiom 

the Mouth of the Lake Erie. 
Chap. 20. An Account of what hafpen^d in our Tajfage 

from the Lake Erie unto the Lake Huron. 
Chap. 21. An Account of our Navigation on the Lake 

Huron to Miflilimakinak. 
Chap. 22. An Account of our Sailing from Miflilimaki- 
nak, into the Lake of the Illinois. 
Chap. 23. An Account of our Emharkment in Canou^s to 
continue our Difcovery^ from the Bay of Puans, to the 
. Miami's on the Lake of the Illinois. 
Chap. 24. A Defcriftion of the Calumet^ or Great Pipe. 
Chap. 25. A Continuation of our Difcovery -^ with an 

Aicou?Jt of our Navigation to the farther end of the 

Lake of the Illinois in our Canous. 
Chap. 16. An Account of the Peace made between us and 

the Outtouagami's. 
Chap. 27. An Account of the 'Building of aFortanda 
■ Houfe ?i€ar the River Miamis. 

Chap. 28. A Continuation of our Voyage ^om Fort Mia- 
mis to the River of the Illinois. 
Chap, 29. An Account of our Emharkment ^t the Head 

of the River of the Illinois. 
Chap. 30. AJDefcriptionoftheHuntingofthewildBulls 
. and CowSy by the Savages j Of the hignefs of thofe 

Be^fls j and of the Advantages and Improvements that 

may he made of the Plain where they Pafture j and of 

the Woods thereabouts. 
Chap. 31 . An Account of our Arrival to the Coimtry of 

the Illinois, ot?e of the mo ft numerousNIations of the 

Savages o/America. 
Chap. 32. An Account ofwhat'hapnedto us while we re» 

mained among the Illinois, till the bmlding of a New 

Chap, 33. Reflect o?is upon the Temper and Manners of the 

Illinois, and tU Utile Diffofition they have to embrace 

Chrijl lanity. Ch ap. 

The Contents of the Chapters. 

Chap. 34. An Account of the Building of a. New Fort on 
the River of the Illinois, named by the Savages Che- 
cagou, and by us Fort Crevecoeur j as alfo a Barque to 
go down the River Mefchafipi. 

Chap. 35. Containing an Account of what was tr an failed 
ai Fort CreveccEur before M. la Sailed return to Fort 
Frontenac ^ and the Infiruclions we received from a 
Savage concerning the River Mefchafipi. 

Chap. 36. The Author fets out from Fort Crevecceur, to 
continue his Voyage. 

Chap. 37. TheComfe of the River Mefchafipi from the 
Mouth of the River of the Illinois, to the Sea •, which 
the Author did not thinkfofittopublijlnn his Louifianaj 
with an Account of the reafons he had to undertake thai: 

Chap. 3 8 A Continuation of our Voyage on the River Mef- 

Chap. 39. Reafons which obliged Hs to return towards the 
Socurceofthe River Mefchafipi, without going any far ' 
ther toward the Sea-, 

Chap. 40* An Account of our Departure from Koroa, ti 
continue our Voyage. 

Chap. 41 . A-particular Account of the River Mefchafipi j 
Of the Country thrt? which it flows -, and of the Mines 
of Coffer^ Lead^ and Coals we difcover'din our Voyage, 

Chap. 42. An Account of the various Languages of the 
Nations inhabiting the Banks e/r/?? Mefchafipi ^ Of 
their Submijfwn to their Chief -^ of the difference of their 
Manners from the Savages of CscaSidid.^ and ofthediffi' 
culties^ or rather impojfibilities attending their Con- 

Chap. 43. An Account of the FijJjery of the Sturgeons 5 
and of the Courfe we took^for fear of meetingfome of our 
Men from Fort Crevecoeur. 

Chap. 444 Ajlwrt Account of the Rivers that fall into the 
Mefchafipi j of the Lake of Tears ^ of the FallofSti 
Anthony j of the wild Oats of that Country^ an A 
fiver dot her Cir^umflames of our Voyage, 

% ^ Glia|J,- 

The Contents of the Chapters. 

Chap. 4$. The jli^tthor andhis Ca?70H--Mcn are taken by 
the Savages^ who^ after feveral Attempts npwi their 
Li-ves^ carry them away with them into their Coun- 
try above the River Mefchafipi. 
Chap. 4<^. The Refolation which the Barbarians took td 
carry the Author and his two Men along with them h^ 
into their Country ^ above the River Mefchafipi. 
Chap. ^-j.The many Outrages done m by the Savages ^bc- 
jorewearriv' din their Country, They frequently defign 
againfl our Lives. 
Chap. 4S. The Advantages which the Savages of the 
North have over thofe of the South^ in relation to the 
War : As alfo the Ceremony which was perform'' d by one 
of our Captains^ having cans' d as to halt at Noon. 
Chap. 49. What Tricks and Artifices were us''d by Aqui- 
pagnetin to, cheat m hamlfomly of our Goods ^ with ma- 
ns other Accidents that happen d in our Voyage. 
Chap. 50. The Elders weep for m during the Night. Nero. 
Oi'itragesdone mby A<:[CiY^2.^\iQ.tin. The manner how 
the Savages make Fire by FriBion. 
Chap. 51. Ceremonies us^dby the Savages when they Jhare 
their Trifoners. Continuation of our Jourfiey by Land. 
Chap.' 52. Agreat Contefl arifes amongjl the Savages^ 
about dividing optr Aierchandlfe and Equipage -^ as alfo 
my Sacerdotal Ortiamrnts and little Chift. 
Chap. .5 3. T/jf Troop approaches the ViUagc. A Grand Con- 
flit aniongfi the Savages^ whether they fliould Kill us^ or 
fave and. adopt ti^ for their Sons. The Reception which 
we had from them ^ and the ufe they made of my Chafuble. 
Chap. 5 4.7"/^^ Author^ s Reception by the Relations ofAqul- 
pagetuin.T/jfy make himfweat to recover hirn of his Fa- 
tigues. The ufe they make of his Chafuble and other Or- 
Chap. 5 5 . The Author tike to befamijFd. They fdmire 
his Compafs^ and an Iron Eot which he had. He makes 
n DiEiionary^ and inflrucls them in Points of Religion^ 
i'n relation to PoUgamy and Celibacy. 
Chap. 5<5. The moji confiderahle Captain of the Iflati and 
Nadoiicirians upbraid thofe that took us. The Author 
Baptises the J^aitghterof MamQmfl. Chap. 

The Contents of the Chapters." 

Chap. 57. An Emhajfy fcnt to the liTati hy the Savage's 
that inhabit to the Wefi of them. Whence it af fears that 
there is no fitch rlingas theStreiahts o/Anian ^ and that 
Japan is on the fame Continent as Louiiiana. _■ \ ' 

Chap. 58. The IlTati ajfemhle to km the Wild-BHlLRe- 
fiifal of the two Canou-Mcn to take the Anthor into their 
CanoH^ in order to go down the Pdver of St. Francis. ' 

Chap. 59. The Savages halt above the Fall of St. Anthony 
of Padua. They are ftreighten'd for Frovlfions. The 
Author .^ with Picard, returns to the River Ouifconfm. 
The Adve?2tHres of the Voyage. 

Chap. 60. The Hunting of the Tortoifi. ■ The Authors Ca- 
non is carry' d ojfby a Sudden hlafi of IVind^ ■ which was 
like to have reduced him and his Companions to great 

Chap. 61. IVe coiuinue oar Courfe in fearch of the River 
Ouifconfin. Aquipaguetin/w(a!j «j and gats thither be- 
fore its. We fiibfift meerly by Providence, ' 

Chap. 61. Great Streights which the Author and-his Com- 
panion are reduc'd to in their Voyage. They at lafi- meet 
again with the Savages at their return from Hunting. 

Chap. 6^. The Savages-Women hide their Provijions up 
and down in private Holes. They go down the River 
again afecond time. Addrefs of the Savages. Bravery 
of one of the Savages. 

Chap. 54. Arrival of the Sieur dll Luth in our Camp. 
He defires us to return with him and his foUojvers to th'e 
Country of the Iflati and Nadoneflians. J cafl rny Co- 
verlet over a dead JMan. The Savages are pleased at it. 

Chap. 6^. The Author takes his leave of the Savages to 
return to Canada. A Savage is fain by his Chiefs for 
advifing to kill m. Dijfute between the Sieur 4u Luth 
and me^ about the Sacrifice of Barbarians, 

"Chap. 66. The Sieur du Lilth is in a great Confiernation at 
the Appearance of a fleet of the Savages^ who furprixSd 
m before we were got into the River Ouifconlin. 

Chap. 67. The Author^s Voyage from the Aionth of the. 
River Ouifconfin, to the great 'Bay of the Pua is. 

B 3 CHAP. 

The Contents of the Chapters. 

Chap. 68. 71?^ Author and his Company fiay fame time A- 
tnonqft the Puans. Original of the Name. They cele- 
hrated the Mafs here^ and winter at Miffilimakinak. 

Chap. 69. The Author'' s Departure from Miffilimaki- 
nzk-fJe pajfes two^reat Lalzes. Taking of a Great Bear: 
Some particulars relating to the Flejh of that Bet^. 

Chap. 70. The meeting of the Author and a certain Cap- 
tain of the Outtaouads, narr^d Talon hy the Men- 
dant of that Name upon the Lake of Erie ^ rvho rcr 
counts to him many Adventures of his Family and Na- 
tion. Further Ohfervations upon the great Fall or Cata- 
raU o/Niagara. 

Chap. 7 1 . The Author fets out from the Fort which is at^ 
the Mouth of the River Niagara, and obliges the Iro? 
quois ajfemhled in Council^ to deliver up the Slaves they 
had made upon the Outtaouafts. 

Chap. 72. Tlje Author fets out from f /jf Tfbnnontouans 
Iroquois, and comes to Fort ^xoxiXtusiC. 

Chap. 73. The Author fets out from Fort ^rontenac^and 
paffes over the rapid Stream^ which is call' dTh.Q\o]\g 
Fall. He is kindly rcceiv'^d at Montreal by Count 

Chap. q/3f.Agreat Defeat of the IWmois^thatwei^e attacked 
and furpriz,ed by the Iroquois. 1 

Chap. 75- 7^^^ Savages Kikapoux murther Father Ga- 
briel de la Ribourde, a Recoiled Miffionary. 

Chap. 16. The Author^s Return from his Difcovery tQ 
Quebec ; and what happened at his Arrival at the Con^ 
vent ofQar Lady of Angels near that Town. 


( X) 

New Difcovery 


Country greater than Europe^ 

Situated in America, betwixt New-Mexico 
and the Frozen-Sea. t 

The Occafton of undertaking this Voyage, 

ME N are never weary of Contemplating 
thofe Objeds that are before their Eyes, 
becaufe they difcover a thoufand raviih- 
ing Excellencies therein, capable to af- 
ford 'em both Satisfadion and Inllrudion. The 
Wonders they there meet with, are fo furprifing, 
and Cas it were) enchanting , that they are necef- 
farily engaged to furvey the fame with all poflible 
Exadnefs, in order to fatisfie their natural Guriofity, 
and inform their Minds. 

The Condition of Travellers is very near ^ the 
fame. They're never weary of making new Difco- 
veries. They're indefatigable in rambling through 
unknown Countries and Kingdoms not mentioned 
in Hiflory ^ feafting their Minds with the Satisfadi- 
on of gratifying and enriching the World with fome- 
thing unheard of, and whereof they had never any 
Idea before. Tis true, fuch Enterprizes expofe 'em 
to infinite Fatigue and Danger : But herewith they 
folace thenifelves, and perfevere to fufFer all with 
B 4 Pleafure 

( o 

New Difcovery 


Country greater than Europe, 

Situated in America, betwixt New-Mexico 
and the Frozen-Sea. t 

The OccAfion of undertaking this Foyage, 

ME N are never weary of Contemplating 
thofe Objedls that are before their Eyes, 
becaufe they difcover a thoufand ravilh- 
ing Excellencies therein, capable to af- 
ford 'em both Satisfadion and Inftru^tion. The 
Wonders they there meet with, are fo furprifmg, 
and (as it were) enchanting, that they are necef- 
farily engaged to furvey the fame with all poITible 
Exadnefs, in order to fatisfie their natural Curiofity, 
and inform their Minds. 

The Condition of Travellers is very near ^ the 
fame. They're never weary of making new Difco^ 
veries. They're indefatigable in rambling through 
unknown Countries and Kingdoms not meution'd 
in Hiftory ^ feafting their Minds with the Satisfadi- 
on of gratifying and enriching the World with fome- 
thing unheard of, and whereof they had ne/er any 
Idea before. Tis true, fuch Enterprizes expofe 'em 
to infinite Fatigue and Danger : But herewith they 
folace themfelves, and perfevere to fufFer all with 
B 4 Pleafure 

2 '^ Nerv Difcovery of 

Pleafure in that they hope to contribute thereby 
both to the publick Good, and to the Glory of God 
while at the fame time thsy are gratifying their own 
natural Indmationsj and hence it is, they are fo 
powerfully bent to make thefe Difcoveries, to feek 
out ftrange Countries and unknown Nations, where- 
of they had never before heard. 

Thofe whofe Aim in undertaking Voyages, is to 
enlarge the Bounds of Ghrilt's Kingdom, and ad- 
vance the Glory of God, do upon that Profpea a- 
lone -valiantly venture their Lives, making 'em of 
no Account. They endure the greateft Fatigues, and 
traverfe the raoft linpaflable 'Ways and horrid Pre- 
cipices, in order. to the Execinion of their Defigns: 
being pulh'd "on by the Hopes they entertain of Pro- 
moting by thefe means the Glory of him who crea- 
ted 'em, and under whofe Gonduft they undertake 
fuch toillbme Voyages. ' . • ^ 

•It's ufualto fcefome undaunted Men boldly en- 
counter the moll frightful of Deaths, both in Bat- 
ties and in dangerous Voyages: They are fuch as are 
not difcouraged by all the Hazards that furrcund 
em either by Sea or Land^ nothing being able to 
withftand the Valour and Courage that prompts 'gni 
to attempt any thing. Therefore is it^ that we oft- 
times fee 'em fucceed in obtaining their Defigns, 
and compaffing their moll difficult Enterprizes. Yet 
it's to beacknowledg'd, that if they took a ferious. 
View before hand, of the Perils they're about to 
encounter , and confider'd 'em in cold Blood, they 
would perhaps find Difficulty to perfuade themfelves 
into fuch refolute Thoughts ^ at leafl, they would 
not form their Defigns after fuch a daring and feaiiefs 
manner. But generally fpeaking, they do not furvey 
their Dangers beiorehand, any otherwife than by the 
Lump, and with a tranfient View ^ and having once 
let tlieir Hands to the Work, Occafion engages 'em 
inlenfibiy, and entices 'em further on than they 
cou'd have believ'd at firll. Infomuch that many 


A Large Country in America. j 

of the great Difcoveries owing to Voyages, are rather 
th e Refultof Chance^ than any well form'd Defign. 
. Something of the fame Nature has happened to 
my felf in the Difcovery I now bring to Light. I 
was from my Infancy very fond of Travelling \ 
and my -natural Curiolity induc'd me to vifitmany 
Parts of Euro'^e one after another. But not being fa- 
tisfied with that, I found my felf inclin'd to enter- 
tain more distant Profpefts, and v/as eager upon fee- 
•ing remoter Countries and Nations that had not yet 
been heard of ^ and in gratifying this natural Itch, 
was I led to this Difcovery of a vaft and large Coun- 
try, w^here no ^wrop^^w ever was before my felf. 

'Tis true indeed, I could not forefee the Ernba- 
raffmg Difficulties and Dangers I muft of neceffity 
encounter with in this my painfull Voyage. Nay, 
perhaps the Very Thoughts of 'em might have dif- 
•courag'd and fcar'd me from attempting a Defign 
fo laborious and toilfome, and environ'd with fuch 
frightful Difficulties. But maugre all thefe Difcou- 
ragements, IVe at length perfeded my Defign, the 
Undertaking of which was enough to frighten any 
other but my felf. In which I've fatisfy'd my De- 
lires, both in regard to the curiofity I had to fee new 
Countries, and ftrange Faces- and alfo upon the 
Accountof my Refolution to employ and dedicate my 
felf, to the Glory of God and the Salvation of Souls. 

Thus it was that I difcover'd a wonderful Country 
never known till now • of which I here give an am- 
ple Defcription ^ and fas I think) circumflantiated 
enough : It being divided into feveral fmall Chap- 
ters, for the Conveniency of "the Reader. I hope 
the Publick will return me Thanks for my Pains, 
becaufe of the Advantage that may accrue to it by 
the fame.- However the World^s Approbation Ihall 
fufficiently recompenfe all the Trouble and Dangers 
Fve gone through. ^^ 

;I am. not infenfible of the Reflecffts I Ihall meet 
With from fuch as never dar'd to travel themfelves 


4 A New Difcovery of 

or never read the Hiltories of the Curious and 
brave, who have given Relations of the llrange 
Countries they have taken upon them to fee \ I doubt : 
not but that fort of Cattle will account of this my 
Difcovery as being falfe and incredible. But what 
they fay Ihall not trouble me much : They them- ■ 
felves were never Mafters of the Courage and Va- 
lour which infpires Men to undertake the glorious 
Entcrprizes that gain 'em Reputation in the World, 
being confin'd within narrow Bounds , and want- 
ing a Soul to atchieve any thing that can procure 
'em a dillinguifhing and advantageous Charader a- 
mong Men. It were better therefore for fuch to 
admire what they cannot comprehend, and reft fa- 
tisfy'd in a wife and profound Silence, than thus 
foolifhly to blame what they know nothing of. ■« 
Travellers are generally accus'd of venting an Irr-j 
finity of LyeS and Impoftures: But Men of a mag- 
nanimous and film Courage are above fuch filly 
Railleries : For when they've done all to blacken our 
Reputation, we Ihall ftill receive for our Reward, 
the Efteem and Approbation of Men of Honour \ 
who being endow'd with knowing and penetrating 
Souls, are capable to give an equal and impartial 
judgment of Travels, and of the juft Merit of fuch 
as have hazarded their Lives for the Glory of God, 
and the Good of the Publick. It is this happy and 
agreeable Recompence that makes the daring Tra- 
vellers fo valiantly expofe themfelvesto all manner of 
Fatigues and Da.igers, that by fo doing, they may 
become ufefuU to Mankind. 


The Motives which enga^d the Author of this Difcovery to 
midertake the Voyage^whereof yon have-here a Relation. 

I Always fo^nd in my felf a llrong Inclination to 
retire from the World, and regulate my Life ac- 

A Large Country in America. ^ 

cording to the Rules of pure and fevere Virtue : and 
in compliance with this Humour, I enter'd into the 
Francifcan Order^ defigning to confine my felf to an 
auftere Way of Living. I was over-joy'd then, when 
I read in Hillory the Travels and Voyages of the Fa- 
thers of my own Order, who indeed were the Firlt 
that undertook MifTions into any foreign Country. And 
oft-times reprefented to my felf, that there could be 
nothing greater or more glorious than to inftrud the 
Ignorant and Barbarous, and lead 'em to the light of 
the Gofpel ^ and having remarked, that the Francifcans 
had behav'd themfelves in thisWork, with a great deal 
of Zeal and Succefs, I found this begat in my Mind 
a Defire of tracing their Footfteps, and dedicating 
my felf after their Example, to the Glory of God, 
and the Salvation of Souls. 

In reading the Hiflory of our Order, I obferv'd, 
that in a general AfTembly held in the Year 1 621. it 
was reckon'd, that fince the firlt going of the Reve- 
rend Father Mani-n de Valence (one of our firft Refor- 
mers) into America^ there had been five hundred Con- 
vents of RecoUeds, eftablifh'd in that New World, 
and diftributed into Two and twenty Provinces. As 
I advanc'd in Years, this Inclination to travel did fb 
much the more fix it felf in my Mind. It is true, 
one of my Sifters that was marry'd at Ghent^ and 
whom I lov'd very tenderly, did diffuade me from my 
Defign as much as Ihe could, and never ceas'd to re- 
double her Solicitations to that purpofe, while I had 
occafion to be with her in that Great City, whither I 
had gone to learn the Dfttch Language : But being foii- 
cited on the other hand, by many of my Friends at Am- 
fterdam^ to go to the Eaji-Indies^ my natural Inclina- 
tion, join'd to the Influence of their requells, did 
move me much, and had aimoft determined me to 
undertake a Sea-Voyage. 

Seeing then that all the Remonftrances of my Siiter 
could not diffuade me from Travelling, I firft under- 
cook a Journey into Jtdy\ and in Obedience to the 


6 A New Difcovery of 

Orders of my Superiour, vifited all the great Chur- 
ches, and moft Confiderable Convents of our Order, 
both in that Country, and in Germany ^ which did iiii 
fbmemeafure gratifie the Curiofity of my Temper. 
But having retnrn'd to the Netherlands^ the Reverend: 
Father William Herinx^ late Bifhop of Ipres^ manifeft- 
ed his averfenefs to the Refolution I had taken ofl 
continuing to travel, by detaining me in the Con- 
vent of Halles in Hainault^ where I was obliged to per^-- 
form the Office 6f Preacher for a Year. After which,, 
"with theconfent of my Superiour, I went into the 
Country of Artols^ from whence I was fent to Ca- 
lais^ to act the part of a Mendicant there in time of' 

Being there, I was paffionately in love with hear- • 
ing the Relations that Mafters of Ships gave of their- 
Voyages. Afterwards I return'd to our Convent at; 
Biez.^ by the way of Dunkirk: But I us'd oft-times; 
to fculk behind the Doors of Vidualling-Houfes, tO) 
hear the Sea-men give an Account of their Adven- 
tures. The Smoak of Tobacco was offenfive to me, , 
and created Pain in my Stomach, while I was thus . 
intent upon giving ear to their Relations : But for all , 
I was very attentive to the Accounts they gave of 
, their Encounters by Sea, the Perils they had gone 
through, and all the Accidents which befell them in 
their long Voyages. This Occupation was fo agree- • 
^ble and engaging, that I have fpent whole Days and . 
Nights at it without eating ^ for hereby I always ; 
came to underftand fome new thing, concerning the : 
Cuftoms and Ways of Living in remote Places ^ and 
concerning the Pleafantnefs, Fertility, and Riches of- 
the Coifntries where thefe Men had been. 

This confirm'd me more and more in my former 
Refolution ; and that I might advance it yet further, 
I went Miflionary into moll part of the Towns of' 
Holland'^ and llopp'd at length at Mafireick ^ for 
eight Months together, where I adminiller'd the Sa- 
craments to above Three thoufaud \vound?d Men: 


d Large Country in America. 7 

;n which Occupation I -ventur'd many Dangers 
imong the Sick People, being taken ill both of a 
jpotted Fever and a Dyfenterie, which brought me 
irpry low, and near unto Dea: h : But God at length 
reftor'd me to my former Health, by the Care and - 
Help of a very skillfull Dutch Phyfician. 

The fmgular Zeal I had for promoting the Good 
of Souls, engag'd me the Year following to be pre- 
fent at the Battle of Senejfe^ where I was bulled in 
adminiilring Comfort to the poor wounded Men : 
Till at length, after having endur'd all manner of 
Fatigue and Toil, and having run the rifque of ex- 
treme Dangers at Sieges of Towns in the Trenches, 
and in Fields of Battle, f where I never ceas'dtoex- 
pofe my felf for the good of Mens Souls) while 
thefe Bloody Men were breathing nothing but Slaugh- 
ter and Blood, I happily found my felf in a condi- 
tion to fatisfie my firft Inclination : For I then re- 
ceiv'd Orders from my Superiours to go for Rochel^ m 
order to embark in Quality of Miflionary for Canada. 
Within Two Leagues of that City I perform'd the 
Function of a Curate near two Months ^ being invi- 
ted fo to do by the Pallor of the Place, v^ho had occa- 
fion to be abfent from his Charge. But afterwards I to- 
tally refign'd my felf to the Providence of God, and be- 
gun a Voyage of Twelve or Thirteen hundred Leagues 
over,and perhaps the greatefl that can be made by Sea. 
^ I.embark'dinthe Company of Mr. Francis de La- 
'*val^ created then Bifhop of Petree in partihiis Infideli- 
um^ and fincethe Bifhop of Ouehec^ the Capital City of 
Canada ', and now my Inclination to travel increas'd 
more and more : Yet I ftaid In that Country four 
Years, and was fent thence in Miflion, v/hile the Abbot 
of Fenelon^^XQkRt Archbifhop oiCambray refidcd there. 
I fhall not here recount the feveral Adventures of 
our Voyage, nor the Flights we were engag'd in with 
the Ships of Turkey^ Tanis^ and Algiers^ who attem- 
pted feveral times to have taken us j but without fuc- 
cefs. Nor fhall I itay to relate our Approach to Cafe- 


8 J New Difcovery of 

Breten^ where we beheld with incredible Delight, the 
Battle ordinarily fought betwixt 'the Fifhes call'd, 
Efiadons arid the Whales, their Mortal Enemies \ nei- 
ther am I to detain my Reader with an Account of 
what vail Quantities of Fifli we took at Forty Fa- 
thom Water, upon the Great Bank of New-found- 
Land \ or what great numbers of Ships we rencouh-j 
tred with, that were bound thither from different! 
Nations to fifh in thefe Places, which afford fuch in- 
finite Numbers of all manner of Fifhes. Thefe di^ 
verting fights were very agreeable to all our Crew,, 
which was then about an Hundred Men ilrong, to: 
three Fourths of whom I adminillred the Sacraments,, 
they being Cathelicks. I perform'd likewife Divine; 
Service every Day while the Weather was calm ^ audi 
wefungthe Itinerray of the Clergy, tranflated intoi 
French Verfc, after the Evening Prayers. 

Thus we fweetly pafs'd our Time a~board 'till at! 
length we arrived at Quebec ^t Capital City oiCmada* 


The Means by which the Author accitjlornd himfelf to en*' 
dure the Travail and Fatigue of his laborious Mijfiond 

MR. Francis de -Laval ^ Bifhopof Petre'e^ having; 
taken polTefTion of the Biihoprick of Quebec ^^ 
which was conferr'd upon him by Fo^pt Clement X*. 
and that contrary to the Sentiments ot many Perfons 
of equality, who, by means of his Preferment, were; 
fruftrated of their own Pretenfions : This Reverendl 
Prelate (I fay) having taken into confiderationthe 
Fervency of my Zeal in Preaching the Gofpel in my 
Voyage, my aiTiduous Diligence in performing Di- 
vine Service, and the Care I had taken to hinder the: 
Young Fellows of our Crew from keeping loole: 
Company with the Women and Maids that came 
along with us (for which Ihad oft times been re-' 

warded I 

a, Large Country in America. 9 

warded with Anger and Hatred \ ) thefe Reafons 
and fuch like, procur'd me the favour and Applanfe 
of this Illuftrious Prelate, he obliging me to Preach in 
Advent and Lent to the Cloifter of St. AHguftine ia 
the Hofpital of Qnehec. 

But in the mean while, all this did not fatisfie my 
natural Inclination: I us'd oft-times to go fome 
Twenty or Thirty Leagues off the Town to fee the 
Country, w^earing a little Hood, and making ufe of 
large Rackets, . without which I had Keen in danger of 
falling headlong over fearful Precipices. Sometimes 
to eafe my felf a little, I made a great Dog I had 
brought with me, drag my little Baggage along, that 
I might arrive the fooner at Trcis Rivieres^ St. Anne^ 
and Cape Tourmente^ Bourgroyd^ the Point de Lez!7\aiid 
at the Illand of St. Lawrence^ whither I deligned to 
go. There I aflembled together, in one of the largelt 
Cottages of that Country, as many People as I could 
gather ^ whom in fome time I admitted to Confeflion, 
and to the • Holy Communion. In the Night-time I 
had nothing to cover me but a Cloak \ and foraetime 
the Froft pierc'd to my very Bones, which oblig'd. 
me to make a Fire five or fix times in a Night, to pre- 
vent my freezing to death. My Commons alfo were 
very Ihort, fcarce more than to keep me from ftar- 

In the Summer-feafon 1 was oblig'd, in order to 
continue my Mijfwn^ to travel in Canou's, that is, a 
fort of little Boats (which I fhall defcribe hereafter) 
that they make ufe of in Lakes and Rivers : Which 
fort of Contrivance fucceeded well enough where 
the Water was ihallow, or about two or three Foot 
deep \ But when we came to any deeper Place, then 
the Boat, which was round underneath, was in dan- 
ger of over-turning, infomuch that I had certainly 
perilhed in the Water, had not I taken a circumlpe<i 
Care of my felf. , 

However, I found my felf oblig'd to travail after 
this maaner, for there were no paflable Roads in this 


lo • A Neiv Dlfcovery of 

Country ; it being impoffible to Travel over-land inri 
thefe new Colonies, becaufe qf that Infinite number 
of Trees and Woods that befet them on all fides, 
which muft needs be cut down or burn'd before any 
pallable Way be made. 


\A Defer if Hon ofihofe Canon's that they make ufe of In the 
Summer'time in America, for the Conveniency of tra-^ 

THefe Canou's are round underneath, as I faid 
but naw, and pointed at the two Ends, not 
unlike the /^^;7mW Gondals : Without them it were 
impoffible to travel in America^ for the Country is full 
of vafl and wide extended Forefts : Befides, the im- 
petuous Winds fometimes pluck up the Trees by the 
Roots, and Time it felf ranverfes great numbers of 
'em, which tumbling down through Age, are piled 
fo one upon another, that the Ways are totally em- 
barafs'd, and rendred unpafiable. 

The Savages are very ingenious in making thefe 
Canou's : They make them of the Bark of Birch- 
Trees, which they pull very neatly off that fort of 
Trees, they being confiderably bigger than thofe of 
Europe. They betake themfelves to this Wo^k general- 
ly about the end of Winter, in the vaft Forefts that 
lie towards the Northen Parts of thefe Countries. 

For fiipporting this Bark they line it within with 
Ribs or pieces of white Wood, or Cedar about four 
Fingers broad \ this they fwrbifli up with fmall Poles 
made fmooth, that make the Circumference of the 
Canou •, then by other Poles going a-crofs, about an 
Inch, or an Inch and half thick, which are very 
fnioothly polifh'd ^ thefe they joyn on both fides to 
the Bark by fmall Roots of Trees cloven in two, not 
:niuch unlike theWi Hows that we make our Baskets 
of in Euroff, Thefe 

a Ldrge Country in America, 1 1 

Thefe Canou's have no Rudder, as the bigger Shal- 
lops have, for they row them along meerly by the 
force of their Arms with fome fmallOars; andean 
turn them with an incredible fvviftnefs,and dired them 
tvhither they lift. Thofe that are accuftom'd to ma- 
nage them, can make them fail at a wonderful rate, 
even in calm Weather •, but when the Wind is fa- 
vourable,they are expedite to a Miracle^ for they then 
tnake ufe of little Sails made of the fame Bark, but 
thinner than that of the Canou's. As for the Eitro- 
feans^ that by long ulage come to be well vers'd in 
this fort of Tackling, they make ufe of about four 
Ells of Linnen Cloth, hoifted up on a little Maft, the; 
foot of Vv^hich ftands in a Hole made in a Iquare piece 
of light Wood, that isfaftned betwixt the Ribs and 
the Bark of the Canou's towards the Bottom. 

Thofe that are well skill'd in managing thefe Ca- 
nou's can fail Thirty or Thirty five Leagues in a 
Day down a River, and fbmetimes more in Lakes, 
if the Wind be favourable : But fome of 'em are i 
much bigger than others. They carry generally 
about a Thoufand pound Weight, fome Twelve hun- 
dred, and the biggeft not above Fifteen hundred 
Pounds. The leaft of 'em can carry three or four 
Hundred pound weight, together with two Men or 
Women to fteer them along. But the Greater muft 
have Three or Four Men to manage them, and fome- 
times w.'*?n Bufinefs requires Expedition, Seven or 
Eight to quicken their pace. 


Other Motiues that wduced the Author more forcibly ta 
undertake this Difcovsry, 

T Was paffionatly zealous, in imitation of many 
X Fathers of my Order, for inlarging the Limits 
of Ghriftiaaity^ and converting the barbarous Ame- 

Q riatns 

12 A New Difcovery of 

rkarj.t to the Belief of the Gofpel : and inpurfuairce 
of that Defign, I look'd upon the Employment of a 
M'Jficp^ry as a molt honourable Poft for me ^ fo that 
whenever I found the opportunity of a MifTion, I 
willingly embraced it •, tho' it oblig'd me to Travel 
more than Twelve hundred Leagues off Canada : Yet 
I perfuaded feveral to accompany me in m.y Voyage ; 
and negleded not any thing that might tend to the 
furtherance of myDelign. 

At firf}:, for a Trial I was fent in MifTion about 
a Hundred and twenty Leagues beyond Quebec. I 
went up by the way of the River St. Laurence^ and 
aniv'd at length at the brink of a Lake call'd by the 
Natives Ontario^ v;hich I ihall defcribe hereafter. 
Being there, I perfuaded feveral of the barbarous^ to cultivate the Ground, and prepare feme 
Wood for building a Lodge for us. Then I made 
them ^red a Crofs of an extraordinary height and 
bignefs :, and built a Chapel near to the Lake, and 
fettled my felf there, v^ith another of my own Or- 
der, by Name, ^2it\\QX Lnh Bii'ilJct^ whom I had in- 
duced* to come along with me, and Vt^hodied iince 
in our Fr^ncifcan Convent upon the Scmbre : I (hall 
have cccafion afterwards to fpeak of him, for that 
we cohabited in Cunada for a long time, and were 
Fellow-labourers in cur Settlement 'alCntayohuy-.^ 
which was the place where we oft-times Concerted 
the I\leafures of making this Difcovery I am about 
to relate. I there gave my felf much to the reading 
of Voyages, and encieas'd the Am.bition I had tq 
j^urfje my Defign, from what Light the Savages 
imparted to us in that matter : Inline, I plainly per- 
ceived by what Relations I had rcceiv'd of feveral 
Particulars in different Nations, that it was a mat- 
ter of no great difficulty to make conliderable Eftab- 
lifhments to the South-Eaft of the great Lakes ^ and 
that by the conveniency of a great River call'd Holo^ 
which paffes through the Country of the hcqucfc^ a 
FaiTage might be made into the Sea at Csl]}Q Florida. 

, While 

a Large Countery in America. i^ 

While I redded in that place, I niade feveral little 
Tours, fometimes with the Inhabitants of C??W^. 
that we had brought along to fettle at our Fort of 
Catarohuy • fometimes in company of the Savages 
alone, with whom I .converfed frequently. And as 
I forefaw that the Irocfuefe might become jealous and 
fulpicious of our Difcoveries, I refolv'd to make a 
Tour round their Five Cantons ^ and in purfuance of 
this Defign, threw my felf among 'em, being accom- 
panied only with a Soldier of our Fort, who tra- 
velled with me Severity Leagues, or near the Matter, 
on this Occafion^ we having our Feet Arnl'd with 
large Rackets to prevent the injury of the Snow, 
•whicha bounds in that Country in the tim.e of Winter. 

I had already acquir'd fome fmall Knowledge of 
the IrocjHefe Lan^^uage ^ and while I travell'd in this 
manner among them, they were furpriz'd to fee me 
walk in the Midft of Snow, and lodge my felfin 
the wild Forefts that their Country is full of. We 
were oblig'd to dig four Foot deep in the Snow, 
to make Fire at Night, after having journey'd Ten 
or Twelve Leagues over Day. Our Shoes were 
made after the Fafhionof thofe of the Natives, but 
were not able to keep out the Snow, which melted 
asfoon as our Feet touch'dit, it having receiv'd heat 
from the motion of us walking along. We made 
life of the Barks of Trees to cover us when we 
went to lleep ^ and were carefully Sollicitous to keep 
in great Fires to defend us from the nipping Coids; 
in this lonefome Condition fpent we the Nights^ ; 
waiting the welcome return of the Sun, that we might 
go on in our Journey. As for Food, we had none, 
iave the Indian Corn grinded fmall, which we diluted 
with Watet, to make it go dov/n the better. 

Thus we pafs'd through the Countries of the Hon- 
Tiehiouts and Honnontages^ who gave us a very kind 
reception, and are the moll Warlike People of all 
the Irocfuefe. When they faw us, they put their Fore^ 
fingers to their Mouths fignifying how much fur- 
G 2 ' priz'd • 

I A J New Difcovery of 

mad they were at the troublefom and difficult Jour- 
ney we had made in the middle of Winter. _ Then 
'looking upon the mean and mortifying Habit of St. 
Francis, they cry'd aloud, Hetchkagon! that is, Bare- 
foot •, and did with all manner of paflion and alto- 
nilhment pronounce the Word Ganmror? •, intimating, 
that it muft needs have been a Bufinei^ of great Im- 
portance, that mov'd us to attempt fuch a difficult 
"lourney atfounfeafonable atime. 

Thefe Savages regal'd us with Elk and Venifon, 
drefs'd after their own fafliion, which we eat of, and 
afterwards took leave of 'em, going further on in 
our Journey. When we departed, we carry dour 
Bed-Cioaths on our Backs, and took with us a little 
Pot to boyltheir Corn in. W^e pafs'd through Ways 
that were over-flown with Water, and fuch as wou d 
have been unpaiTable by any Enropean: For when 
we came at vaft Marlhes and overflowing Brooks 
we were oblig'd to crawl along by theTrees. At 
length with much difficulty we arrived at Ganmekez, 
or J<r^ic;L, which is one of the Five Cantons of the 
/rt..«9?, fituated about a large Days Journey from 
Nav'Hol!and,csi\VdROVf Ncw-Tork: Being there, we 
were forc'd to feafon our Mian Corn (which we 
were v^ont to bruife betwixt two Stones) withlit- 
tie Frogs that the Natives gathered in the Meadows 
towards Eafier^ when the Snow was all gone. 

We ftay'd fome time with thefe People, lodg- 
ifiCT with a Jefiute that had been born at Ltons^ to 
tranfcribe an Iro^uefe Di^ion^ry. When the Wea- 
ther began to be more favourable, we chanc'd one 
Day to meet with three Dutch men on Horfe-back, 
who had come thither to traffick in Beavers-Skins : 
They were fent thither by Major Andrews^ who is the 
Ferfon that fubdu'd Bofton and New-Torkiox the King 
of Evcrland^ and is at prefent Governour of Firgivia. 
Thefe Gentlemen alighted from their Horfes, that 
we might mount 'em, taking us along with them to 
I\iW'Oranm<Q be regal'd there. As foon as they 
. heard 

A Large Country in America. 15 

beard me fpcak T>mch^ they teftify'd a great deal of 
Friendfliip to me, and told me they had read feveral 
Hiflories of the Dilcoveries made by thofe of our 
Francifcan Order in the Northern Parts of America^ 
but had never before feen any wear the Habit in 
thefe Countries as we did. They like wife exprefs'd 
the great delire they had to have me Hay among 
them, for the Spiritual Comfort and Advantage of 
many Catholicks, who had come from our Nether- 
lands and fettled there : And I fliould very willing- 
ly have yeilded to their intreaties in refiding there, 
but that I was afraid of giving any Jealoulie to the 
Jefpii'ts^ who had received me very Kindly ^ and be- 
fides, I was aware of injuring the Colony of Canada^ 
in refped to the Commerce they had with the Sava- 
ges of my Acquaintance, in Beavers and Skins. 
We therefore, having tellifyed how much oblig'd 
we were to the Gentlemen for their Kindn'efs, re- 
turned again to Catarokony^ with much lefs difficulty 
than we went. But all this had no other effedthan 
to augment the Itching I had to dilcover remoter 

C H A P. V. 

A Defcripion of Fort Catarokouy, calPdfiice 
Fort Frontenac. 

THis Fort is (ituated a Hundred Leagues from Qi:em 
bee (the Capital City of Canada) up the Ri- 
ver St. Laurence Southwards. It is built near to the 
Place where the Lake Ontario (which is as much 
as to fay, the pretty l,ake) difcharges it felf. 
It was furrounded with a Rampart, great Stakes and 
^Pallifado's, and four Baftions by the Order of Count 
Frontenac^ Governour-GeneralofG?;/.'^^//. They found 
it neceflary to build this Fort for a Euhvark agaimk 
the Excurfioiis of the Sroqucfe^ and to interrupt the 
C 3 Trade 

1^ J Nem Vifcovery of 

Trade of Skins that thefe Savages maintain with the 
Inhabitants of New-YorJ^^ and the Hollanders^ who 
liave fettled a new Colony there ^ for they furnifh 
the Savages with Commodities at cheaper Rates than 
the French of Canada. 

The Iromcfe are an Infolent and barbarous Nation, 
that has Ihed the Blood of more than Two millions 
of Souls in that vaft-extended Country. They 
would never ceafe from diiturbing the Repofe of 
the Europeans^ were it not for fear of their Fire- 
Arms: For they entertain no Commerce "with 
them, fave in the Marchandife-Goods they Hand in 
need of, and in Arms, which they buy on purpofe 
to ufe againft their Neighbours •, and by the means , 
of whi,ch, they have compafs'd the Deftrudion of 
an infinite Number of People extending their bloo- 
dy Conqueft above 5 or 600 Leagues beyond their 
own Precinfts, and exterminating what ever Natioj;i 
they hate. 

This Fort, which at firfl was only furrounded with 
Stakes, Pallifado's, and earthen Ramparts, has been 
enlaifi'd fince the commencement of my Miffion 
into thefe Countries, to the circumference of Three 
hundred and fixty Toifes (each of thefe being fix 
Foot in length) and is now adorn'd with Free-Stone, 
which they find naturally polifh'd by the fliock of the \ 
Water upon the brink of the Lake Ontario or From^nac 
They wrought at this Fort with fo much diligence 
and expedirion, that in two Years time it was ad- 
yanc'd to this perfedion, by the Care and Con,- 
dud of Sieur-Cavelier de la Sallc^ who was a Norman 
born ; a Man of great Conduct and profound Poli- 
cy. He oft-times pretended to me, that he wab a 
Tarifmn by Birth, thinking thereby to engage Father 
Lule Bullet before- Mention'd, and me, to put more 
confidence in him: For he had quickly obferv'd 
from our Ordinary Converllnion, that the Flemings^ 
and feveral other Nations, are prone to be jealous of 
the Nornir.:s, 1 am fdifible that there are Men of 


A L^rge Country in America. 17 

Honour and Probity in Normandy, as well as elfe-" 
where ^ but neverthelefs it is certain, tbat other Na- 
tions are generally more free, and left lly and fnlri-'. 
guing, than thelnhabitantsof that Province of France, 

This Fort Frontenac lies to the Northward of -this^ 
Lake, near to its Mouth, where it difcharges it 0f v" 
~ and is fituated in a Penififitk^ of which the Ifihrn^r 
is digg'd into a Ditch. On the other fide, it ba.^ partlf' 
the Brink of the Lake fnrrounding it, partly -a. 
pretty fort of natural Mould, where all man?ior: 
of Shipjy may ride fafely. : ' ^i- 

The Iituation of this Fort is fo advantageous,; tKat 
they can eafdy prevent the Sallies and Returns oPrhai 
Irocjuefe-^ and in th& fpace of Twenty four Hours,: 
can wage War with them in the Heart of their own 
Country. This is eafily compafs'd by the help^of 
their Barques, of which I faw Three all deck'dand: 
mounted^ at my laft departure thence. With thefe 
Barques, in a very little time, they can convey them^^f 
felves to the South-lideof the Lake, and piihgef'iu 
it be needful) the Country of the Tfovwmoitans^ who^ 
are the molt numerous of all the Provinces .of the 
Irocju'efe. They manure a great deal of Ground for' 
fowing their Indian Corn in, of which they reap, 
ordinarily in one Harveft as much as ferves 'era for' 
two Years: Then they put it into Caves diggUiu 
the Earth, and cover'd after fuch a manner, thataa 
Rain can come at it. . 

The ^Ground which lies along the Brink of thi^ 
Lake is very fertile : . In the fpace of tv/o Years and' 
a half that I felided there in difcharge of mj.Mtf-: 
fion^ they cultivated more than a hundred Acres .ofr 
it. Both the Indian and European CorJl, Pulfe, Pot-' 
Herbs, Gourds, and Water-Melons, thro/e very we;l. 
Ic is true indeed, that at firil the Corn was much 
fpoil'd by Graflioppersj but this is a thing that liap^ 
pens in all clie Parts ox Canada av the iirlt cuki/uing 
the Ground, by reafonof the extream Humility of 
all that Country. The firft Planters we ^zxt thi- 
C 4 t;her 

1 8 A New Difcovery of . 

ther, bred up Poultry there, and tranfported with 
them Horned Beafts, which multiply'd there extream-. 
ly. They have ftately Trees, fit for building of 
Houfes or Ships. Their Winter is by three Months 
fliorter than at Canada. In fine , we 'have all the 
reafbn to hope, that e'er long, a confiderable Colo- 
ny will be fettled in that Place. When I undertook 
my great Voyage, I left there about Fifteen or Six- 
teen Families together, with Father Luke Bmjfet a 
RecolleH^ with whom I had us'd to adminiiler the Sa- 
craments in the Chapel of that Fort. 
' -While the Brink of the Lake was frozen, I walk'd 
upon the Ice to an Jroquefe Village, call'd Gameoufe^ 
near to Kente\ about nine Leagu'es off the Fort, in 
company of; the Sieur de la Salle above-mention'd. 
Thefe Savages prefented us with the Flefli of Elks 
and Porcupines, which we fed upon. After having 
difcours'd them fome time, we return'd, bringing 
with us a confiderable number of the l>latives, in or- 
der to form a little Village of about Forty Cotta- 
ges to be inhabited by them, lying betwixt the Fort 
and our Houfe of Mifllon. Thefe Barbarians turn'd 
up the Ground for fowing Indian Corn and Pulfe, 
of which we gave them fome for their Gardens. 
We likewife taught them, contrary to their ufual 
cuflom of eating, to feed upon Soupe, made with 
Pulfe and Herbs, as we did. 

Father Uth and I made one Remark upon their 
Language, that they pronounc'd no Labial Letters, 
fuchas B,P^M,F. We had the ApoHolick Creed, 
the Lord's Prayer, apd our ordinary Lftany, tranfla- 
ted into the Iroquefc Language, which we caus'd them 
to get by heart, and repeat to their Children ^ and 
forc'd their Children to pronounce as we did, by in- 
j:ulcating to them the Labial Letters, and obliging 
'ail to frequent converfe with the Children of the 
Europeans that inhabited the Fort \ fo that they mu- 
tually taught one another their Mother-Languages 5, 
which ferv'd likewife to entertain a good Correfpon- 
^Icncc with t\ii' hoqnefe. Thele 

a Large Country in America. 19 

Thefe Barbarians ftay'd always with us, except 
when they went a hunting ; which was the thing 
we were much concern'd about : for when they went 
for five or fix Months ravaging through their vaffc 
huge Forrefls, and fometimes Two hundred Leagues 
from their ordinary abode, they took their whole 
Family along with them. And thus they liv'd to- 
gether, feeding upon the Flefh of the wild Beaft^s 
they kill'd with the Fire- Arms they us'd to receive of 
the Eurofeans^ in exchange of their Skins : and it 
was impoffible for any Miflionary to follow them 
into thefe wild Defarts \ fo that their Children being 
abfent all the feafon of Hun ting, forgot what wc 
had inftill'd into them at Fort Frontenac. 

The Inhabitants of Canada towards Q^iehec^ Trois 
Rivieres^ and the Ifle of Monreal^ being fick of their 
long Winters^ and feeing thofe of the Francifcm 
Order fettle themfelves at Fromenac^ where the Win- 
ter was three Months fhorter, many of 'em refolv'd 
to, tranfport their Families thither, and refide there. 
They reprefented to themfelves the Advantage that 
ihould accrue to them, by having the Sacraments ad- 
miniftred, and their Children educated by us, 'and 
that for nothing •, for we ordinarily took no Com-r 
penfation for the Inltrudion we gave. 

There have always been fome fort of People who 
endeavour'd to render themfelves Mailers of Canada^ 
and become Arbiters and Judges over all the Settle- 
ments there ^ for the compaffing of which Defign, 
they left no means untry'd. They attributed to them- 
felves the Glory of all the Good Succefs that was had 
there: They difpers'd their Mifllonaries over all the 
Country, and endeavour'd to obltruct all our Defigns 
at Fort Frontenac. In fine, they obiig'd om' Recollects 
to remove thence by the help of the Marquifs de Be- 
ponville^ the then Governour of Canada^ whom they 
had wheedled into their Intereits, and who had fuf- 
fer'd himfelf to be impos'd upon by the Artifices of 
fliefe Mea, . ' ' ' 

■ ^ " ^ Ih'jp5 

20 A New Difcovery of 

I hope, that fome time or other God wi!] re-efta- 
blifli our poor Monks in that Place \ for their Defigns 
were always innocent and good ^ and they could ne- 
ver have been made to retire thence, without doing 
them Injuflice. God leaves nothing unpunifh'd : The 
Day Ihall come when he Ihall take Vengence on 
thofe who did this Injury. I heard fome time ago, 
that the Iroqnefe^ who wage continual War with the 
French of Canada^ have feiz'd the Fort of Catarokouy^ 
as alfo that the cruel Savages did finoak in their Pipe«; 
fome of the Fingers of thofe who had procur'd the de- 
parture of our ^oox RccolleHs from that Fort •, and that 
theprefent Inhabitants oi Canada have upbraided thofe 
who were the Authorsof that Injultice, with, it. . 


\A Defcriftion offomeFrefli-water Lakes^ the great efl and 
the fteafanteB in the Vnlverfe. 

I Here commence the Defcription of the molt re- 
markable Things in this great Difcovery,* that 
the Reader may the more eafily attain to the full 
Knowledge of our Voyage, by following the Map 
we have provided for that purpofe. 

The Lake Ontario receiv'd the Name of the Lake 
Fromenac^ from the Illuftrious Count de Frontenac. 
Governor-General of Canada. All the World is 
acquainted with the Merit and Vertue of that No- 
ble Perlbn: It is likewife well known, how anci- 
ent that Family is from which he is defcended, 
and what a glorious Train of Illuftrious Anceftors 
went before him, who were always thought worthy 
of the mod: weighty Employments both Civil and 
Military ! His Family was always inviolably firm to 
the Interefts of their Sovereign, even in the moll 
perplexed Times : Nay, I may fay upon this occaii- 
on, without giving Offence to the other Governor^ 


a Large Country m AmQiic^, 21 

of Ca-rmda^ that have either preceded, or are to fuc- 
ceed him. That this Country was never gpvern'4 
with fo much Wifdom, Moderation, and Equity, as 
by the Count de Fromcnac. 

. I know very well, that thofe Men who afpire 
to be Mafters over all, have endeavour'd- to blacken 
his Reputation, to eclipfe his Glory, and render him 
fufpeded. But I am bound to fay, to the Praife of 
that Illullrious Nobleman, That for all the Ten 
Years he liv'd in that Country, he was a Father to 
the Poor •, a Protedor to thofe that were in danger 
of being opprefs'd -^ nay, in fliort, his Converfatioii 
was a perfect Model ot Virtue and Piety. Thofe of his 
Countrymen who were flirr'd up againfl him, by an 
Effed of their natural Levity and Ficklenefs, had 
the Mortification to fee him re-eflablilh'd in that 
very fame Government, of which their Calumnies 
and malignant Intrigues had endeavour'd to difpolfefs 
him. They had engag'd the Intendant of Chefneau 
in the fame Combination, having over-reach'd him 
by their cunning Artifices. Yet notwithftanding all 
thefe unjull Cenfures,! came to underiland of late, th^t 
they regret much the want of that Illuftrious Count..' 
It was therefore in Honour of this Worthy Count, 
that they gave to the Lake the Name of Fromenac^ ia 
order to perpetuate his Memory in that Country. 
This Lake is Eighty Leagues long, and Twenty five 
Leagues broad : It abounds with Fifnes,, is deep,, and 
navigable all over. • The Fife Cantons, or Diltrids , 
of the JrocjHcfe^ do inhabit for the molt part the South- 
iide of this Lake, vl-^. the Garwicaez.^ or Jgnlez. (the 
nighell Neighbours to Ncvr-Hollmd^ or New-TorK) 
the 07Tf!ont agues ^ or thofe who live in the Mountains, 
who are the mofl Warlike People of that Nation \ 
the Orme'iouts and Tfonno'ntouans tte moil populous of 
them all. There are likewife pn the South-fide of 
the Lake, thefe /r<7^/if/f Villages, Wz.. Tejaygon^Keute^ 
and Gmneoiifje^ which is not diflant from Frontenac 
above Nine Leagues, 


22 A New Difcovery of 

The great River of St. Laurence derives its Source 
from the Lake Ontario^ which- is likewife call'd in the 
Jro&;nefel.^n2,Wcig^SUnadana'^ that is to fay, a very- 
pretty Lake Jt Iprings likewife partlyfrom the Lakes 
that are higher up in the Country ,as we fhall have oc- 
calion to obferve afterwards . 

This L'ak&Ontario is of an Oval Figure, and extends 
it felf from Halt to Weft. Its \A/ater is frefh and 
fweet, and very pleafant to drink ^ the Lands which 
border upon it being likewife very fertile. It is ve- 
ry navigable, and can receive large VeHels : Only in 
Winter it is more difficult, becaufe of the outrage- 
ous Winds which are frequent there. From this Lake 
one may go by Barques, or by bigger VeCels to the 
foot of a great Rock that is about two Leagues offthe 
Fall of the River iV^^^^r^, which I am now todc- 


A Defcriftion of the Fall of the River Niagara, that is M 
' be feen betwixt the Lake Ontario and that of Erie. 

BEtwixt the Lake Ontario and Erie^ there is a vaft 
and prodigious Cadence of Water which falls 
'down after a furprizing and aftonilhing manner, in^ 
fomuch that the Univeffe does not afford its Paral- 
lel. 'Tis true, Italy and SaedeUnd boaft of fome 
fuch Things^ but we may well fay they are but for- 
ty Patterns, when compared to this of which we 
now fpeak. At the foot of this horrible Precipice 
we meet with the River Nia^ara^ which is not above 
half a quarter of a League broad, but is wonderful- 
ly deep in fome placfes. It is fo rapid above this De- 
fcent, that it violently hurries down the Wild Beafts 
while endeavouring to pafs it, to feed on the other 
fide ^ they not being able to withftand the force of 
its Current, which inevitably cafts them dowi^ head- 
long above Six hundred foot. Thi^ 




22 A Nerv Difcovery of 

The great River of St. Laurence derives its Source 
from the Lake Ontario^ which^ is likewiie call'd in the 
Jrocjnefe\,^n^\Yd2,QShanadana-^ that is to fay, a very 
pretty Lake.It fprings likewife partlyfrom the Lakes 
that are higher up in the Country ,3$ we Ihall have oc- 
calion to obferve afterwards . 

This L-ak.QOntario is of an Oval Figure, and extends 
it felf from Ealt to Well. Its \A/ater is frefh and 
fweet, and very pleafant to drink ^ the Lands which 
border upon it being likeVife very fertile. It is ve- 
ry navigable, and can receive large Veflels : Only in 
Winter it is more difficult, becaufe of the outrage- 
ous Winds which are frequent there. From this Lake 
one may go by Barques, or by bigger VefTels to the 
foot of a great Rock that is about two Leagues offthe 
Fall of the River Kiagara^ which I am now to de- 


A Defcriftion of the Fall of the River Niagara, that is t» 
' be feen betwixt the Lake Ontario and that of Erie. 

BEtwixt the Lake Ontario and Erie^ there is a vafl: 
and prodigious Cadence of Water which falls 
'down after a furprizing and aftonifhing manner, in^ 
ibmuch that the Univeffe does not afford its Paral- 
lel. 'Tis true, Italy and SuedeUnd boaft of fome 
fuch Things^ but we may well fay they are but for- 
ry Patterns, when compared to this of which we 
now fpeak. At the foot of this horrible Precipice 
we meet with the River Nia^ara^ which is not abofe 
half a quarter of a League Broad, but is wonderful- 
ly deep in fome places. It is fo rapid above this De- 
fcent, that it violently hurries down the Wild Beafts 
while endeavouring to pafs it, to feed on the other 
fide ^ they not being able to withftand the force of 
its Current, which inevitably calts them dowi^ head- 
long above Six hundred foot. Thi^ 

Ta^ Zi.Tart^t'^ 

4 Large Country in America. 25 

This wonderful Downfall is compounded of two 
great Crofs-ftreams of Water, and two Falls, with 
an Ifle flopeing along the middle of it. The Waters 
which fall from this vaft height, do foam and boil 
after the mofl hideous manner imaginable, making 
an outrageous Noife, more terrible than that of 
Thunder ^ for when the Wind blows from offthe 
South, their difmal roaring may be heard above fif-* 
teen Leagues ofE 

The River Niagara having thrown it felf down 
this incredible Precipice continues its impetuous 
courfe for two Leagues together, to the great Rock 
above-mentioned, with an inexpreffible Rapidity: 
But having pafs'd that, its Impetuofity relents, gli- 
ding along'more gently for two Leagues, till it arrives 
at the Lake Ontario or Frontenac, 

Any Barque or greater VelTel may pafs from the 
Fort to the foot of this huge Rockabove-mention'd. 
This Rock lies to the Weltward, and is cut off from 
the Land by the River N'mgara^ about two Leagues 
farther down than the great Fall ^ for which two 
Leagues the People are oblig'd to carry their Goods 
over-land , but the way is very good, and the Trees 
are but k\w^ and they chiefly Firrs and Oaks. 

From the great Fall unto this Rock, which is to 
the Weft of the River, the two Brinks of it are fo 
prodigious high, that it would make one tremble to 
look fteadiiy upon the Water, rolling along with a 
Rapidity not to be imagia'd. Were it not for this 
vaft Catarad, which interrupts Navigation, they 
might fail with Barques or greater Veflels, above 
four hundred and fifty Leagues further, crofs the 
Lake of Hmons^ and up to the farther end of the 
Lake Illinois ^ which two Lakes, v/e may well fay, 
are little Seas of frelh Water. 

Sieur de U Salle had a defign to have built a Fort at 

, tfie Mouth of the Kiwqv Niagara-^ and might eafily 

have compafs'd it, had he known how to have kept 

jhimfelf withia .]?ounds, a.ud to be confined there for 


24 ^ A^^;v Difcovery of 

one Year. His defign was to curb and keep under 
the Ir ot^Mefe J ^and efpecially the TfGnnontouans^ who are 
the moll numerous People, and the molt given to 
War of all that Nation. In Ihort, fuch a Fort as this 
might eafdy have interrupted the Commerce betwixt 
thefe People and the Englijl^ and Dutch in New-Torl\ 
Their Cultom is to carry to New-Tork the Skins of 
Elks, Beavers, and feveral forts of Bealls^ which they 
hunt and feek after fome 2 or 300 Leagues froni 
their own home. Now they being oblig'd topafs, 
andrepafs near to this Mouth of the River iV/^^.-^r^, 
we might ea lily Hop them by fair means in time of 
Peace, or by open force -in time of War ^ and thus 
oblige them to turn their Commerce upon Canada. 

But having obferv'd that the hocjitefe were pulh'd on 
to Itop the Execution of this Defign, not fo much by 
the Englijh ^ndDuich^ as by the Inhabitants of Gr- 
vada^ who many of them endeavour'd byall means to 
traverfe this our Difcovery ^ they contented them- 
felves to build a Houfe at the Mouth of the River 
to the Eallward, where the place was Naturally 
Fortifi'd. On one fide of this Houfe there is a vety 
good Haven, where Ships may fafelyride^ nay, by 
the help of a Capllone, they may eafily be hall'd upoii 
Land. Befides, at this Place they take an infinite 
quantity of Whitings, Sturgeons^ and all other forts 
of Filhes, which are incomparably good and fweet v 
infomuch that in the proper Seafon of Filhing, they 
might furnilh the greatelt City in Enrope with plenty 

j^ Defcriftion of the Lah Erie. 

TH E Jre^nefegivQ to this Lake the Name of Erie 
Tejocharomiong which extends it felf from Eall 
to Welt perhaps a hundred axid forty Leagues in 


W^ a Large Country in America. 25 

Length. But no European has ever furvey'd it all ; 
only landthofe who accompany 'd me inthisDifco- 
very, have view'd the greater Part of it with a Vef- 
fel of Sixty Tun burden, which we caus'd to be 
made on purpofe, about two Leagues.above the fore- 
mention'd Fall of Niagara, as I fliall have occafion to 
obferve more largely hereafter. 

This Lake Erie Tejocharomiong, enclofes on its 
Southern Bank a Traft of Land aslarge as the King- 
dom of Fra-nce. It divides it felfat a certain place 
into two Channels, becaufe of a great Ifland enclos'd 
betwixt them : Thus continuing its courfefor fourteen 
Leagues, it falls into the Lake Owf^m, or Front en ac -^ 
andl:his is that which they call the River Niagara. 

Betwixt the Lake Erie and Fditron, there is almoffc 
fuch another Streight thirty Leagues long, which is 
of an equal breadth almoft all over, except in the 
middle, thatf it enlarges it felf by help of another 
Lake, far lefs than any of the reft, which is of a 
circular Form about Six Leagues over, according to 
the Obfervation of our Pilot. We gave it the Name 
of Lake St. Claire, though the hoquefe, who pafs oveir 
it frequently, w^hen thev are upon Warlike Expediti- 
ons, call it OtfiKeta. The Country which borders 
upon this moft agreeable and charming Streight, is a 
pleafant Champagne Country, as I Ihall relate after- 
v/ards. All thefe different Rivers, which are diftin- 
guifh'd by fo many different Names, are nothing elfe 
but the continuation of the great River St, Laurence •, 
and this Lake St. Claire is form'd by the fame. 


A Defer ipion of the Lake Huron. 

r-p H E Lake Huron was fo call'd by the People of 
X Canada, becaufe the Savage i^^i^<?^;.^, who inha- 
bited the adjacent Country, us'd to have their Hair 


26 [A New Difcovery of 

^o burned, that their Head refembled the Head of J 
Wild-Boar. The Savages therhfelves call it the Lak< 
Karegnondy. Heretofore the Hurons lived near thi 
Lake but they have been in a great meafure deltroyV 
by the Iroquefe. 

The CircumYerence of this Lake may be reckori 
to be about Seven Hundred Leagues, and its Lengi 
Two hundred ^ but the Breadth is very unequal. T 
the Weft of it near its Mouth, it contains fever; 
great lilands, and is navigable all over. Betwixt th 
greatLake and that of the ////w/j,we meet with anoth 
Streight, which difcharges it felf into this Lake, b 
ing about Three Leagues long, and One broad, i 
Courfe running Weft-North-Weil. 

There is yet another Streight or narrow Canal t 
wards the Upper Lake (that runs into this o^Hnror^^ 
about Five Leagues broad, and Fifteen Leagues long, 
which is interrupted by feveral lilands,* and becomes 
narrower by degrees, till it comes at the fall of St, 
Mary. This fall is a Precipice full of Rocks, over 
which the Water of the upper Lake, which flows 
thither in great abundance, caftsit felf with a molt 
violent Impetuofity : Notwithftanding which, a Ca^ 
nou may go up it on onelide, provided the Peopl 
in it row vigoroully. But the fafer way is to carr 
the Canou over-land for fo little a fpace, togethe 
with the Commodities that thofe of Canada carry thL 
ther to exchange with the Savages that live to th( 
Northward of the upper Lake. This Fall is calfec 
the fall of St. Mary Mijfilimakiyiah. It lies at thI 
Mouth of the upper Lake, and difcharges it fel] 
partly into the Mouth of the Lake Illinois towards the 
great Bay of Puans ^ all which fhall afterwards ba 
more fully difcours'd of, when I come to relate ou; 
Return from JJfati. 


^ a Large Cduntry in America. 27 


A Defcription of the Lake calPdhythe Savages Illinouack, 
and by the French, Illinois. 

TH E Lake Illinois^ in the Natives Language, lig- 
nifies, The Lake of Men ^ for the word IlUmu fig- 
nifies a Man of full Age in the vigour of his Tears. It 
lies on the Weft of the Lake Huron ftanding North 
and South, and is about a Hundred and twenty, or a 
Hundred and Thirty Leagues in length, and Forty ia 
breadth) being in Circuit about Four hundred Leagues. 
It is caird by the Miami's^ Mifchigonong^ that is. The 
Great Lake. It extends it-felf from North to South, 
and falls into the Southern-fide of the Lake Huron , 
and is diftant from the Upper Lake about Fifteen or 
Sixteen Leagues, its Source lies near a River which 
xYiQ Iroquefe QdiA Hohio^ where the River Miamis^i^' 
charges it felf into the fame Lake. 

It is navigable all over, and has to the Weftward 
a great Bay call'd the Bay of Tuans.^ by reafon that 
the Savages who now inhabit the Land furrounding 
this Bay, had defertcd their former Habitation, be- 
caufe of fome Itinking (in French Vuans) Waters to- 
wards the Sea that annoy'd them. 


A Jhort Defcriftion of the Vpper Lake* 

THis Upper Lake runs from Eaft to Weft, and 
may have more than a Hundred and Fifty 
Leagues in length Sixty in breadth, and Five hundred 
in circuit. We never went quite over it, as we did 
over all the others I've hitherto mention'd j but we 
founded fome of itsgreateft Depths, and it refembl^s 
the Ocean, haying neither Bottom nor Banks. 

D lihall 

^■^S A New Difcovery of 

I fhall not here ftay to mention the infinite num- 
bers of Rivers that difchargethemfelves into this pro- 
digious Lake, which together with that of Illinois 
and the Rivers that are fwallow'd in them, make 
up the fource of that Great River St. Laurence^ which 
runs into the Ocean at the Ifland of Ajfiimftion to- 
wards iVi?7r'--/J?«;7^-//!?W- We faird upon this River 
about Six hundred Leagues from its Mouth to its 

' I've already obferv'd, That all thefe Lakes may 
'Well be caird Frelh-water Seas. They abound ex- 
trcamly in Whitings,that are larger than Carps, and 
which are extraordinary good ^ nay, at Twenty or 
Thirty Fathom Water, there are Salmon-Trouts 
taken of Fifty or Sixty pound weight. It were eafie 
to build on the fides of thefe great Lakes, an infinite 
'Number of confiderable Towns which might have 
Communication one with another by Navigation for 
Five hundred Leagues together, and by an inconceiv- 
able Commerce which would eftablilh it felf among 
'^em. And to befu-re the Soil, if cultivated by £/^- 
rorptans would prove very fertile. Thofe that can 
concei\'"e the Largnefs and Beauty of thefe Lakes, 
may ealily underlfand, by the help of our Map, what 
courfe we Ifeer'd-in making the great Difcovery 
hereafter me ntion'd .• 


Wha^lis tl}e Pre^-om^nam G^mm of the Inhabitants 
of Canada. 

1:..:; -^:.-. . . 

THE Sfi^ni^^rds^NtvQrXhQ firll who difcover'd Ca- 
■^nadm'^ but at their firft arrival,having found no- 
thing confiderable in it, they abandon'd the Country, 
'^n^' C&W di it II Cafo diNada-^ that is, A Cafe of iSlo- 
thing • hence by corruption iprung the Word Canada^ 
which we ufe in ail our Maps. v i 

'wf^i ; Since 

A Large Country in' America. i^9 

Since I left that Country, I underftand that all 
things continue very near in the fame State as they 
were whiifl I refided there. Thofe who have the 
Government of Canada committed to their Care, are 
moved with fuch a malignant Spirit, as obliges all 
who do not approve their Defign, to moan fecretly 
before God. Men of Probity that are Zealous for 
Religion, find nothing there of what they expefted^ 
but, on the Contrary, fuch Repulfes and ill llfage, 
that no body could have forefeen. Several refor 6 
thither, with a defign to Sacrifice their Repofe ind 
Life, to the Temporal and Spiritual Succour of an , 
infant-Church : but the lofs of Reputation and Ho- 
nour, are the Sacrifices they'r after all forced td 
make. Others go thither in the hopes of fpending 
their Lives in Peace and perfed Concord ; whereas 
they meet with. nothing but Jars, Divifions, and a 
Sea of Troubles. In lieu of their fair Hopes, they 
reap nothing /but CrolTes and Perfecution •, and all 
for riot pleafing the Humours of Two or Three Men^ 
who are the over-ruling Wits of that Coutry. What a 
vail difparity or diftance there is betwixt theHuraour 
of thefe Men, and our FletnifJi Sincerity ! I mean 
that Candour and Evennefs of Mind which make up 
the true Character of a Chrillian, and is obferv'd 
every where elfe. 

But without entring farther into any particulars, 
I leave the Judgnient of all unto God ^ and fhall 
only fay, that we who. are F/^wzw^/ by Birth, went 
to Canada without any other private Defign, having 
renounc'd our Native Country, meerly for the Ser- 
vice of our Religion, after having quitted all other 
Enjoyments for embracing a Religious Profeffiono 
And therefore it was not a fmall Surprize |o us, upon 
our arrival in that Country, to fee our Sincerity and 
Uprightnefs of Heart fo forrily entertain'd. There 
is a certain fort of People, who are jealous of eve- 
ry thingj and whom it is impolTible to retrieve from 
under the'firft impreffions they've receiv'd. Though 
D t aMaa 


^o ^ A7i?ir Difcovery of 

a Man were never fo complaifant, yet if he be not 

altogether of their Stamp, or if he endeavours to 

reprefent Things fairly and rationally unto them, tho' 

with wife and foftRemonllrances : yet fhall he pafs 

among 'em for a Fellow of a Turbulent Spirit. Such 

Condud as this, does not favour of Chriftianity, 

neither doth it befpeak any other profpeft than that 

of temporal Intereft. This Confideration mov'd me 

oft-times to fay to the Three FlemijJi Monks I hadj 

brought to Canada with me, that it had been mucl^ 

better for us who had quitted all our Enjoyments^ 

md exchang'd them for the Poverty of a Monaftick; 

Life, to have gone in Miflion among Strangers, to 

preach Repentance unto Infidels, and propagate the 

kingdom of our Saviour among barbarous Nations. 

And indeed kind Providence feconded my good 

intentions^ for the Reverend father German ^Ilan 

3.ecollet, late Bifhop of rence in- Tro-vence^ fent me 

Orders to undertake the Difcovery which I am about 

io relate. 


A Defer if Hon ofmyfirfl Jmbarlment in a Canon at Que- 
bec, rii?e Capital City o/' Canada, bein^ bound for tB 
5£?«r/;4f>/o/ New-France, or Canada. 

I'"} .Remained Two Years and a half at Fort Frome 
: nac^ till I faw the Honfe of Mifion finifh'd, tha 
]c-athQYLHke Buiffet and I had caus'd to be built there 
This engaged us in Travails, which infeparably at 
tend New Eftablifhments. Accordingly we went ii 
a Canou down the River St. Laurence j and after a 
Hundred and twenty Leagues failing, arriv'd at 
Qnebec^ where I retir'd into the Recollets Convent of 
.^t.yW^ry, in order to prepare and fandifie my felt 
for commencing our Difcovery. 


a Large Country in America. 1 1 

And indeed I muft frankly own , that when at 
the foot of the Crofs, I penfivcly confider'd this im- 
portant Miffion, weighing it in the Scales .of Hu- 
mane Reafon, and meafuring the weight of its Dif- 
ficulties by Humane Force, it feem'd altogether a 
a terrible, as wellasa rafli and inconfiderate Attempt. 
But when I look'd up to GOD, and view'd it as 
an effed of his Goodnefs, in chufing me for fo 
great a Work, and as his Commandment direded 
to me by the Mouth of my Superiours, who are the 
Inftruments and Interpreters of his Will unto me : 
Thefe thoughts, I fay, 'prefently infpired me with 
Courage and Refolution, to undertake this Difco- 
very , with all the Fidelity and Conftancy imagi- 

I perfuaded my felf, that fince it was the peculiar- 
Work of God, to open the hard Hearts of that bar- 
barous People, to whom I was fentto publilh the 
glad Tidings of his Gofpel, it were as eafie for him 
ito compafs it by a feeble Inftrument, fuch as I was, 
ias by the moll worthy Perfon in the World. 
Ij Having thus prepar'd my lelf to enter upon the 
difcharge of my Mtjfiofj, and feeing that thofe who 
were expeded from Europe^ to bear part in this Dif- 
covery, were now arriv'd j that the Pilot, Seamen, 
and Ship-Carpenters were in readinefs, and that the 
Arms, Goods, and Rigging for the Ships were all 
at hand ^ I took with me from our Convent a por-- 
table Chapel all compleat for my felf, and after- 
wards- went and received the Benedidion of the Bi- 
fhop of Quebec^ together with his Approbation in 
Writing ^ which I likewife receiv'd of Count Fr<?«- 
teriac^ who was a Man that teftify'd a great deal of 
Affedion for our Flemijh Recolleds, becaufe of our 
Candour and Ingenuity ^ and who was pleas'd to 
give a publick Teilimony to the Generolity ofmy 
Undertaking, while we were fet at Table. 

In fhort, I embark'd in a little Canou made of 

the Barks of Birch-Trees, carrying nothing along 

D 3 i with 

5 2 A New Difcovery of 

with me fave my portable Chapel, one Blanket, and 
a Matt of Rnfhes, which was to ferve me for Bed 
and Quilt ^ and this was the whole of my Equipage. 
It was concerted fo, that I ihould go off firft, that 
my Departure might oblige the reft to expedite their 
Affairs with fpeed. The Inhabitants of Canada^ up- 
on both fides the River of St. Laurence^ betwixt <9«e~ 
hec and Mbnred^ entreated me to officiate among 
them, and adminifter the Sacraments: For they 
could not aflift at Divine Service oftner than live or 
lix times a Year, becaufe there were only Four Mif-^ 
fonaries in that Country for the extent of 50. Leagues. 
I baptized a Child at a certain Place call'd St. Hour^ „ 
and acquainted the abfent Miffionary of the Place, 
with the fame •, v/hich done, I continu'd my Vbyage -^ 
and as I pafs'd by Harpentinie ^ the Lord of the 
Place of one of theancienteft Families in Canada^ 
would have fent one of his Sons along with me 5,1 
but the Canou was too narrow for Four Perfons. 
At length I arriv'd at Trou Rivieres^ which is a Towi^ 
only furrounded with Pallifado's, lying about Thirty 
Leagues higher than Quebec. Not meeting there Fa- 
ther Sixte^ a Recollet-Miffionary, who was gone fron^ 
thence in Miffion, the Inhabitants befeech'd me tOi 
preach and perform Divine Service on the Firft of' 
OMer. The next day, the Sieur Bonnivet^ Lieute- 
nant-General Jufticiary of that Place, coi]vey'd me 
a League up the River St Laurence. 

The moft laudable Enterprizes are oft-times retard-^ 
ed by furprizing and unexpeded Obftacles ^ for 
when I arriv'd at Mo-nreal^ they debauched and en-f 
tic'd away my Two Boat-Men ^ fo that I was forc'4 
to take advantage of an offer which two other Men 
made to condud me along in their little Ihatter'd 
Boat. Thus was it that thofe who envy'd the Suc- 
cefs of my Undertaking, began tp-^et^themfeives 
in oppofition to it, and endeavoufd to hinder the 
moft conliderable and famous Difcovery that has 
beeen made in th^t New World in this Age. 


A Large Country in America. ^3 

In going up the River, as I pafs'd the Lake 
of St. Louis^ a little above the Ifle of Alom-eal^ 
which is about Twenty five Leagues in circumfe- 
rence, I obferv'd that this River St. Laurence divides 
it felf into Two Branches j of which one Leads to 
the ancient Country of the Hurom^ the OutMimBs^ 
and feveral other Nations fituate to the Northward \ 
and the other to the Country of the Jroquefc. We 
went up this laft for about Sixty Leagues, in nioft ra- 
pid and horrible .Currents, full of great Rocks, 
where the Water roars Night and Day like Thun- 
der, for Three or Four Leagues together. All 
which does not hinder the Boat-Men and their Ca- 
non's to defcend down among thefe huge Rocks 
with fo much fwiftnefs, that thofe who are in the 
Canou are for the time quite blinded. They ge- 
nerally carry Elks-Claws and Shins with them, which 
they Exchange for other Goods, with the Savages 
of that Country. 

I fhall not offer to give any circumflantial Ac- 
count of the Accidents that befel me, which are 
infeparable Companions of all great Voyages : What 
is needful to be faid is, That I arriv'd at Fort Cata^ 
rolony^ or Fromenac^ about Eleven a Clock at Night, 
the next Day after All-Sdms ^ where our Recollet- 
Fathers, Gabriel de la Ribonrde^ and Lule Bljfet^ Mil^ 
lionaries, receiv'd me with all Expreflions of Joy in- 
to our Houfe of Miffion, which we had caus'd to 
be built the Year before, upon the brink of the 
Lake Ontario^ near to Fort Front enac^ This Fort 
lies about forty four Degrees and fome Minutes 
of Northern Latitude. 

I had forgot to acquaint you, that this Lake On- 
tario is form'd by the River St. Laurence^ and that it 
is deep enough for large VelTels ^ for at feventy Fa^* 
thorn we could difcern no Ground. The Waves 
there are tofs'd by mighty Winds which are very 
frequent \ and their Surges are full as high as thofe 
of the Sea, but much more dangerous j for they 
D 4 are 

34 -^ ^^^ Difcovery of 

are Ihorter and fteeper j fo that a Veflel riding along 
cannot yield and keep touch with 'em. There are 
like wife fome very plain appearances of a Flux and 
Reflux ^ for they obferve the Water to flow and ebb 
by little Tides, and that it flows oft-times againft the 
Wind when very high. 

The Fiihing of this Lake , as of all the other 
Lakes before-mention'd, is very confiderable for all 
manner of excellent Fiflies, efpecially for Salmon- 
Trouts, which are much bigger than our big- 
geft Salmons. The acfjacent Country is very fertile, 
as is confirm'd by the Experience of thofe who cul- 
tivated it in feveral places. There is excellent Game 
therefor all forts of Wild Beafts and Wild Fowl: 
Their Forefts are replenifh'd with the prettieft Trees 
in the World, Pines, Cedars, and Efinetes^ (a fort of 
Fir-tree very common in that Country.j They 
have likewife very good Iron-Mines ^ and no doubt 
but other Metals might be found if fought after. 

While I abode at Catarokony^ waiting the coming 
up of the reft of our Company, I had time to con- 
fer with the Reverend Fathers of our Order concern- 
ing what Meafures we were to take for converting 
unto Chrift Jefas, fuch a numerous Train of Na- 
tions that had never heard of the Gofpel ^ for it is 
certain, that fuch poor helplefs Priefts as w? of the 
Francifcan Order, deilitute of all temporal Enjoy- 
ments, and cut off" from all Humane Means and 
AlFiftance, cannot be too cautious in managing the 
Concerns of fo important aMiffion, becaufe of the. 
infinite variety of the Tempers of thofe that were 
to accompany us in this Voyage j for we had in com- j 
pany fome Flemings^ fome Italians^ and fome Nor- j 
mans^ who were^all of different Interests ^ and it - 
was a very diiEcult Task for us to comply with, and ^ 
pleafe fo many diflerent Humours •, efpecially when 
. engag'd in fuch a Voyage as this, in which Laws 
could not be obferv'd with the fame Exadnefs, or 
retain the fame Rigour as in Europe^ where Men 


A Large Country in America. J5 

may be entic'd to Good, and fcar'd from Evil , 
by the Love of Rewards or the fear of Puniihment. 
But I refign'd my felf wholly to the Exercife of 
my Duty , leaving the Condud of all unto God's 
Providence, and being ready to encounter whatever 
Accidents might fall in my way. 

The Iroquefe whom we had brought to fettle near 
this Fort fas was above related) came oft-times to 
vifit us, and made us Prefents of the Flefh of Elks, 
and Roe-bucks j in lieu of which we gave 'em lit- 
tle Knives and fome Tobacco, which we had for 
that purpofe. Thefe Savages, when they refleded 
upon our defigned Voyage, us'd to clap their Four 
Fingers on their Mouths (as they generally do when 
touch'd with the Admiration of any thing they can- 
not comprehend) and cry 'd aloud, Ot chit agon ^ Gm- 
nor on I that is, Bare-Veet^ what ye are about to under- 
take^ ii, of great Importance : And added, that their 
mofl valiant Adventurers had much ado to extri- 
cate themfelves out of the hands of thofe barbarous 
Nations we were going to vifit. It is certain, that 
the Jroquefe had a molt tender Relpeft for the Fran- 
cifcan Monks, having obferv'd them to live all in com- 
mon, without referving any particular PofTeffions. 

The Food of the Jroquefe is in common among 
'em. The ancientelt Women in the Houfe dillribute 
about to the other Perfons in the Family according to 
their Seniority. When they fit at their Meals, they 
give freely to eat unto all that come into their 
Houfes, for they would rather chufe to fait for a 
whole Day, than fuffer any one to go from their 
Houfes , without offering them a fliare of wiiatever 
they had, 

The Sieur de la Salle arriv'd at the Fort fome time 
after me : God preferv'd him (as he did mej from 
the infinite Dangers he was expos'd to ia this great 
Voyage betwixt Quebec and the Fort, having pafs'd 
the great fall of Water mention'd lail, and feveral 
other moft rapid Currents in his way thither. The 


^6- , • A New Difcovery of 

fame Year he fent off Fifteen of our Boat-men, who' 
were to go before us. They made as if they had been 
going in.their Canou towards the IlUmis^ and the o- 
ther Neighbouring Nations that border upon the Ri- 
ver, caird by the IlUmisy Mefihaftpl ^ that is, a great 
River -, which Name it has in the Map. All this 
was only to fecure to us a good Gorrefpondence with 
the Savages, and to prepare for us in that Country 
fame Provillons, and other NeceiTaries, to further 
this Difcovery. But there being among them fome 
Villanous Fellows, they llopp'd in the upper Lake at 
Mijftlimakinak^ and diverted themfelves with the Sa- 
vages that live to the Northward of that Lake, lavifh* 
ing and fquandering away the bell: of the Commo-r 
dities they had taken with them inftead of provi- 
ding fuch Things as were needful for building a Ship, 
which we greatly wanted in order to pafs from Lake 
to Lake to the River Mefchafpl. 


jl Defcriftion of my fecond Jmbarhnent at Fort Fron- 
tenac, in a Brigantine Hpn~ the Lake Ontario or 

THat very fame Year, on the Eighteenth of A^o- 
vemher^ I took leave of our Monks at Fort Fron. 
tcnac^ aud after mutual Embraces and Expreffions 
of Brotherly and Chriftian Charity, lembark'diu 
a Brigantine of about ten Tuns. The Winds and 
the Cold of the Autumn were then very violent, in- 
fomuch that our Crew was afraid to go into fo lit- 
tle a VelTel. This oblig'd us and the Sieur de U 
Motte our Commander, to keep our courfe on the 
North-fide of the Lake, to fhelter our felves under 
the Coaft, againft the North-well Wind, which o- 
therwife would have forced us upon the Southern 
Coait of the Lake. This Voyage prov'd very diffi- 

a Large Country in Av[iQnc2i, ^j 

cult and dangerous, becaufeofthe uyifeafonable time 
of the Year, Winter being near at hand. 

On the i6thy we were in great danger about Two 
large Leagues off the Land, where we were oblig'd' 
to lie at an Anchor all that Night at fixty Fathom 
Water and above ^ but at length the Wind coming to 
the North-Eaft, we fail'd on, and arriv'd fafely at 
the further end of the Lake Ontario^ call'd by the 
Jrocjuefe^ Skannadario. We came pretty near to one 
of their Villages call'd Tajajagon^ lying about Seven- . 
ty Leagues from Fort Fromenac^ or Catarohuy. 

We barter'd fbme Indian Corn with the Iroquefe^ 
who could not fuffieiently admire us, and c^me fre- 
quently to fee us on board our Brigantine, which 
for our greater fecurity, we had brought to an 
Anchor into a River, though before we could get 
in, we run a ground three times, which oblig'd us 
to put Fourteen Men into Canou's, and caft the Ba- 
laft of our Ship over-board to get her olf again. 
That River falls into the Lake j but for fear of being 
frozen up therein, we were forced to cut the Ice with 
Axes and other Inftruments. 

The Wind turning then contrary, we were oblig'd 
to tarry there till the 1 5?^ of December^ 16'jS. when 
we failed from the Northen Coafl to the Southern, 
where the River Niagara runs into the Lake ^ but 
could not reach it that Day, though it is but Fifteen 
or Sixteen Leagues diltant, and therefore caft Anchor 
within Five Leagues of the Shore, where we had ve- 
ry bad Weather all the Night long. 

On the 6th. being St. NkholAis Day, we got into 
the iine River Niagara, into which never any fuch 
Ship as ours entred before. We fung there Te Deuniy 
and other Prayers, to return our Thanks to God 
Almighty for our profperous Voyage. The Irofufe 
tjonmntoitans inhabiting the little Village, fituatedat 
the Mouth of the^iver, took above Three Hundred 
VVhitings, v^hich are bigger than Carps, and the 
belt relilh'd, as well as the wholfomeft Fifli in the 


^S A New Difcovery of 

World ; which they^ prefented all to us, imputing 
their good luck to our Arrival. They were much' 
furprized at our Ship, which they call'd the Great 
Woodden Canon, * 

On the qth^ we went in a Canou two l>eagues up 
the River to look for a convenient Place for Builds 
ing ^ but not being able to get the Canou farther 
up, becaufe the Current was too rapid for us to 
mailer, we went over land about three Leagues high- 
er, though we found no Land fit for culture. • We 
lay that Night near a River, which runs from the 
Weftward, within a League above the great iFall of 
JSTiagara^ which, as we have already faid, is the 
greatelt in the World. The Snow was then a Foot 
deep, and we were oblig'd to dig it up to make room 
for our Fire. 

The next day we return'd the fame way we went, 
and faw great Numbers of Wild Goats, and Wild 
Turkey-Cocks, and on the nth we faid the firft 
Mafs that ever was laid in that Country. The Car- 
penters and the reft of the Crew were fet to work ; 
but Monfieur de la Motte^ whohadtheDiredionof 
them, being not able to endure the Fatigues of fo 
laborious a Life, gave over his Defign, and return'd 
to Canadu^ having about two hundred Leagues to 

The \ith^ i^th^ and i^th^ the Wind was not fa- 
vourable enough to fail up the River as far as the 
rapid Current above mentioned, where we had re-.- 
folved to build fome Houfes. 

Whofoever confiders our Map, will eafily fee, that 
this New Enterprize of building a Fort and fome 
Houfes on the River Niagara, befides the Fort of 
Front e-fiac, was like to give Jealoufie tot\\Q Iroquefe^ 
and even to the Er/glijlj, who live in this Neighbour- 
hood , and h^ve a great Commerce with them. 
Therefore to prevent the ill ConflJquences of it, it 
was thought fit to fend an EmbafTie to the IroqMefe, as 
jt will be mention'd in the next Chapter, 


A Large Country in America. 39 

I'he 15?^ I was defired to fit at the Helm of our 
Brigantine, while three of our Men hall'd the fame 
from the Shore with a Rope^ and at laffc we brought 
her up, and moor'd her to the Shore with a Halfer, 
near a Roekof i prodigious heighth, lying upon the 
rapid Currents we have already mentioned. The 1 7th, 
1 8th, and' 19th, we were bufie in making a Cabin 
with Pallifado's, fo ferve for a Magazine ^ but the 
Ground was fo frozen, that we were forc'd to throw 
feveral times boiling Water upon it to facilitate the 
beating in and driving down the Stakes. The 20th, 
21ft, 22d, and 23d, our Ship was in great danger to 
be dafh'd in pieces, by the vail pieces of Ice that were 
hurl'd down the River ^ to prevent which, our Car- 
penters made a Capftone to hall her afhore ^ but our 
great Cable broke in three pieces ^ whereupon one of 
our Carpenters furrounded the VefTel with a Cable, 
and ty'd it to feveral Ropes, whereby we got her a- 
fhore, tho' with much difficulty, and fav'd her from 
the danger of being broke to pieces, or carryed a- 
way by the Ice, which came down with an extream 
violence from the great Fall of Istiagara. 


An Account of the Embajfie to the Iroquefe Tfonnon- 

* , 

^THHefe Savages being the moll numerous Nation 
X of that Country, it was requiiite to avoid giv- 
ing them any manner of fufpicion ^ and in order 
thereto, we thought fit to prepoiTefs thofe of the 
little Village of Niagara with a favourable opinion of 
our Defign : We told them, that we did not intend 
to build a Fort on «the Bank of their River Niagara, 
but only a great Hanger or Store-houfe, to keep the 
Commodities we had brought to fupply their Occa- 
fions. We accompany'd our Difcourfe with fome 


46 J New Dlfcovery of 

fmall Prefents, and told them that we Ihouldre- 
tnain with them, while Six or Seven of onr Com- 
pany went to the ^reat Village of the Tfonnontoums^ 
to treat with their Chief Captains. And truly it j 
it was abfoiuteiy neceflary to go thitherto remove thel 
Sufpicionthe Enemies of our Difcovery had fuggell- " 
ed to that People concerning our Defigns. 

As I was building a little Cabin of Bark, to per- 
form Divine Service therein, M. de U Motte^ who 
was ftill with us, defired me to accompany him in 
his EmbafTie, which I was very unwilling to comply 
with ^ and therefore intreated him tofufferme to 
ftay there with the greater number of our Men. 
But notwithftanding the Arguments I us'd, he told 
ine that he was refolv'd to take along with him 7 Men 
out of 1 6. that we were in all ^ that I underllood 
in a manner the Language of their Nation, having 
been often in Conference with them at the Fort of 
Front en ac ^ that the Glory of God was concern'd in 
this Undertaking ^ that he would nottruf!; thofethat 
were to accompany him ; in fhort, that if our En- 
terprize fhould mifcarry upon that Account, the 
Blame would lie at my door. Thefe with fome 
other fecret Reafons, oblig'd me to comply with his 
his Delire and to follow him. 

We travelled with Shoes made after the Indian. 
way, of a fingle Skin, but without Soles, becaufe 
the Earth was ftill cover'd with Snow, andpaft 
through Forefts for thirty two Leagues together,- 
carrying upon our Backs our Coverings and other 
Baggage, lying often in open Field, and having 
with us no other Food but fome roafted Indian 
Corn : 'Tis true, we met upon our Road fome 
Iroquefe a hunting, who gave us fome wild Goats^ 
and Fifteen or Sixteen black Squirrels, which are ex-^ 
cellent Meat. However, after five Days Journey^ 
we came to T^garondies^ a great Village of jthe/ro-" 
cjtiefe Tfonnontonans^ and were immediately carry'd td 
the Cabin of their Principal Chief, where Womerf 

f and 

a Large Qduntry in America. 41 

and Children flock'd to fee lis, our Men being very 
well drefl and arm'd. An old Man having accord- 
ing to Cuilom made publick Cries, to give Notice 
of our arrival to their Village ; the younger Savages 
wafh'd our Feet, which afterwards they rubb'd over 
with the Greafe of Deers, wild Goats, and other 
Beafts, and the Oil of Bears. 

The next Day^ which was the Firft of the Year 
1579. After the ordinary Service I preach'd in a 
little Chapel made of Barks of Trees, in prefence of 
two Jefuites, vlz^. Father Gamier and Rafelx ^ and 
afterwards we had a Conference with 42 old Menf 
who make up their Council. Thefe Savages are for 
the moil part tall,'and very well Ihap'd, covered with 
a fort of Robe made of Beavers and Wolves-Skins, or 
of black Squirrels, holding a Pipe or Calumet m their 
Hands. The Senators of Fenice do not appear with a 
graver Countenance, and perhaps don't fpeak with 
more Majelty and Solidity, than thofe Ancient 

This Nation is the molt cruel and barbarous of all 
America^ efpecially to their Slaves, whom they take 
above two or three hundrecl Leagues from their 
Country, as I Ihall (hew in my fecond Volume ^ 
however, I mull do them the Juilice to obferve, 
that they have many good Qiialities ^ and that they 
love the Enrofeans^ to whom they fell their Commo- 
dities at very reafonable Rates. They have a mor- 
tal-Hatred for thofe, who being foo felf-intereflcd 
and covetous, are always endeavouring to enrich 
themfelves to the Prejudice of others. Their chief 
Commodities are Beavers-Skins, which they bring 
from above a hundred and fifty Leagues off their 
Habitations, to exchange them with the BngUfij and 
Dntch^ whom they afied more than the Inhabitants 
of Canada^ becaufe-they are more affable, and fell 
them their Commodities cheaper. 
^ One of our own Men nam'd Anthony Brojfard^ 
*vh». underftood very well the Language of thclro' 

42 Jl New Difcovery of 

ejuefe^ and therefore was Interpreter to M. de la Motte^ 

told their Affinebly, 

Brft^ That we were come to pay them a Vifit , 
and fmoak with them in their Pipes, a Ceremony 
which I fhall defcribe anon : And then we deli- 
ver'd our Prefents, conllfting of Axes, Knives, a 
great Collar of white and blue Procelain , with 
fome Gowns. We made Prefents upon every Point 
we propos'd to them, of the fame nature as the 

Secondly^ We defir'd them, in the next place to 
♦give notice to the five Cantons of their Nation, that 
wc were about to build a Ship, or great woodden 
Canou above the great Fall of the River Niagara^ to 
go and fetch Enro^ean Commodities by a more con- 
venient paiTage than the ordinary one, by the River 
St. Laurence^ whofe rapid Currents make it dangerous 
and long ^ and that by thefe means we fhould af- 
ford them our Commodities cheaper than the En- 
glijh and Dutch of Bofton and Ncw-Torh This Pre- 
tence was fpecious enough, and very well contriv'd 
to engage the barbarous Nation to extirpate the 
Engiijh and Dutch out of America : For they fuller 
the Eurojeans among them only for the Fear they 
have of them, or elfe for the Profit they make in 
Bartering their Commodities with them. 

Thirdly^ We told them farther, that we fhould pro- 
vide them at the River Niagara with a Black-fmith 
and a Gun-fmith, to mend their Guns, Axes, &c. 
having no body among them that underftood that 
Trade, and that for the conveniency of their whole 
Nation, we would fettle thofe Workmen on the 
Lake of Ontario^ at the Mouth of the River Niagara. 
We threw again among them feven or eight Gowns, 
and fome Pieces of fine Cloth, which they cover 
themfelves with from the Waft to the Knees. This 
was in order to engage them on our fide, and pre- 
vent their 'giving ear to any who might fuggeftill 
things of us, entreating th^m firft to acq^uaint us 


a Large Country in America. 4^ 

with the Reports that fhould be made unto them to 
oiir Prejudice, before they y elided their Belief to 
the fame. 

We added many other Reafons which we thought 
proper to perfuade them to favour our Defign. The 
Frefents we made unto them, either in Cloth or Iron, 
were worth above 400 Livres, befides fome other 
Enrofean Commodities, very fcarce in that Country : 
For the belt Reafons in the World are not liflned 
to among them, unlefs they are enforc'd with 

I forgot toobferve, that before our Interpreter be- 
gan to talk of thefe matters with the Council, M. de 
la Motte order'd him to tell the Iroquefe^ That he 
would enter into no Particulars in prefencQ of Fa- 
ther Gamier a Jefuite, whom he much fufpeded t 
Whereupon the old Senators order'd the faid Father 
to withdraw. As I had a great Refped for him, I 
went out like wife to bear part of the Affront put 
upon him, and to let M. la Af<?w fee that he had no 
reafon to defire me to go to the Council with him, 
jfmce he had refolv'd to affront in my prefence a Je- 
Ifuite-Miffionary, who was amongft that barbarous 
Nation, without any other Defign but to inftrud 
them in the Truth of the Gofpel. This was the 
reafon why I was not prefent in the Council, the 
firll Day that we acquainted t\\t Iroquefe^ with the 
fubjed of our Embaflle. I eafily obferv'd, that M. la 
Motte had been bred up amongft People, profefs'd 
Enemies of all Monks and Priefts •, from whence I 
concluded, that he would lay upon me all the Over- 
lights he might commit in his Negotiation : But I 
thought it was better he Ihould be deceiv'd by thofe 
he employ'd, than to be fo my felf^ and therefore 
would never meddle with any Temporal Concerns, 
though earneftly defir'd by him and others. The 
Iroquefe^ and Other wild Nations, had a^reatLove 
for me upon that Account : They have fupply'd 
me with Food for my fubfiftance, and reliev'd me 

44 -A ^^^^^ Difcovery of 

upon other occallons, only hecaufe they obferv'd I 
was not guided by a private felf-intereft ^ and truly 
whenever they made me any Prefents, in return of 
thofe which I made unto them ^ I immediately gave 
them to their Children. 

The next Day the Irocjuefe anfwered our Difcourfe 
and Prefents Article by Article, having laid upon the 
Ground feveral little pieces of Wood, to put them in 
mind of what had been faid the Day before in the 
Council j their Speaker, or Prefident held in his 
Hand one of thefe Pieces of Wood, and when he had 
anfwer'd one Article of our Propofal, he laid it 
down, with fome Prefents of black and white Porce- 
lain, which they ufe to firing upon the fmallelt Si- 
news of Beafls ^ and then took up another Piece 
of Wood ^ and fo of all the reft, till he had fully 
anfvver'd our Speech, of which thofe Pieces of Wood, 
and our Prefents put them in mind. When his Dif- 
courfe was ended, theoldefl Man of their Affem- 
bly cry'd aloud three times, Niaoua-^ that is to 
fay. It is well^ Ithmk thee , which was repeated with 
a full Voiccj and in a tuneful manner by all the other 

'Tis to be obferv'd here, that the Savages, though 
fome are more cunning than others, are generally all 
addicted to their own Interefts •, and therefore tho' 
tiie/r<j^;^f/^feem'd to beplfeas'd with our Propofals, 
they were not really fo^ for the Englijlj di^id Dutch 
affording them the European Commodities at cheaper • 
Rates than the French of Canada^ they had a greater 
Inclination for them than for us. That People, tho' 
fo barbarous and rude in their Manners, have how- 
ever a Piece of Civility peculiar to themfelves ^ for 
a Man would be counted very impertinent if he 
contradicted any thing that is faid in their Council, 
and if he does not approve even the greatefl Abfur- 
dities therein propos'd ^ and therefore they always 
aiafwer Nlaoua \ that is to fay Thou art in the right 
Brother ^ that iswclL 


a, Large Country in America. 45 

Notwithflanding that feeming Approbation, they 
I believe what they pleafe and no more \ and there- 
fore 'tis impoffible to know when they are really 
perfiiaded of thofe things -you have mention'd 
unto them, which I take to be one of the greateft: 
Gbflrudions to their Gonverlion: For their Civility 
hindring them from making any Obje(9:ion,. or con- 
tradicting what is faid unto them, they feem to ap- 
prove of it, though perhaps they laugh at it in pri- 
vate, or elfe never bellow a moment to refled upoil 
it, fuch being their indifference for a future Life. 
From thefe Obfervations, I conclude that the Con- 
verfion of thefe People is to be defpair'd of, 'till they 
jare fubdu'd by the Eurofeans^ and that their Childreii 
jhave another fort of Education, unlefs God bepleas'd 
to work a Miracle in their Favour. 

While we were Hill with the Iroquefe^ their Parties 
Imade an Excurfion towards Firginia^zuA brought two 
Prifoners with them, one whereof was Homouagaha^ 
which in the Language of the Iroquefe^ lignifies a 
talkative or babling Fellow, and the other of the Na- 
tion of Ga?imefwga, \vh.ithQY ibms Englift} Francifians 
iwerefent Aliffionaries. The /ro^^/^/^ fpar'd the Life 
|of this lafl, but put to Death the former, with inch 
■lexquilite Torments, that A^ero^ Domitian^ and MiixU 
\rnnutn^ never invented the like, to exercife the Pati- 
ence of the Martyrs of the Primitive Church withall. 
! They ufe commonly that Inhumanity towards all 
the Prifoners they take in their Warlike Expeditions^ 
but the worft of it is, that their Torments lall 
fometimes a Month. When they have brought them 
into their Canton^ they lay them upon fome pieces of 
Wood, made like a St. Andrm\ Crofs, to which 
they tie the Legs and Arms of thofe miferable 
Wretches , and expofe them to Gnats and other 
iFlies, who fling them to death. The Children of 
! thofe Barbarous Parents, cut pieces of Flefll out of 
I their Flanks, Thighs, or fbme other part of their 
JBodies ^ and when they have boyl'd it force thofe 
■■' ' E 2 .. ■ • poor 


46 ^ New Dlfcovery of 

poor Wretches to eat thereof. The Iroquefe eat fome 
pieces of it themfelves, as well as their Children; 
and the better to infpire thofe little Canibals with 
Hatred for their Enemies, and the deiire to extirpate 
them, they give them their Blood to drink in fome lit- 
tle Porringers made of Barks of Trees. Thus do 
thefepoor Creatures end their Life, after a long and 
unfpeakable Torment. 

That horrid Cruelty oblig'd us to leave the Cabin, 
or Cottage of the Chief Captain of that barbarous 
People, to Ihew them the Horror we had of their 
Inhumanity, and never eat with them fmce, but re- 
turn'd the fame way we went through the Woods to 
the River Niagara. And this was all the fuccefs of 
our Embaffie. , 


\A Defcrjftlon of a Ship of Sixty Tuns^ which we built near - 
the Str eights of the Lake Erie, during the Winter ard 
Spring of the 7'ear 16^9. 

ON the 1 4th of January we arrived at our Habi- 
tation of Niagara^ very weary of the Fatigues 
ot our Voyage. W e had no other Food but Indian 
Corn ^ but by good luck for us, the Fifhery of the 
Whitings, I have already fpoken of, was then in fea- 
fcn, and made our /;7^zW Corn more relilhing. We 
made ufe of the Water, in which the Filh was boil- 
ed, inllead of Broth of Meat; for when it grows 
cold in the Pot, it congeals it felf like fome Veal- 

On the 20th arrived M. deU Salle from Fort Fran- 
tenac^ from whence he was fent with a great Barque 
to fupply us with Provifions, Rigging, and Tackling 
for the Ship we defign'd to build at the Mouth of the 
Lake Erie ; but that Barque was unfortunately calt 
av*ay,on the Southern Coaft oftheLakeC>wf<?w, by 


d Large Country in America. 47 

p!ie fault of two Pilots, who could not agree about 
the Courfe they were tofteer, tho' they were then 
!)nly within two Leagues of Niagara. The Sea-men 
have call'd this place the Mud Cape. The Anchors 
bd Cables were fav'd, butYeveral Canou's made of 
parks of Trees, with Goods and Commodities v/ere 
loit. Thefe difappointmentswere fiich as would have 
diffuaded from any farther Enterprize all other Per- 
sons, but fuch who had form'd the generous Defign 
f making a New Difcovery in the Country. 

M. de la Salle told us, that before he loft his Barque, 
.e had been with the Iroqmfe Tfonnontouans , and had 
b dexteroufly gain'd their Affedion, that they had 
:alk'd to him of our Ernbaffie with Applaufe ; and 
had siven him their Confent for the Execution of our 
Undertaking. This good intelligence lailed but a 
^ttle whiles for certain Perfons, who made it their 
Buiinefs to Crofs our Defign, infpir'd the Iroqitefe with 
many fufpicions, about the Fort we were building at 
iJSIiagara^ which was in a great forwardnefs ^ and 
their Sufpicions grew fo high, that we were oblig'd 
%o give over our BQilding for fome time, contenting 
our felves with an Habitation encomnafs'd with Pal- 
lifado's. ■ ^ 

i On the 22th of the faid Month, we went two 
JLeagues above the great Fall of Niagara^ where w6 
lade a Dock for Building the Ship we wanted for 
ur Voyage. This was the moll convenient place 
ve could pitch upon, being upon a River which falls 
into the Sti-eight/oetween the Lake Erie^ and the great 
Fall of Niagara. The 26'th, the Keel of the Ship 
and fome other Pieces being ready, M. de la Salle 
fent theMafter-Carpenter,toderire me to drive in the 
firft Pin •, but my Profellion obliging me to decline 
that Honour, he did it himfelf, and promis'd Ten 
LoMi d:Or\(^ to encourage the Carpenter, and further 
the Work. The Winter being not half fo hard in 
that Country as in Canada^ we employ'd one of the 
^wo Savages of the Nation calFd the IVolf^ whom we 
'.' ' E 3 kept 

4^ A New Difcovery of 

kept for Hunting, in building fome Cabins made of 

Rinds of Trees ^ and I had one. made on purpofeto 

perform Divine Service therein on Smdays^ and other 


M. de la Salle having fome urgent Bufinefs of his 
own, return'd to Yort Front enac^tdivm^ior our Com- 
mander one Tomi^ an Italian by Birth, who had been 
forced to retire into France after the Revolution of 
i\^?p/(?.f, in which his Father was concern'd. I con- 
duded M. de hi Salle as far as the Lake Ontario^ at the 
Mouth of the River Niagara^ where we ordered a 
Houfe to be built for the'smith he had promis'd to 
the Iroquefe • but this was only to amuze them, and 
therefore I cannot but own that the Savages are not 
to be blam'd for having not believ'd every thing they 
were told by M. la Motte in his Embaffie already re- 

He undertook his Journey a-foot over the Snow, 
having no other Proviiions but a little Sack of In- 
dian Corn roafted, which fail'd him two Days before 
he came to the Fort, which is above fourfcore Leagues 
diftant from tiie Place where he left us. However he 
gothome fafelv with two Men, and a Dog, who 
dragg'd his Ba^age over the Ice or frozen Snow. 

When! return'd to our Dock, l underftood that 
moll of the Iroquefe were gone to wage War with a 
Nationon the other fide of the Lake Erie. In the 
mean time, our Men continu'd with great Applica- 
tion to build our Ship ^ for the Ircficfe who were left 
behind, being but a fmall number, were not fo in- 
folent as before, though they come now and then to 
our Dock, and exprefs'd fome Difcontent at what we 
were doing. One of them in particular, feigning 
himfelf drunk, attempted to kill our Smith, but was 
vigoroufly repuls'd by him with a red-hot Iron-barr, 
which, together with the Reprimand he receiv'd from 
me, oblig'd him to be gone. Some few Days after, 
a Savage Woman gave us notice, that the Tfonnomon- 
ans had refolv'd to burn our Ship in the Dock, and 


a Large Country in America. - 49 

had certainly done it, had we not been always upon 
our Guard. 

Thefe frequent Alarms from the Natives, together 
with the Fears we were in of wanting Provilions, ha- 
ving loft the great Barque from Fort Frontcnac^ which 
ihould have reliev'd us, and the Tfonnontonans at the 
fame time refufing to give us of their Corn for Mo- 
ney, v/ere a great Difcouragement to our Carpenters, 
whom on the other hand, a Villain araongft us en- 
deavour'd to feduce : That pitiful Fellow had feveral 
times attempted to run away from us into New-Tork^ 
and would have been likely to pervert ourCarpenters, 
had I not confirm'd them in their good Refolution, 
by the Exhortations I us'd to make every Holy-day 
after Divine Service;, in which I reprefented to them, 
that the Glory of God was concerned in our Under- 
taking, beiides the Good and Advantage ot our Ghri- 
ftian Colonies ^ and therefoi-e exhorted them to re- 
double their Diligence, in order to free our felves 
from all thofe Inconveniences and Apprehenhons we 
then lay under. 

The two Savages we had taken into our Service , 
went all this while a Hunting, and fupply'd us with 
Wild-Goats, and other Beafts for our Subfiftencej 
which encourag'd our Workmen to go on with their 
Work more briskly than before, infomuch that m a 
fhort time our Ship was in a readinefs to be launch'd j 
which we did, after having blefs'd the fame accord- 
ing to the ufe of the Romiih Church. We made all 
the hafte we could to get it afloat, though not alto- 
gether hnifh'd, to prevent the Defigns of the Natives, 
who had refolv'd to burn it. 

The Ship was call'd the Griffin^ alluding to the 
Arms of Count Fromenac^ which have two Origins 
for Supporters ^ and befides, M. la Salle us'd to fay of 
this Ship, while yet upon the Stocks, that he would 
make the Gr.'ffin fly above the Ravens, We fir'd three 
Guns, and fung Te Deimi^ which was attended with 
joud Acclamations of Joy j of which thofe of the 
£ ^ Iroquefs 

5o ji New Difcovery of 

Iroquefe^ who Were accidentally prefent at this Cere- 
mony, were alfo Partakers^ for we gave them fome 
Brandy to drink, as well as to our Men, who imme- 
diately quitted their Cabins of Rinds of Trees, and 
hang'd their Hammocks under the Deck of the Ship, 
there to lie with more fecurity than afhorc. We 
did the like, infomuch that the very fame Day we 
were all on Board, and thereby out of the reach of 
the Infults of the Savages. 

The Iroqnefe being returned from hunting Beavers, 
were mjghtily furprized to fee our Ship a-fioat, and 
call'dusOfW, which is in their Language, Moflfene- 
trating Wits : For they could not Apprehend how in 
fo Ihort a time we had been able to build fo great a 
Ship, though it was but 5o Tuns. It might have 
been indeed call'd a moving Fortrefs ^ for all the Sa- 
vages inhabiting the Banks of thofe Lakes and Rivers 
I have mentioned, for five hundred Leagues together, 
were filled with Fear as well as Admiration when 
they law it. ^ 

The beft Defigns are often crofs'dby fomeunex- 
peded Accidents, which God permits to happen, to 
try Mens Conftancy, as I experienced at that time. 
One of our Crew gave me notice, that the Sieur^^ 
Tomi our Commander, entertain'd fome Jealoufie of 
me, becaufe I kept a Journal of all the confiderable 
Things that were Tranfaded -, and that he defign'd 
to take the fame from me. This Advice obliged me to 
ftand upon my Guard, and take all other Precauti- 
ons, to fecure my Obfervations, and remove the Jea- 
loufie that Gentleman had of me : For I had no other 
Delign but to keep our Men to their Duty, and to 
Exercifes of Piety and Devotion, for preventing Dif- 
orders, and for the fiirtherance of our Common Un- 

In the mean time, our Enemies fpread very dif- 
advantagious Reports of us in Camda, where we 
were reprefented as ralh and inconfiderate Perfons, 
tor venturing upojj To dangerous a Voyage, from 


a, Large Country in America. 51 

which in their Opinion, none of us would ever re- 
turn. This, together with the Difficulties we la- 
boured under for tranfporting the Rigging of our 
Ship, and the other Inconveniencies necelTarily at- 
tending a Voyage through an unknown Country, 
Lakes, and Rivers where no Enrofean had travelled 
before,and the Oppofitions from the /r^.^'/z^y^, wrought, 
in me anunparalleFd Vexation. But thefe Reports 
were ftill more prejudicial to M. la Salle ^ whofe Cre- 
ditors, without enquiring into the Truth of the Mat- 
ter, or expecting his return from Fort Fromenac^ 
feiz'd all his Effeds in Canada ^ though that very Fort 
alone, the Property whereof belonged to him, was 
worth twice more than all the Debts he ow'd. How- 
ever it being impolTible to ftopthe Mouth of our 
Enemies, who had no other Delign, than to oblige 
us to give over our Enterprize, notwithftanding the 
Trouble and great Charge we had been at for our 
Preparations ^ we refolved to wait with Patience, the 
Opportunities, Divine Providence would prefent us 
with, and to purfue with Vigour and Gonftancy our 

Being thus prepar'd againft all Difcouragements, I 
went up in a Canou with one of our Savages to the 
Mouth of the Lake Erie^ notwithllanding the ftrong 
Current which I mafter'd with great difficulty. I 
founded the Mouth of the Lake and found, contrary 
to the Relation that had been made unto me, that a 
Ship with a brisk Gale might fail up to the Lake, and 
furmount the Rapidity of the Current ^ and that 
therefore with a ftrong North, or North-Eaft Wind, 
we might bring our Ship into the Lake Erie. I took 
alfo a view of the Banks of the Streight, and found that 
in cafe of Need, we might put fome of our Men a-fhore 
to hall the Ship, if the Wind was not ftrong enough. 


^2 A New Difcovery of 


The Atitho'/'s Retwn to Fort Frontenac. 

BEfore we could go on "with our intended Difco- 
very, I was oblig'd to return to Fort Frontenac^ 
to -bring along with me two Monks of my own 
Order, to help me in the Fun(!i:ion of my Miniftry. 
I left our Ship riding upon two Anchors, within a 
league and a half of the Lake £n>, in the Streight, 
between the faid Lake, and the great Fall of Niagara. 
Mr. Cioaron an Inhabitant of Canada^ defir'd to go 
with me, to avoid the ill Ufage he receiv'dfrora 
M. Tonti^ who was an irreconclleable Enemy of all 
the Subjeds of the King of Sfain^ having been, as 
he thought, hardly us'd by the Spaniards^ in the Re- 
volution of Naples^ in which he was concern'd ' as 
well as his Father, 

We embark'd in aCanou with one of our Sava- 
ges, and fell down the Streight till we came to the 
great Fall , where we went a-fhore, and carry'd 
our Canou over-land to the foot of the great Rock 
already mention'd, and from thence we continued 
our Courfe to the Mouth of the Lake Ontario^ where 
we found the Barque or Brigantinewe havefpoken 
of, which the Sieur la Forefi had brought from Fort j 
Frontenac. M. la Forefi having fpent fome Days in I 
that place for Bartering his Commodities with the ' 
Natives, we embark'd on board his Brigantine, to- 
gether with Fifteen or Sixteen Savage Women, who 
took the opportunity to fail forty Leagues by Wa-" 
ter, which other wife they had been, oblig'd to tra- 
vel a-foot over-land through the Woods ^ but they 
not being us'd to this way of Travelling, fell fb 
Hck, that their Vomiting created an infufferable ftink 
in our Ship. Being arriv'd into the River oiAomguen^ 
M. la. Forefi exchang'dfome Brandy for Beaver-Skins \ 
but I mull confefs this Commerce of Strong- Waters 
was never acceptable to me j for if the Savages 


aLarge Country Ln Amtnca., 5^ 

drink but a little too much <of that Liquor, they are 
worfe and more dangerous than mad Men. Having 
done our Bufinefs in that place, we fail'd from the 
Southern to the Northern (Iloalls of the Lake ^ and 
the Wind being favourable we quickly pafs'd by. 
the Village which lies on the other fide of Kerne 
and GaneoHJfe^ but were becalm'd not far from 
Fort Fromenac^ which oblig'c J me to get into a Canou 
with two Savages to manage it. We landed in the 
liland of GoiUns^ fo nam'cl from Sea-Fouls of that 
Name, who abound in that ^place, and lay their Eggs 
upon the Sand where they are hatch'd by the Heat 
of the Sup. I carry'd away along with us four Bas- 
kets full of them, which we found very relifhing ia 
Omelets and Pancakes. 

I was kindly received by four Miffionariesof my 
own Order that I found thcTe, viz.. Father Gabriel 
de la RlhoHrdc^ Lake Buijfet^ Zenohe A'fambre^znd Mill- 
thon Watteaid^ all Natives oit\\Q Sfaniflj Netherlands. 
They told me that they knew how much Ihadfuf- 
fer'd in my Mljfwn during the Winter, and chiefly 
from that Italian who deferted the Service of his Na- 
tural Prince, that is Tonti I have already fpoken of. 
I conceal'd part of the Difcouragements I had met 
with, b'ecanfe I defigned to engage Father Gabriel 
and Zenohe in our Voyage, and alfo becaufe I knew 
that M. de la Salle^ whofe Temper I was acquainted 
with by my own Experience, made a conflant ule 
of this famous Maxnn, Divide & impera^ to difpofe 
with a greater facility of the Men under him to com- 
pafshisown Deiigns : And having as great a Paffion 
as he to difcover fome New Countries, I thought 
it belt to make no Complaints, which he took very 
kindly, and receiv'd me in a very obliging man- 

That Gentleman was Judicious, and of extraordi- 
nary Parts, and very defirous to m.ake hirafclf fa- 
mous by fome New Difcoveries, about which we had 
frequent Conferences. • He told me feveral times 


54 -^ New Difcovery of 

That he knew no Religious Order fo fit as ours, for 
improving New Colonies j and he was a very good 
Judge in thofe matters, having fpent nine or ten 
Years in another Order, of which he had difingag'd 
himfelf by Confent of the General, who in the Ad 
of his Difmiffion under his own Hand, gives this 
noble Charafter of him. That he had liv'd amongit 
the Monks of his Order, without giving the lealt 
fufpicion of J^enid Sin. Thefe are the very Words 
of the Ad, for I have perus'd it my felf He like- 
wife told me. That being perfuaded that we might 
be very ufeful to him in his Defigns, he was refolv'd 
to do fomething in favour of our Order ^ ^nd having 
call'd us together on the 27^^ oi May^ 1679. he ac- 
quainted us. That being Proprietary and Governor 
of Fort Frontenac^ he would order in his Will, That 
no other religious Order but ours, fhould be fuffer'd 
to fettle themfelves near the Fort ^ he afterwards 
mark'd out a Church-yard ; and having created a 
publick Notary, he ordered him to draw up an In- 
Itrument, whereby the faid M. U Salle gave to our 
Order, the Property of Eighteen Acres, of Ground 
along the fide of the Lake Ontario near the Fort, and 
above a Hundred Acres more in the next Forefb 
to be clear'd and grubb'd up. We accepted this Gift 
in the Name of our Order, and fign'd the Deed, 
which was the firlt that ever was tranfaded in that 
Country. The Notary's Name Was la Meterie. 

This being done, he deiir'd thofe Francifcans that 
were to come with me, to prepare themfelves for 
their Voyage^ but the Wind being againft us, we 
had a fufficient time for it, and to take our Mea- 
fiires concerning our dangerous Million. We made 
frequent Vifits to the Savages, whom we had per- 
fuaded to fettle themfelves near the Fort, who toge- 
ther with their Children, whom we had taught to 
read and write, lamented much our Departure j and 
and alTur'd us, that if we did return in a fhort time, 
they, would perfuade the relt of the Inhabitants of 


a "Large Country in America. 55 

the Village of Ganeoujfe^to come and fettle themfelves 
m the Neighborhood of the Fort. 


An Account of our Second Embarkmenf from Fort 

AFter fome few Days, the Wind coming fair, Fa- 
thers Gabriel^ Zenobe^^Lad. I, went on board the 
Brigantine, and in a fhort time arriv'd in the Riv^r 
ofth^TfonnontoHans^ which rims into the LaktOntario j 
where we continued feveral Days, our Men being 
very bulie in bartering their Commodities with the 
Natives, v/ho flock'd in great Numbers about us 
to fee our Brigantine, which they admir'd, and 
to exchange .their Skins for Knives, Guns, Pow- 
der and Shot, but efpecially for Brandy, w^hich they 
love above all things: In the mean time, we had 
built a fmall Cabin of Barks of Trees about half 
a 'League in the Woods, to perform Divine Ser- 
vice therein without interruption, and waited till 
all our Men had done their Bufinefs. M. la Salle ar- 
rived in a Canou about eight Days after ^ he had 
taken his courfe by the Southern Coail of the Lake, 
to go to the Village of the TfonnorJtouans^ to whom he 
made feveral Prefents to engage them in our Interelt, 
and remove the Jealoufie they had conceived of our 
Undertaking, through the fuggeflions of our Ene- 
mies. All thefe Impediments retarded us fo long, 
that we could not reach the River Niagara before the 
30th of >/y. 

On the 4th of the faid Month, I went over-land 
to the Fall of Niagara^ with a Serjeant call'd la Fleur^ 
and thence to our Dock, within fix Leagues of the 
Lake Ontario ; but we did not find there the Ship 
we had built: And met with a new Misfortune j 
for two young Savages robb'd us of the Bisket we 


^6 • J New lOifcovery of 

had for our fubfiftance, which reduc'd us to great 
Extremity. ' We found at laft a half rotten Canou 
without Oars, which we mended as well as we could ^ 
and having made an Oar, we ventur'd our felves in 
that v\^eak and fhatter'd Canou, and went up the 
Streight to look for our Ship, which we found 
riding within a league of the pleafant Lake Erie, 
We were very kindly receiv'd, and likewife very 
glad to find our Ship w ell rigg'd, and ready fitted 
out with all the Necedaries for failing. She carry'd 
five fmall Guns, two whereof were Brafs, and three 
Harquebuze a-croch. The Beak-head was adorn'd 
with a flying Griffin, and an Eagle above it^ and 
the reft of the Ship had the fame Ornaments as Men 
of War ufe to have. 

The Iroquefe were then returning from ' a Warlike 
Expedition with feveral Slaves, and were much fur* 
priz'd to fee fo big a Ship, which they compar'd to 
a Fort, beyond their Limits. Several came on board, 
and feem'd to admire above all things the bignefs of 
our Anchors^ for they could not apprehend how 
we had been able to bring them through the ra- 
pid Currents of the River St. Laurence. This oblig'd 
them to ufe often the Word G^nmrorn^ which in 
their Language fignifies, That is wonderful. They 
wonder'd alfo to find there a Ship , having fecn 
none when they went^ and did not know from 
whence it came, it being about 250 Leagues from 

Having forbid the Pilot to attempt to fail up the 
Currents of the Streight till farther order, we re- 
turn'd the 1 5th and 1 7th to the Lake Ontario^ and 
brought up our Bark to the great Rock of Niagara^ 
and anchor'd at the foot of the three^ Mountains , 
where we were oblig'd to make our Portage ^ that is, 
to carry over-land our Canon's and Provifions, and 
other Things, above the great Fall of the River, 
which interrupts the Navigation : and becaufe molt 
of the Rivers of that Country are interrupted with 


n L^rge Country in America. 57 

great Rocks, and that therefore thofe who fail up- 
on the fame, are oblig'd to go over-land above thofe 
Falls, and carry upon their Backs their Canou's and 
other Things. They exprefs it with this Word, To 
make our Portage ^ of which the Reader is defir'd 
to take notice, for otherwife the following Account, 
as well as the Map, would be unintelligible to many. 

Father Gabriel^ though of Sixty five Years of Age, 
bore with great Vigour the Fatigue of that Voyage, 
and went thrice up and down thofe three Moun- 
tains, which are pretty high and fteep. Our Men 
had a great deal of trouble ^ for they were oblig'd 
to make feveral Turns to carry the Provifions and 
Ammunition, and the Portage was two Leagues 
long. Our Anchors were fo big that four Men 
had much ado to carry one ^ but the Brandy we 
gave th?m was fuch an Encouragement, that 
they furmounted cheerfully all the Difficulties of 
that Journey ; and fo we got on board our Ship 
all our Provifions, Ammunitions, and Commodities. 

While we continu'd there, M. la Salle told me. 
That he underftood by fome of our Men, that I 
I very much blam'd the Intrigues of fome Monks of 
[Canada with the Iroquefe^ and their Neighbours of 
[New'Tork and New-Orange ^ which oblig'd me in his 
prefence, to tell my Brethren the Fr^T»r/yc4».f, That 
I perceiv'd that M./^z Salle was minded to furprize me, 
and oblige me to revile fome Perfons, whom he re- 
prefented as Traders and Merchants •, and then a- 
bating fomewhat of my Tone, I concluded. That 
inotwithltanding the falfe Reports that had been made 
I to him, I would entertain a good Opinion of thofe 
I very Perfons whom he defign'd to make my Enemies ^ 
land that I wou'd rather give over our Enterprizethan 
|be impos'd upon at |hat rate. This vigorous Anfwer 
jfurpriz'd M. la Salle, who told me, That he was per- 
ifuaded that thofe who had made him thofe Reports, 
Swere not honeft Men j and that therefore he would 
take all imaginable care of my Perfoa during the 


5 8 A New Dlfcovery of 

Voyage, and efpoufe my Intereft on all occalloni?." 
He was Indeed afraid that I fhould leave him, which 
had been a great difappointment to his Affairs ^ for 
Father Gabriel would have left him alfo. That good 
Man w^as come with us without any leave of his 
Superior, only upon a Letter from the Provincial 
Commiffioner of Canada^ whofe Name was Valentin 
le ^o;^Ar,w herein he told M. la Salle ^ that the faid 
Father G'^^r/V/ might go along with him. However 
he did not believe that he would do fo without an 
Order in Writing ^ and for that reafon came fome 
Days after our departure, to^ort Frontenac^ where 
M. la 5^//e obtain'd that Order from him, for fear of 
being accus'd to have expos'd a Man of that Age to 
fo dangerous a Voyage, in which he was like to pe- 
rifh, as really he did ^ as we fhall fee by and by. 

M. la Salle underilanding that I and the faid Father 
Gabriel^ wxre gone to view the great Fall of Niagara^ 
he came to us with fome Refrefhpifnts to reconcile 
himfelf with me, and prevent my return to Canada^ 
He met with no great difficulty ^ for the great defire 
I had to difcover a New Country, made me very 
eafie ^ fo that we returned on board our Ship in the 
beginning of Atgitftj i^vp. 


^n Account of our Third Emharhment from the Afonth 
of the Lake Erie. 

E have already obferv'd, that the Spaniards 
were the firit Difcoverers of Canada^ and that 
the RecolletssLYQ the firft Religious Order, who atten- 
ded the French Colonies in that Country. Thofe 
Good Men liv'd in great Friendihip with the Savages 
caird Hnronsj by whom they underftood that the Iro- 
<jHefe made frequent Excurfions beyond Virginia and 
New'Sweden^ near a great Lake, from whence they 


it LaYgt Country in America, 55J 

Lrought a gt-eat many Slaves *, which gave occafion 
to the Hurons to call that Lake, Erlge^ or Erlh •, that 
is to fay, the Lake of the Cat. The Inhabitants of 
Canada have foftned that Word, and call it £r/>, as 
we have already obferv'd. 

, . We endeavour'd feveral times to fail up that Lake \ 
but the Wind being not flrong enough , we were 
forc'd to wait for it. In the mean time, M. la Salle 
caus'd our Men to grub up fome Land, andfow fe- 
veral forts of Pot-Herbs and Pulfe, for theconveni- 
iency of thofe who fhould fettle themfelves there, to 
tnaintain our Correfpondence with Fort Frcntenaa, 
We found there a great quantity of wild Cherries 
and Rocambole a fort of Garlick, which grow natu- 
rally in that Ground. We left Father Mellthon^ with, 
fome Work-men, at our Habitation above the Fall of 
Niagara ; and moit of our- Men went a-fhore to ligh- 
ten our Ships, the better to fail up the Lake. 

The Wind veering to the North-Eaft, and the Shi|5 
being well provided, we made all the Sail we could^ 
and with the help of Twelve Men who halfd from 
the Shoar, overcame the Rapidity of the Current^ 
and got up into the Lake. The Stream is fo violent,, 
that our Pilot himfelf defpair'd of Succefs. When 
it was done, we fung Te Denm^ and difcharg'd our 
Cannon and other Fire- Arms, in prefence of a great 
many Iroquefe^ who came from a Warlike Expedition 
a^^ainft the Savages of Timotiha •, that is to fay, the 
Nation of the Meadows^ who live above four hundred 
Leagues from that Place. The Iroquefe and their Pri- 
foners were much fiirpriz'd to fee us iii the Lake and, 
did not think before that, we fhould be able to over- 
come the Rapidity of the Current : They cry'd fe- 
veral times Gannorom^ to fhew their Admiration. 
Some of the Jroqnefe had taken the meafure of our 
Ship, and immediately went for New-lork^ to give 
notice to the EngUfh and Dutch of our failing into the 
Lake : For thofe Nations affording their Commbdi- 
F tic^ 

6o A New Dtfcovery of 

ties Cheaper than the French^ are alfo more belov'd 
by the Natives. 

On the 7th of ^nguft., 16^79. we^ went on board 
being in all four and thirty Men, including two Re- 
collets who came to us, and iail'd from the Mouth of 
the Lake Erie^ fleering our Courfe Weft-South-Wefl, 
with a favourable Wind ^ and though the Enemies 
of our Dif^overy had given out, on purpofe to deter 
us from our Enterprize, That the Lake Erie was full 
of Rocks and Sands, which rendered the Navigation 
impracticable, we run above twenty Leagues during 
the Night, though we founded all that while. The 
next Day the Wind being more favourable, we ma'de 
above live and forty Leagues, keeping at an equal di- 
ilance from the Banks of the Lake, and doubled a 
Cape to the Wefl-ward, which we call'd the Cape 
of St. Francis. The next Day we doubled two other 
Capes, and met with no manner of Rocks or Sands. 
We difcover'd a pretty large Ifland towards the South- 
well, about feven or eight Leagues from the Nor- 
thern Coafl ^ that Ifland faces the Streight that comes 
from the Lake Huro-n. < 

The 10th, very early in the Morning, we pafs'd 
between that Illand and 7 or 8 leiler ones ; and ha- 
ving fail'd near another, which is nothing but Sand, 
to the v/eft of the Lake, we came to an Anchor at 
the Mouth of the Streight, which runs from the Lake 
Huron into that of Ene. The nth, we went jfar- 
ther into the Streight, and pafs'd between two fmall 
Iflands, which make one of the finefl Profpefts in 
the World. This Streight is finer than that of NU- 
gara^ being thirty Leagues long, and every-where 
one League broad, except in the middle, which is 
wider, forming the Lake, we have call'd St. CUlre. 
The Navigation is eali(j on both fides, the Coafl be- 
ing low and even. It runs diredly from North to 

The Country between thofe two Lakes is verywell 
fituated, and the Soil very fertile. The Banks of the 


a Large Country in America. 6\ ♦ 

Strelght are vaft Meadows, and the Profpe^l is ter- 
minated with forae Hills cover'd with Vineyards, • 
Trees bearing good Fruit, Groves, and Forefls, fb 
well difpos'd, that one would think Nature alone 
could not have made, without the Help of Art, fo 
charming a Frofpeft. That Country is llock'd with 
Stags, Wild-Goats, and Bears, which are good for 
Food, and not fierce as in other Countries ^ fome 
think they are better than our Pork. Turkey-Cocks 
and Swans are there alfo very common \ and our Men 
brought feveral other Beafts and Birds, whole Names 
are unknown to us, but they are extraordinary re- 

The Forefts are chiefly made up of Walnut-trees 
Chefnut-trees, Plum-trees, and Pear-trees, loaded 
with their own Fruit and Vines. There is alfo abun- 
dance of Timber fit for Buildings fo that thofe 
who Ihall be fo happy as to inhabit that Noble 
Country , cannot but remember with Gratitude 
thofe who have difcover'd the way, by venturing to 
fail upon an unknown Lake for above one hundred 
Leagues.. That charming Streight lies between 40 
and 41 Degrees of Northren Latitude. 


\An Account of what happened in our Pajfugefrom the Lake 
Erie, umo thi Lake Huron. 

IHad often advis'd M. la Salle to make a fettlement 
upon the Streight, between the Lake Erie and 
Ontario^ where the Fifliery is more plentiful j for that 
Settlement would have been very advantageous to 
us, to maintain our Communication with Fort 
Fromenac. I told him alfo, that it were fit to leave 
in that Settlement the Smith he, and M. deMotte^ had 
promis'd to the Iroqnefe ^ and that it would be a 
means to engage that wild Nation in our Interelt, 
F Ik and 

62 j4 New Dtfcovery of 

and to trade only with us, whereby he would grow 
rich in a little time : But M. U Salle^ and the Adven- 
turers who were with him, would not hearken to 
my advice ^ and told me, that they would make no 
Settlement within loo Leagues of their Fort, left 
other Eurofeam fhould get before them into the Coun- 
try they were going to difcover. This was their pre- 
tence ^ but I foon obferv'd that their Intention was 
to buy all the Furrs and Skins of the remoteft Sava- 
ges, who, as they thought, did not know their Va- 
lue ^ and fo inrich themfelves in one fingle Voyage. 

I endeavoured alfo to perfwade him to make a Set- 
tlement upon this charming Streight^ for being in 
the midft of fo many Nations of Savages, we could 
not but have a good Trade amongft them. This was 
the Argument I made ufe of ^ but the main Reafon, 
which I kept to my felf , was to have an Op- 
portunity to preach the Gofpel to thofe ignorant Na- 
tions. M. la Salle would by no means hearken to 
my Advice, and told me he v/onder'd at my Fropo- 
fal, confidering the great Paflion I had a tew Months 
before for the DJfcovery of a New Country. 

The Current of that Streight is very violent, but ■ 
not half fo much as that oi Niagara-^ and therefore 
w^e fail'd up with a brisk Gale, and got into the 
Streight between the Lake Huron^ and the Lake St. 
Claire ^ this laft is very Ihallow , elpecially at its 
Mouth. The Lake Huron falls into this of St. Claire 
by feveral Canals, which are commonly interrupted 
by Sands and Rocks. We founded all of them, and 
found one at laft about one League broad without 
any Sands, its Depth being every where from three to 
eight Fathoms Water. We fail'd up that Canal, but 
were forc'd to drop our Anchors near the Mouth of 
the Lake^ for the- extraordinary quantity of Waters 
whjch come down from the upper Lake, and that of 
Iliinois , becaufe a ftrong North-Weft Wind , had 
fo much augmented the Rapidity of the current of 
this Streight, that it was as violent as that of Niagara. 


a: Large Country in America. 6^ 

The Wind iturning Southerly, we failed again ; 
and with the help of twelve Men, who halFd our 
Ship from the Shoar, got fafely the 23d of Augufi 
into the Lake Huron. We fung Te Demn a fecond 
time, to return our Thanks to the Almighty for our 
happy Navigation. We found in that Lake a large 
jBay, the Banks of which the Ancient Hnroiis inhabi- 
ted. They were converted to the Chriltian Religi- 
on by the firft Francifcans that came into Canada ; 
but the Iroquefe have in a great meafure dellroy'd that 


An Account of our Navigation on the Lake Huron to 

HAving thus travelled above 300 Leagues from 
Quebec to the Lake Huron^ notwithllandiug the 
rapid Currents and Lakes we went through, we con- 
tinued our Voyage from the Mouth of this Lake, 
Steering our Courfe North-North-Eaft ^ but the next 
day,finding our felves near the Land, we fteer'd North- 
North-Weft, and crofs'd a Bay call'd Sakinam^ which 
may be thirty Leagues Broad. The 24th, we run 
the fame Courfe, but were becalm'd between forae 
Iflands, where we found but two Fathoms Water, 
which obliged us to make an eafie Sail part of the 
Night, to look for a good Anchorage, but in vain ^ 
and the Wind turning then Weilerly, we bore to 
the North, to avoid the Coaft till the Day appeared. 
We founded all the Night long, becaufe our Pilot, 
though a very underllanding Man, was fomewhat 
negligent, The 25th, we lay becalmed till Noon, 
but then run North- Well with a brisk Southerly Gale. 
The Wind turning South- Well:,we bore to the North 
to double a Cape ^ but then it\Q Wind grew fo vio- 
lent, that wc were forced to lie by all the Ni^ht. 
F 3 " The 

64 A New Difeovery of 

The 25th, the Storm continuing, we brought downgi 
our Main Yards and Top-Mall, and let the ShipS' 
drive at the Mercy of the Wind, knowing no place 
to run into tolhelter our felves. M. laSalle^ noU 
withftanding he was a Couragious Man, began to 
fear, and told us we were undone •, and therefore 
every Body fell upon his Knees to fay his Prayers, 
and prepare himfelf for Death, except our Pilot, 
whoni we could never oblige to pray; and he did 
nothing all that w'hilc but 'curfe and fwear againft 
M. U Salle, who, as he faid, had brought him thi^ 
ther to make him perifli in a nafty Lake, and lofe the 
Glory he had acquired by his long and happy Navi- 
gations on the Ocean: However the Wind being 
fomewhat abated, we hoifted up our Sail, andfowe 
drove not above two Leagues. The 27th in the 
Morning, we continued our Courfe North-Weft 
with a South-Eaft Wind, which carry 'd us the fame 
Day to Mijfilimakimky where we Anchor'dina Bay " 
at fix Fathom- Water, upon a fiimy white Bottom, 
That Bay is fheltred by the Coaft, and a Bank lying 
from the South-Weft to the North ; but it lies ex- 
pos'd to the South Winds, which are very violent in 
that Country. 

MffilimaVmak is a Neck of Land to the North of 
the Mouth of the Streight, through which the Lake 
of the Illinois difcharges it felf into the Lake Huron. 
That Canal is about three Leagues long and one 
broad. About fifteen Leagues to the Eallward of 
Mijfilimahna}, there is another point at the Mouth 
of the Streight, whereby tht Upper Lake runs into 
that of Huron'^v^KiQh Streight is about 5 Leagues broad 
at its Mouth, and about fifteen Leagues long ; but it 
grows narrow towards the Fall oiSt. Mary, which 
IS a rapid Stream interrupted by feveral Rocks. How- 
ever a Canou may go up by one fide, but it requires 
a great Fatigue ; and therefore the fafelt and eafiell 
way is to make a Portage above the Fall, to go and 
trade with the Savages inhabiting the Banks of the 
llpper Lake. We 

A hurge Country in America. 65 

We lay betweea two different Nations of Sava-' 
ges j thofe who. inhabit the Point of Ml^iiimakmah 
are call'd Hurom^ and the others, who are about 
three or four Leagues more Northward, are Ontta- 
ouatz,. Thofe Savages were equally furpriz'd to fee 
a Ship in their Country ^ andthenoife of our Can- 
non, of which we made a General Diicharge, filfd 
them with great aflonifhment. We went to fee the 
OMtaouatz,^' 2indi celebrated Mafs in their Habitation. 
M. la Sa/ie was finely df efs'd, having a Scarlet Cloak: 
with a broad Gold Lace, and moft of his Men with 
their Arms attended him. The Chief Captains of 
that People received us with gre^t Civilities after 
their own way, and fome of them came on Board with 
US' to fee our Ship, which rode all that while in the 
Bay or Creek I have fpoken of. It was a diverting 
Profped to fee every Day above fixfcore Canon's 
about it, and the Savages ftaring and admiring that 
fine Woodden Canou as they call'd it. They brought 
us abundance of Whitings, and fomeTrouts of 50 
and 60 pound Weight. 

We went the next Day to pay a Vifit to the Hnrons^ 
who inhabit a riiing Ground on a Neck of Land 
overagainil MiffiUmah-nak. Their Villages are forti- 
fy 'd with Pallifado's of 25 foot high, and always fi- 
tuated upon Eminences or Hills. They received us 
with more RefpeA than the Omaonatz.^ for they made 
a triple Difcharge of all the fmall Guns they had, ha- 
ving learned from fome Europeans^ that; it is the 
greateit Civility among us. However, they took 
fuch a }ealoulie to our Ship, that, as v;e underltood 
lince, they endeavoured to make our Expedition odi- 
ous to all the Nations about them. 

The Hiirons and OitttaouMz, are in Confederacy to- 
gether againfl the Jroquefe their Common Enemy. 
They fow Indian Corn, which is their ordinary Food j 
for they have nothing elfe to live upon, except fome 
Fifh they take in the Lakes. They boil it with their 
Sagamittce^ which is a kind of Broth made with 
' F X Water 

i^6 A New'Difcovery of 

Water and the Flour of the Corn, which they beat ia 
a Mortar, made of the Trunk of a Tree, which they 
jiiake hollow with Fire. 

There is another Settlement of Savages near the 
Fall of St. Mary. The French call them Leapersj be-? 
caufe they live near the great Fall which they call 
Si. Leap. Thefefubfifl: together by Hunting Staggs, 
Elks, Beavers, and other Beafls, as alfo upon the 
Whitings we have already fpoken of ^ who are taken 
with fo much difficulty in this Place, that none but 
themfelves are able to catch any. They Sow no 
India?? Covn^ becaufe of the thick Fogs, that are com- 
monly on the Banks of the Upper Lake, which ftifle 
Corn before it grows. 

MJfdimakinak aad the Fall of St. Mary^ are the 
two moft qonfiderable Paflages that all the Savages 
have of the Weft and North ^ for there are above 
two hundred Canou's that come through thefe Paf- 
fes «very Year, to carry their Commodities to the 
Bench at Montreal below Fort Frontenac. 

Oar Enterprize had been very fuccefsful hitherto ; 
^nd we had reafon to exped, that every Body would 
have contributed to carry on vigoroufly our great 
Delign to promote the Glory of God, as well as the 
Good of our Colonies : However, fome of our own 
Men oppofed it as much as they could ^ they repre- 
fented us to the OmtaoHats^ and their Neighbours as 
dangerous and ambitious Adventurers, v/ho deiign'd 
to engrofs all the Trade of Furrs and Skins, and 
invade their Liberty, the only thing which is dear to 
that People. The fifteen Men that M. la Salle had 
fent before him, had been feduced and almoft drawn 
from his Service. The Goods which he had given 
them to exchange with the Natives, were sdifTipated 
and wafted .^ and inftead of advancing as far as the 
llinois^ as they were order'd, they remain'd amongffe 
the HuYons^ notwithftanding the Exhortations and 
the Prayers of M. T<?»/^/ who Commanded them. 


& Large Country in America. . 67 
Our Men went into the Country to trade with the 
Natives, and engaged themfelves too far; fothat 
they did not return to Aiijfil'malina'k till November : 
M. la Salle being told that the Winds made the Navi- 
gation of the Lake very dangerous in the beginning of 
the Winter, refolved to continue his Voyage without 
tarrying any longer for the return of his Men. 


A/i Account of our Sailing from Miffilimakinak, inte 
the Lake of the Illinois. 

ON the 2d of September we weighed Anchor, 
and Saird into the Lake of the Illinois ^ and 
came to an Ifland juft at the Mouth of the Bay of the 
Pnansj lying about forty Leagues from MljfdimaU- 
fiak : It is Inhabited by fome Savages of the Nation 
call'd PoMOMatami\ with whom fome of the Men M. 
la Salle^ had fent the Year before, had bartered a 
great quantity of Furrs and Skins. We found our 
Men in the Ifland, who l>e^an to be very Impatient, 
having fo long waited our Arrival. 

The chief of that Nation had been formerly in 
Canada^ and had an extraordinary Refjoed for Count 
Frontenac^ who was Governor thereof; and upon 
that Account receiv'd us with all the Civility.imagina- 
ble, and caus'd his Men to Dance the CaUmet^or Pipe, 
before us. This is a peice of Civility we Ihail de- 
fcribe anon. Our Ship was riding in the Bay a- 
bout thirty Paces from the furthermolt Poiiit of the 
Land,at a pretty good Anchorage, where we rode 
fafely, notwithllanding a violent Storm which lafced 
four Days. And upon this occafion, I cannot omit, 
•without InjuHice, the Generollty of that brave Cap- 
tain, who feeing our Ship tofsd np bythe V/aves, 
and not knowing it was able to refi/L, ventured him- 
felf in his Uttl? Canou, and came to our affiftance 


5 9 ^ Nem Difcovery of 

He had the good luck to get fafe on Board, and told 
us he would at all times venture his Life, for laving 
the Children oiOnnont'w^ Governor of Canada^ who 
was his particular Friend. Itmuft be obferved, tliat 
the Governor is called Onmntio by all the Savages. 

M. U Salle without asking any other Body's Advice, 
refolv'd to fend back his Ship to Niagara^ laden with 
Furrs and Skins to difcharge his Debts j our Pilot 
and five Men with him were therefore fent back, and 
ordered to return with all imaginable fpeed, to join 
us towards the Southren Parts of the Lake, where 
we Ihould flay for them among the Illinois. They. 
Sailed the i8th of September with a Weflerly Wmd, 
and fir'd a Gun to take their leave. Tho' the Wind 
was favourable, it was never known what Courfe 
they fteer'd, nor how they perifn'd ^ for after all the 
Enquiries we have been able to make, we could never 
learn any thing elfe but the following Particulars. 

The Ship came to an Anchor to the North of. 
the Lake of the lllmou\, where flie was feen by fome 
Savages, who told us that they had advifed our Men 
to Sail along theCoail, and not towards the middle 
of the Lake, becaufe of the Sands that make the Navi- 
gation dangerous when there is any high Wind. Our 
Pilot, as I faid before, was diilatisfied, and would 
Iteer as he pleafed, without hearkning to the Advice 
of the Savages, who, generally fpeaking, have more 
Senfe than the Enrofeam think at firft ^ but the Ship 
was hardly a League from the Goaft, when it was 
tofs'd up by a violent Storm in fuch a manner, that 
our Men were never heard of lince ^ and it is fup- 
pos'd that the Ship ilruck upon a Sand, and was there 
bury'd. This was a great lofs for M. k Salle and 
other Adventurers ^ for that Ship, with its Cargo, 
coft above Sixty thoufand Livres. This will feera 
incredible to many, but not to thofe who will con- 
lider that the Rigging, Anchors, and Goods were 
brought by Canon's from Quebec to It or t'Frontenac^ 
which is fuch a vafl Charge, that the Carriage of 


a Large Country m America. 68 

every hundred Weight, either of Anchors, Cables, 
and the Like, coft eleven Livers. 


^n Account of our Emharhment in CanotHs to contlnuf 
our Difcovery^ from the Bay o/Puans, ro the Miami's 
on the Lake of the IWiiiois. 

WE left the Foutoimamls on the 1 9th of S^p- 
temher to continue our Voyage, being four- 
teen Men in all, in four Canou's. 1 hadtheCoU' 
dud of thefmallefl, though it carry'd 500 Weight 
and two Men ^ but my Fellow being newly come 
from Enrofe, and confequently unskill'd to manage 
thefe fort of Boats, I had the whole trouble upon 
me in any ftormy Weather. The other four Canou's 
were laden with a Smith's Forge, and Initruments, 
and Tools for Carpenters, Joyners, and Sawyers, be- 
lides our Goods and Arms. 

We fteer'd to the South towards the Continent 
from which the Ifland of the PoHtouatamis is near for- 
ty Leagues diftant j but about the middle of the way, 
in the Night time, we were furprized with a fud- 
den Storm , whereby we were in great danger. 
The Waves came into our Canou's \ and the Night 
was fo dark, that we had much ado to keep Com- 
pany together : However, we got a-fhore the next 
Day, where we continued till the Lake grew calm 
again, which was four Days after. • In the mean 
time our Savage went a Hunting, but could kill' no- 
thing but a PorcHfine^ which made our Gourds an,d 
-Indian Corn more relifhing. 

The Weather being fair, we continued our Voy- 
age the 25th, andRow'd all the Day, and belt part 
of the Night, all along the Weilern Coaft of the 
Lake of the Illinois ^ but the Wind growing too 
high for us, we thought fit to Land upon a Rock, 
' where 

yo ^ New Difcovery of 

where we had nothing to Ihelter our felves againft 
the Snow and Rain but our Blankets. We con^ 
tinu'd there two Days, having made a little Fir6 
with the Wood .the Waves did fupply us with. The 
28th, we proceeded on our Voyage ^ but the Wind 
forc'd us towards Night on a Rock cover'd with 
thick Bufties, where we remain'd three Days, and 
there made an end of all our Proviiions, which con- 
fifted of Gourds and Indian Corn we had brought 
from the Vontouatamis. Our Canon's were fo loaded, 
that we could not provide our felves for a longer 
time, and we expeded to find proviiions enough in 
our way. * 

W^e left that difmal Place the 1/ of OElober^ and 
after twelve Leagues rowing, though falling, came 
to another Village of the PontouatamPs , who came 
upon the Shoar to receive us : But M. la Salle would 
not fuffer any one to land, left his Men Ihould run 
away j and notwithftanding the bad Weather, we 
folio w'd him three Leagues farther. We were in fo 
great danger, that he flung himfelf ■ into the W^ater 
with his three Men, and carry'd a-lhore their Ca- 
nou upon their Shoulders, or elfe it had been broken 
to pieces. We were all oblig'd to do the fame •, and 
by thefe means fav'd our Canon's and Goods. I 
carry'd upon my Back that good Man Father Ga^ 
briel^ whofe great Age did not permit him to venture 
himfelf into the Water. 

As we had no manner of Acquaintance with the 
Savages of the Village near which w^e landed, our Men 
prepared themfelves to make a vigorous Defence in 
cafe they were attacked ^ and in order to it, pofleifed 
bur felves of a riling Ground, where we could not 
be furpriz'd, and where we might make head againlt 
a great number of Savages. We fent afterwards three 
Men , to buy Proviiions in the Village with the Cak-, 
met or Pipe of Peace, which the Foutoiiatam?s of the 
Illand had given us. I had forgot to mention that 
when *they made us that Prefent, they ohferv'd a 


a Large Country in America. 71 

great many Ceremonies-, ^nd becaufe that Calumet 
of Peace is the moft facred Thing amongft the Sa- 
vages, I think fit to defcribe the fame in the next 

A Defcriftion of the Calumet, or great Pipe. 

THis Cahtmet is the moil myfterious Thing in the 
World among the Savages of the Continent of 
the Northern America -^ forit^is us'd in all their im- 
portant TranfaSions : However, it is nothing elfe 
but a large Tobacco-Pipe made of Red, Black, or 
White Marble : The Head is finely polilh'd, and the^ 
Quill ^ which is commonly two Foot and a half 
long^ is made of a pretty ftrong Reed, or Cane, 
adorn'd with Feathers of all Colours, interlac'd with 
Locks of Womens Hair. They tie to it two Wings 
^f the moft curious Birds they find, which makes 
their Calumet not much unlike Mercury^ Wand, or 
that Staff Ambafladors did formerly carry when they 
went to treat of Peace. They Iheath that Reed 
into the Neck of Birds they call Huars^ which are 
as big as our Geefe , and fpotted with Black and 
White ^ or elfe of a fort of Ducks who make their 
Nefts upon Trees, though Water be their ordinary 
Element, and whofe Feathers are of many difeent 
Colours. However, every Nation adorns the Cah^ 
met as they think fit, according to their own Genius, 
and the Birds they have in their Country. 

A Pipe, fuch as I have defcrib'd it, is a Pafs and 
fafe Condud amongft all the Allies of the Nation 
who has given it ; and in all Embaffies, the Ambaf- 
fadors carry that Cakmet as the Symbol of Peace, 
which is always "refpefted ^ for the Savages are ge- 
nerally perfuaded, that a great Misfortune would be- 
fal 'em, if they violated the Fiiblick Faith of the 


'J 2. A Nerv Difcovery of 

Calumet. k\\ their Enterpr.izes,Declarations of War,6f 
. Conclufions of Peace, as well as all the reft of their 
Ceremonies, are fealed, if I may be permitted to fay 
fo, with this Cahmet. They fill that Pipe with the 
beft Tobacco they have, and then prefent it to th(^ 
with whom they have concluded any great Affair, 
and fmoak out of the fame after them. I had certainly 
perifh'd in my Voyage, had it not been for this Calu- 
met or Pipe, as the Reader will obferve in perullng 
the following Account. 

Our three^Men, provided, with this Pipe, as a Pafs^^ 
and very well Arm'd, went to the little Village of 
the Savages, which was about three Leagues from 
the place where we landed ^ but they found no bo- 
dy therein •, for the Savages having heard that we 
had refus'd to land at the other Village, thought we 
were Enemies, and theref6re had left their Habita- 
tion. Our Men finding nobody in their Cabins 
took fome Indian Corn, and left inftead of it fome 
Goods, to let them fee that we were no Robbers, 
nor their Enemies. However, the Savages, to the 
number of twenty Men, arm'd with Axes, fmall 
Guns, Bov7s, and a fort of Club, which in their 
Language they call Break-heads^ advanced near the 
Plr :e where we ftood ^ whereupon M. la Salle., with 
four Men very well arm'd, went toward them to 
fpeak v/ith them, and defired then; to come near us, 
for fear, as he faid, a Party of our Men, who were 
gone a hunting, Ihould meet with them and kill them. 
They were perfuaded to fit down at the foot of 
the Eminence where we were pofted, and M. U 
Salle fpoke to them all the while of the fubjeft mat^ 
ter of his Voyage, which he had undertaken for 
their good and advantage, as he told them. This 
- was only to amufe them till our three Men return'd j 
•who appearing with the Calumet of Peace, the Sa- 
vages made a great Shout, and rofe, -and began to 
dance. We made them fome Excufe becaufeofour 
Men having taken fome of their Corn, and told 


a Lai^ge Comtry in Amenc2i, j^ 

f them they had left the true Value of it in Goods •, 
\ which they took fo well, that they fent immediately 
1 for more, and gave us the next Day as much as we 
i could conveniently carry in our Canon's. They 
Iretir'd towards the Evening^ and M.. la Salle 
[ordered fome Trees to be Cut down, and laid 

crofs the Way, to prevent any Surprize from the 


The next Morning about ten a Clock, the Oldeft 
liof them came to us with their Calnmet of Peace, and 
(entertained us with fome Wild Goats they had 

taken. We returned them our Thanks, and pre- 
sented tliem with fome Axes, Knives, and feveral 
llittle Toys for their Wives, with which they were 
very much pleafed. 


■ ^ Continuation of our JDifcovery^ with an Account df 
I onr Navigation to the farther end ^f the Lake of the 
\ Illinois in our Canoiis. 

WE left that place the 2d of OBoher^ and 
continued our Voyage all along the Coaft 
iof the Lake, which is fo lleep that we could hardly 
j-find any place to Land ^ and the Violence of the 
I Wind obliged us to drag our Canon's fometimes 
[to the top of the Rocks, to prevent their being 
idalh'd in pieces by the Waves. The llormy Wea- 
Ither lafted four E)ays, during which we fuffered 
very much ; for every time we went a-fhore we 
were forced to ftep into the Water, and carry our 
Canou's upon our Shoulders, and to do the like 
when we embarked again. The Water being very 
cold, moil of us werefick, and our Provifions fail'd 
us again \ which, together with the Fatigues of 
Rowing, caus'd Old Father 6"^/ nV/ to faint away in 
fuch a manner, that I verily thought he could not 


y4 ^ Neiv Difiovery of 

live ^however, I brought him again to his Senfes 
by means of fome Confeftion of Hyacinth^ which 
I found very ufeful in our Voyage. • We had no 
other Subfiftance but a handful of Indian. Corn once 
every four and twenty Hours, which we roafted , 
or elfc boiled in Water ; and yet we row'd almofl 
every Day from Morning 'till Night. Our Men 
found fome Hawthorn-Berries and other wild Fruit, 
which they eat fo greedily, that moft of them fell 
lick, and were thought to be poifon'd^ yet the 
more we fuffer'd, the more by the Grace of God I 
was Itrong and vigorous •, fo that I could often out- 
row all our other Canon's. 

Being in that dillrefs. He that takes care of the 
meanell Creatures, afforded 'US an unexpeded Relief^ ; 
We faw upon the Coaft a great many Ravens and;' 
Eagles^ from whence we conjedur'd that there 
was fome Prey •, and having landed on that Place, 
we found above the half of a fat wild Goat, whicht 
the Wolves had ftrangled. This Provifion was very* 
acceptable to us, and the rudeft of our Men could^ 
not but praife the Divine Providence, who took fo'^ 
particular a care of us. 

Having thus refrefh'd our felves, we eontinu'd; 
our Voyage diredly to the Southren Parts of the( 
Lake, finding every day the Country finer, and th«! 
Weather more temperate. On the 1 6th of OMer^ 
we met with abundance of Game: Our Savagfef 
kiird feveral Staggs and wild Goats, and our Menr 
a great many Turkey-Cocks very fat and big, where*;' 
with we provided our felves for feveral Days, andc 
fo embark'd again. On the i8th, we came to thcii 
farther end of the Lake, where we landed : Ouri 
Men were immediately fent to view the Country ] 
round about that Place, and found a great quantity' 
of ripe Grapes, each Grain of which was as big as 
a Damafcen : We felFd feveral Trees to gather them, 
and made pretty good Wine, which we kept in 
Gourds, and bury'd in Sand, to prevent its growing 



a Large Country in Aimerlca. n^ 

fowre. All the Trees iii that Country are loaded wit^ 
Vines, which, if cultivated, would make asgoo<i 
Wine as any in T/zr^j/^e;. That fruit was more relifii- 
ing to us than Flefh, becaufe we wanted Bread. 

Our Men difcovered fome frcfh Prints of .Afens 
Feet, which obliged us to Hand upon our Guard, 
without making any noife till we had reded fome 
time. That Order was not long obferv'd • for one 
Gfour Men having e'fpy'd a Bear upon a Tree, fliot 
him down Dead, and dragg'd him to our Cabins. 
M. Id Salle was very angry with him, and to avoid 
tim^ Surprize, put a Sentinel near our Canou's, undef 
which we had put our Goods to fhelter 'em from the 

There were fixfcore Savages of the Nation of the 
Owffo//^^<^?;2/Vinhabiting the Bay of Puans^ encamped 
not far from us ^ who having heard the Noife our 
Man had made, took the Alarm, and fen t fome of 
their Men to difcover who we were. Thefe creep- 
ing upon their Bellies, and keeping great Silence, 
came in the Night to our CanoU's, and ftole av/ay 
the Coat of M. la Sallis Footman, and part of the 
Goods that were under it : But the Sentinel having 
heard fome Noife, called us, and every body run 
to 'his Arms. The Savages being difcover'd, and 
thinking we were more numerous, cry'd, That they 
w^ere Friends • but we anfwered them. That Friends 
did not come in fo unfeafonable Hours j and that 
they looked rather like Robbers, who defigned to 
murther us : Their Captain rep^'d. That having 
heard the Noife of a Gun, and knowing that none of 
their Neighbours ufe Fire- Arms, they thought we 
were a Party of Iroquefc^ and were come with a De- 
fign to murther them ^ but that underftanding we 
Were fome Eurofeans of Canada^ whom they lov'd as 
their Brethren, they could hardly wait till Day to 
^ilit us, and fmoak in our Cahmiet^ or large Pipe. 
This is the ufual Complement of the Savages, and the 
sreatell Mark they can give of their Aileaion. 

G We 

76 A New Difcovery of 

Wefeemedtobefatisfied with their Reafons, and 
gave leave to four of them only to come to us, tel- 
ling them that we would not fuffer a great number 
becaufe their Youth was addidedto Ileal, and that 
our Men could not fuffer it. Four Old Men came 
to us, whom we entertained till Day, and then they 
retir'd. After theywere gone, we found we ha4 
been robb'd ^ and knowing the Genius of the Sa- 
vages, and that if we did fuffer this Affront, we 
fhould be expos'd every Night to their Infults ^ it 
was refolv'd^ to exad Satisfadion from them : Ac- 
cordingly M. la Salle went abroad with fome of our 
Men, to endeavour to take fome of them Prifoners ; 
and having difcovered one of their Hunters, he feiz'd 
him, andexamin'd him concerning the Robbery they 
had committed : He confell the Fad, with all the 
Circumftances •, whereupon he left him to the cufto-* 
dy of two Men ^ and advancing farther into the 
Country, took another^ whom he brought along 
with him, and having fhew'd him his Companion, 
fent him back to tell their Captain, That he would 
Kill him, unlefs they return'd what they had robb'd. 


An AccDimr of the Peace made between hs a?id the Ont" 

H E Savages were mightily puzzl'd at the MeP 

lage fent byJVl. la Salle ^ for having cut in pie* 

ces the Coat, andother Goods they had Ifoll'n, and 
divided the Buttons, they could not make a full Re- 
llitction^ and therefore they refolv'd to deliver their 
Man by force ^ and accordingly the next Morning, 
O tuber 30. they advanced to attack us. The Pcnh^fala 
where we were Encamp'd, was feparated from the 
Foreft, where the Savages lay, by a little fandy Plains 
and there being near the Wood two or three Emi- 
nences, M. U Salle refplv'd to poffefs himfelf ot the 


a Large Country in America^ 77 

jiigher, anddetach'd five Men for that Service, fol- 
lowing himfclf at a little dill'ance with the reft, eve- 
ry one having roll'd his Covering about the left Arm^ 
to defend themfelves againft the Arrows of the Sava- 
ges •, for there was not above eight of them who had 
Fire- Anns. 

The Savages feeing our Men advancing up to 
them, were frighted :i and the you ngefl retired be- 
hind a great . Tree, but their Captains flood their 
ground, while vv^e poUefTed our felves of the Emi- 
nence I havd already mentioned. I left the two Vran- 
tifcans reading the ufual Prayers, and went with 
our Men to exhort them to their Duty ^ for having 
feen fome Battles and Sieges in Eirrope^ I was very 
little afraid of the Savages. I faw two of our Meri 
turning pale -, but when I had fpoken to them, they 
feemed" hearty enough •, and M. la Salle v/as mightily 
pleas'd with my Exhortations. However I confider'd 
the confequences this Qiiarrel might have, and how 
advantagious and Chriftiari-like it w^ould be to pre- 
vent the EfFulion of Blood, and end it in a friendly 
manner j therefore I advanced towards the oldefl Sa- 
vage, who feeing me without any Arms, thought I 
tame with a deiign to be Mediator, and received me 
with Civility ^ butin the mean time, one of our Men 
having obferved, that one of the Savages had a piece 
of the Cloth they had ftolFn about his Head, came 
tip to him, and fnatch'd it away. That vigorous 
Adion fo much terrify'd the Savages, that though 
they were near fixfcore Men againft eleven, they pre- 
fented me the Pipe or Calumet of Peace, which I re« 
ceived. M. la Salle having pafs'd his word that they 
might come fafe to him, two old Men told him in a 
Speech, That they did not approve what their young 
Men had done : That they would have reftor'd the 
Goods takeii, if it had been poffible ; but that having 
been cut in pieces, they could do no more than offer 
to rellore what was not fpoiled, and pay for the reftc 
They prefented m at the fame time with fom^ 
G % eowns- 

7 8 J New Difcovery of ' 

Gowns made of Beavers-Skins to appeafe M. la Salle^ 
who having frown'd a*little, told them, That as h'e 
delign'd to wrong or affront- no body, he would nei- 
ther fuffer any wrong or affront to be put upon him ; 
but that feeing they did not approve what their 
Youth had done, and were willing to make fatif- 
faftion for the fame, he accepted their Offers, and 
would be their.Friend. The Conditions were fully 
perform'd, and the Peace happily concluded without 
farther Hoflility. 

The next Day wis fpent in Dancing, Feafting, 
and Speeches -^ and the Chief Captain having taken 
a particular notice of the Behaviour of the FraN- 
cifcans^ laid, Ihefe Grey Coats w£ valne 'very miich •, thty 
go barefoot as well as we : They fcorn our Beaver-GowKSj 
and ref life all other Frefet2ts : They carry no Arms ^to kill 
MS : They fatter and make miichrvfour Children^ and give 
them Knives and other Toys ^without expBing any Reward. 
Thoje amo'fgf us who have been in Canada, tell ns^ Th^t 
Onnontio(fo they call the Governor) loves them 
very much-^ and that they have quitted all to come to [ec- 
us. Therefore be j:leas^dj Thou who art Capain of thefe ^ 
Jl4en^ to leave amongjl us one of thefe Grey Coats^ whom 
we pjall bring to our Vilkge^ when we have hilFd 
wild Bulls ^ and make much oj him. Thou art lik'ewife 
Afajler of thefe IVarriours^ and therefore remain among fi 
us^ inflead oj going among the Illinois, who have refolv^d 
to murfher thee and all thy Soldiers : And how canfi thou 
rcfift fo great a Nation? 

The Captain of the Savages told us, that the ////- 
72ois had burnt alive an Iroqucfc^ who confefs'd that 
the War the Iroqi-tcfe made againft them, had been 
fomented by the Inhabitants of Canada^ who hated 
them. He told us aifo many other things, which 
frighted our Men, and made M. la Salle wcry mQhn- 
choiiy j for all the Savages we had already met, had 
told as almolt the fame thing. However, knowing 
how great was the Malice of our Enemies, and there- 
fore fulpeding that thefe thingsmight have been fug- 


d Large Country in America. 79 

gefted to the Savages, in order to oblige us to give 
over our Enterprize \ or elfe that it was a Con- 
trivance of the Neighbours of the Illinois^ who were 
afraid that they iliould grow too powerful, if we 
taught them the ufe of Fire-Arms, we refolv'd to 
go on with our Voyage, taking in. the mean time 
all necelTary Precautions for our Security. We told 
t\it OimouagamPs^ That we were much obliged to them 
for their kind Offers and Advice ^ but that we were 
not afraid of t]\Q Illinois '^ for the Spirits know how 
to gain the Friendfhip of any Nation, by Reafon or 
by Force. 'Tis to be obferv'd, that the Savages be- 
ing not able to conceive how the Europeans can have 
more Wit than they, and admiring fome Toys and 
other things we bring from Europe, own that they 
are but Men, but that wp are Spirits, and therefore 
call us fo. 

The next Day, November i . we embark'd on the 
Lake of the Illinois, and came to the Mouth of the 
River of the Miami s, which runs from the South, 
and falls into the Lake. We had appointed that Place 
for our Rendezvous, and expeded to meet there the 
twenty Men we had left at Mij[ilimaki?iak -, who be- 
ing order'd to come along the other Coall of the 
Lake, had a much fhorter cut than we, and beiides 
their Canon's were not fo much loaded as ours. 
However, we found no body there, nor any Mark 
whereby it could appear that they had been in that 
Place, We refolv'd to tell M. la Salle, that it was 
not fit to tarry any longer-for them, nor expofe our 
felves to the Hardihip of the Winter ; and that, it 
would be then vei*y difficult to meet with the ////- 
nois, becaufe they divided themfelves into Tribes or 
Families, to fubfiil more conveniently •, That if we 
were forc'd to remain there during the Winter, and 
tnat the Game fliould come to fail us, all his Men 
woul4 certainly perilli with Hunger*, whereas we, 
might exped .to find fome Indian Corn amoiigft the 
Illinois ,^ who would -rather fupply with Pi-ovilians 
G 3 ' fourteen 

Bo A New Difcovery of 

fourteen Men than two and thirty. We told him 
likewife, that it would be in a manner impoffible to 
continue our Voyage till the Winter was over, if 
he tarry'd any longer, becaufc the Rivers would be 
frozen all over, and therefore we could not make 
. life of our Canou's. Notwithftanding thefe Reafons, 
M. la Salle told us, that it was necedary to exped 
the reft of his Men, becaufe we fhould be then in a 
Condition to difcover our felves to the Illinois^ and 
make an Alliance with them ^ whereas, we fhould 
be expos'd to their Mercy and Scorn, if we ofFer'd 
to enter into their Country with fo few Men ^ but 
in the mean time he would endeavour to meet with 
fome of that Nation, and gain them by prefents to 
learn their Language •, concluding, that although all 
his Men ihould run away, he would remain alone 
with our Savage, and find means to mentain the three 
^iflionaries, meaning I and my two Brethren. 

Having therefore call'd his Men together, he told 
them. That he was refolved to exped the reft of 
their Companions ^ and propos'd to build a Fort in 
that Place for fecuring our Ship ^ for we did not 
knowt hen that it had perifti'd ^ as alfo to fecure our 
Goods and our felves too, in cafe of any Dilgrace. 
Our Men feemed very much diflatisfied ^ but he us'd 
fo many Reafons, that they told him at laft, they 
would entirely follow" his Diredion. 


jin Account of the Bmlding qf ^ort ci,nd a Honfe near, 
the /^^Vtrr Miamis, / 

JU S T at the Mouth of the River, there was 
an Eminence, with a kind of a Platform natn- 
rally fortyfi'd : It was pretty high and fteep., of a 
Triangular Form, defended on two lides by the Ri- 
ver, and on the other by a deep Ditch, which the 


d Large Country in America. 8 \ 

Fall of Waters had made. We felFd the Trees tha t 
were on the top of that Hill, and having; cleared the 
fame from Bufhes for about two Musket-fliot, we be- 
gan to build a redoubt of Forty foot long, and 
eighty broad, with great fquare pieces of Timber 
laid one upon the other ^ and prepared a great Num- 
ber of Stakes of about twenty five Foot long, to 
driv;e into the Ground, to make our Fort the more^ 
unacceffible on the River fide. We imploy'd the 
whole Month of November about that Work, which 
.was very hard, though we had no other Food but 
the Bears-Flefh our Savage killed. Thofe Beallsare 
very common in that place, becaufe of the great 
quantity of Grapes they find there ^ but their Fleili 
being too fat and lufcious, our Men began to be 
weary of it^^ftd-delired leave to go a hunting, to 
kill fome >^ild Goats. M. U Salle deny'd them that 
Liberty, which caufed fome Murmurs amongft them; 
and it w^sbut unwillingly that they continued their 
Work. \This together with the approach of the 
Winter, q^nd the apprehendon M. /^ 5^3AV had that 
his Ship was. loft, made him very melancholy, though 
he concealed it^as much as he could. We had made 
a Cabin, wherein we perform'd Divine Service every 
Sunday^ and Father Gabriel and I, who preached 
alternatively, took care to take fuch Texts as were 
fuitable to our prefent Circumflances, and fit to in- 
fpire us with Courage, Concord,^aiid Brotherly Love. 
Our Exhortations produced a very good Efred, and 
hindred our Men from deferting, as they deljgned. 

We'founded in the mean time, the Mouth of the 
River, and having found a Sand on which our Ship 
might ftrike,we fix'd two great pofts therein,to which 
we faflned Bears-Skins as fo many Buoys to dirett , 
the Gourfe of our Ship through the .Channel ili: 
ought to pafs \ and for a greater Precaution, two 
Men were fent back to Mljfilimaklnak^ towiittliere 
till the retuni of our Ship, and ferve as Filo:s. 

G X ■ Im 

$2 .A New Difcovery of 

The loth of November M. Tonti arrived with two 
Canon's laden with Stags and Deevs, which was a 
welcome Refrefhment to our Men, but he did not 
bring above half of our Men with him, the reft be- 
ing left on the other fide of the Lake, within three 
Days Journey from our Fort. M. U Salle was very 
angry with him upon that Account, being afraid that 
they F^uld' run away. 

They told iis that our Ship had not put into the 
Bay of M'ffillmahnak^ as they were ordered, and 
that they had heard nothing of her lince we failed, 
notwithftanding they Uiad enquir'd as much as they 
could, from the Savages inhabiting the Coaft of the 
Lake. This confirmed the Sufpicion, or rather the 
Belief we had that ilie was call away : Hov/ever, 
M. la Salle continued the Building of his Fort, which 
was at laft perfeded,and called Fort Miamis. 

The Winter drawing fo nigh, and M. /<^ 5-^//^ be- 
ing afraid that the Ice would Itop his Voyage, fent 
back M. Tonti to fetch the Men he had left, and 
command them to come to him immediately •, but 
meeting with a violent Storm, their Canou was dri- 
ven n&,ainil: the Coaft, and broke in pieces, whereby 
they loft their Guns and Equipage, and were obliged 
to return over-land. Few Days after, all our Men 
arrived except two, who deferted ; fo that we pre-; 
pared our felves to continue our Voyage, the Rains 
that fell about that time having melted the Ice, and 
made the Rivers Navigable. 


A Covtlnuation of our Foya^e from Fort Miamis to the 
River of the Illinois. 

E embarked on the Third of December, bein^ 
Three and Thirty Men in Eight Canon's, 
and having left the Lake of the IlUnots, went up 
the, River A'fiamis^ which we had founded before. 


a. Large Country in America. 8^ 

We made about five and twenty Leagues to the 
Soirth-Wefl, but could not difcover the Place where 
we w^ere to Land, and carry our Canou's and Equi- 
page into the River of the Illinois^ which falls into 
that of Mefchafwi ^ that is, in the Language of the 
Illinois^ the Great River. We had already pafs'd the 
place of the Portage^ but not knowing whereabouts 
we were, we thought fit to flay there, to expeft M. 
la Sallcj who was landed to view the Country : We 
ftaid a great while, and feeing he did not come, F 
went very far into the Woods with two of our Men 
who fired their Guns to give him notice of the place 
where we v^ere ^ and in the mean time two others 
went up the River in their Canou, in order to find 
him out ^ but all our Endeavours were in vain, fo 
that w^e returned towards Evening. 

The next Day I went up the River my felf, but 
hearing nothing of himy I came back, and found 
our Men very much perplexed, fearing he was loft j 
but about four a Clock in the Afternoon he returned 
to us, having his Face and Hands as black as Pitch. 
He brought along with him two Beafls as big as 
Musk'd Rats, whofe Skins were very fine, and like 
Ermins. He had killed them with a Stick, as they 
hung by their Tails to the Boughs of Trees. 

He told us, that the Marlhes he had met with in his 
way, had obliged him to fetch a great compafs ^ and 
that being much annoy'd by the Snow which fell 
very thick, it was pad Midnight before he could ar- 
rive upon the Banks of the' River ^ where he fir'd 
his Gun tv^ice, and that hearing no Anfwer, he con- 
cluded we were gone up higher, and had therefore 
march'd that way. He added, that after three Hours 
- March, he faw a Fire upon a little Hill, whither 
he went directly, and hailed us feveral times, but 
hearing no Anfwer, he approached and found no 
Body near the Fire, but onlyTome dry Herbs, up- 
on which a Man was a little while afore laid, as 
he conjedyred^ becaufe they were ftiil warm. He 


84 -^ -A^<?iv Difiovery of 

fuppos'd that is was a Savage, who lay thereabouts ■ 
in an Ambufcade, and therefore call'd to him in 
two or three Languages ^ but no Body anfwering, 
he cry'd as loud as he could, that to fhew he was 
not afraid of him, he was going to lie in his room. 
However, for fear of any Surprize, he cut feveral 
Boughs and Bufhes, to embarrafs the way, and fat 
down by the Fire, which had made his Hands and Face 
black, as I have obferv'd. Having thus warm'd and 
refted himfelf, he lay down upon the dry Herbs the 
Savage had gather'd under a Tree, and flept very 
well, notwithltanding the Froft and Snow. Father 
Gabriel and I defir'd him to remain with his Men, 
and not expofe himfelf for the future, becaufe the 
Succefs of our Enterprize depended only upon him, 
and he promis'd us to follow our Advice. 

Our Savage, who remain'd behind for hunting, 
finding none of us at the Place of the Portage^ came 
up higher to the River, and told us, we had mift 
it^ therefore he was fent back with all our Ca- 
nou's, except one which 1 kept ^ for M. la Salle was fo 
weary, that he was oblig'd to lie there that Night. 
I. made a little Cabin with Mats of Marifh Rufhes, 
wherein we lay together, but were in great danger 
of being burnt, for it took fire by an unhappy Ac- 
cident, while v/e were fall'a fleep. The next Morn- 
ing we join'd our Men at the Place of Portage , , 
\vhere Father Gabriel had made the Day before fe- 
veral Crofles upon the Trees, that we might not 
mifs it another time. We found there a great quan- 
tity of Horns and Bones of wild Bulls, as alfo fome 
Canou's the Savages had made v/ith the Skins of 
Beafls, to crofs the River with their Provifions. This 
Portage lies at the farther end of a large Champion 
piece of Ground ^ and at the other End, to the Well, 
lies a Village of the Savages Miam^s^ A<[afconteim^m^ 
Oiatinon^ who live together. The River of the ////- 
',ms has its Source near that Village, and fprings out 
of fome niariliy Lands, which are as fp many QP^g-; 


A Large Country in America. ^e 

mires, that one can fcarcely walk over them. The 
Head of the River is only a League and half from 
that of Miamis^ and fo our Portage was not long. 
We mark'd the way from Place to Place with fome 
Trees for the convenience of thofe we expeded af- 
ter us \ and left at the Fort age ^ as well as Fort Mia- 
mls^ Letters hanging down from the Trees, contain- 
ing ■ M. la Sailers Inftrudions to our Pilot, and the 
other 25 Men, who were to come with him. 


\/l^ Account of our EmharJiment at the Head of the River 
of the Illinois. 

THis River is navigable within a hundred Paces 
from its Source ^ I mean for Canou's of Bark 
of Trees, and not for others ^ but. it increafes fo 
much a little way from thence, Aat it is as deep 
and broad a? the Meufe and the Sambre joyn'd toge- 
ther. It runs through vafl Marfhes , and though it 
be rapid enough, is makes fo many Turnings and 
Windings, that after a whole Day's Journey, we 
found we were hardly two Leagues from the Place 
we left in the Morning. That Country is nothing 
but Marfhes full of Alder-Trees and Pvufhes j and 
we could have hardly found for forty Leagues toge- 
ther, any Place to plant our Cabins, had it not 
been for the Froft, which made the Earth more firm 
and folid. 

Having pail through' great Marfhes, we found a 
vail: Plain, on which nothing grows but only fome 
Herbs, which were dry at that time, and burnt, be- 
caufe the Miami's fet them one fire every Year, in 
their hunting wild Bulls, as I fhall mention anon. 
We found no manner of Game, which was a great 
Difappointment to us^ our Provilions begining to 
fail. Our Men travelled about fixty Miles, without 
killing any thing elfe but a lean Stag, a iinall wild 
'■ ' Goa-, 

S6 A New Difcovery of 

Goat, fome few SMns, and two Buftards, which 
was 110 fufficient Mentainence for two and thirty 
Men, Moil of them were fo weary of this labo- 
rions Life, that they would have run away, if pof- 
fible, and gone to the Savages, who were not very 
far from us, as we judg'd by the great Fires we 
law in the Plain. There muft be an innumerable 
quantity of wild Bulls in that Country , fince the 
Earth is cover'd with their Horns. The Mlaml^s hunt 
them toward^ the latter end of Aiitumn. 

Wq continu'd our Courfe upon this River very 
near the whole Month of December ^ but toward the 
latter end of the faid Month, 1679. we arriv'dat 
the Village of the Illinois^ which lies near one hun- 
dred and thirty Leagu es. from Fort /I//^;wV, on the 
Lake of the Ulinois. *We fufler'd very much in this 
Paflage •, for the Savages having fet the Herbs of 
the Plain on firg, the wild Bulls were fled away, 
and fo we ct^ia kill but one, and fome Turkey- 
Cocks. God's Providence fupported us *a]l the while ; 
and when we thought that the Extremities we w_^ere 
reduc'd to, were paft all hopes of Remedy, we found 
a prodigious big wild Bull, lying faft in the Mud of 
the River. We kill'd him and had much ado to get 
him out of the Mud. This was a great Pvefrefliment 
to our Men, and reviv'd' their Courage ^ for being 
fo timely unexpededly reliev'd. they concluded that 
God appro v'd our Defign. 

C H A P. XXX. 

ji Defcrlftion of the Hunting of the wild Bulls and Corns 

■ by the Savages ^ Of the bignefs of thofe Beafis ^ and of 

the Ad-vantages and Improvements that may be made of 

the Plain vjhere they Pajlure^^ and ofthelVoodsthereahouts. 


I Hen the Savages difcover a great Number of 
thofc Beafis together, they lik^wife aflemr 


Fa^ ^d-Ta-t^i"^ 

86 A New Difcovery of 

Goat, fome few SwVns, and two Buflards, which 
was no fufficient Mentainence for two and thirty- 
Men. Moil of them were ib weary of this labo- 
rions Life, that they would have run away, if pof- 
fibk, and gone to the Savages, who were not very 
far from us, as we judg'd'by the great Fires we 
law in the Plain. There mult be an innumerable 
quantity of wild Bulls in that Country , fince the 
Earth is cover'd with their Horns. The MUmi-'shuat 
them towards the latter end of Autumn, 

VJq continu'd our Courfe upon this River very 
near the whole Month of December -^ but toward the 
latter end of the faid Month, 1579. we arriv'dat 
the Village of the Illinois^ which lies near one hun- 
dred and thirty Leagues/rom Fort Miamls^ on the 
Lake of the nUnoij. *We fuffer'd very much in this 
PafTage ; for the Savages having fet the Herbs of 
the Plain on fir|, the wild Bulls were fled away, 
and fo we ccfliid kill but one, and fome Turkey- 
Cocks. God's Providence fupported us ♦all the while ^ 
and when we thought that the Extremities we were 
reduc'd to, were paft all hopes of Remedy, we found 
a prodigious big wild Bull, lying faft in the Mud of 
the River, We kilFd him and had much ado to get 
bira out of the Mud. This was a great Pvefre/hment 
to our Men, and reviv'd- their Courage •, for being 
fo timely unexpededly reliev'd. they concluded that 
God approv'd our Delign. 

C H A P. XXX. 

Ji Defer if tion of the Hunting of the wild Bulls and Com 

■ by the Savages ^ Of the bignefs of thofe Beafis j and of 

the Ad-vantages and Improvements that may be made of 

theFkin where they Baflure^^ and oft heJVoods thereabouts. 

Hen the Savages difcover a great Number of 
thofc Bealls together, they likewife alTem. 




a Large Country in America. S7 

ble their whole Tribe to encompafs the Bulls, and 
then fet on fire the dry Herbs about then?, except in 
fom^ places, which they leave free •, and therein lay 
themfelYes in Ambufcade. The Bulls feeing the 
Flame round about them, run away through thofe 
Paffages where they fee no Fire ^ and there fall into 
the Hands of the Savages, who by thefe means will 
kill fometimes above fixfcore in a day. They divide 
thefe Beafts according to the number of each Family; 
and fend their Wives to flay them, and bring the Flefli 
to their Cabins. Thefe Women are fo lufly and 
ftrong, that they carry on their Back two or three 
hundred weight , befides their Children ^ and not- 
withilanding that Burthen, they run as fwiftly as any 
of our Soldiers with their Arms. 

Thofe Bulls have a very fine Coat, more like Wooll 
than Hair, and their Cows have it longer than the 
Males ^ their Horns are almoft black, and maich 
thicker, though fomewhat fhorter than thofe of ,£/i- 
rofe : Their Head is of a prodigious Bignefs, as well 
as their Neck very thick, but at the fame time ex- 
ceeding fhort : They have a kind of Bump betweeci 
the two fhoulders : Their Legs are big and fhort, co- 
vered with long W^ooil ^ and they have between the 
two Horns an ugly Buih of Hair, which falls upoa 
their Eyes, and makes them look horrid. 
. The Flelh of thefe Beafls is very reli filing , and 
fuUof Jui-:e, efpecially in ^/^f-'/w;?", for having gra- 
zed all the Summer long in thofe valt Meadows, 
where the Herbs are as high- as they, they are then 
very fat. There is alfo among them abundance of 
Stags, Deers, and wild Goats ^ and that nothing 
might be wanting in that Country, for the Conve- 
nience of thofe Creatures, there are Forefts at cer- 
tain diilances, where they retire to reft, and fiielter 
themfelves againft the violence of the Sun. 

They change their ^Country according to the Sca- 
fons of the Year ^ for upon the approach of the Win- 
ter, they leave the North fo go to the Southern Parts. 


S8 A New Difcovery of 

They follow one another, fo that you may fee a 
Drove of them for above a League together, and Hop 
all at the fame places and the Ground where they j 
ufeto lie is covered with wild Purflain, which makes' 
me believe, that the Cows Dung is very fit to pro- 
duce that Herb. Their Ways are as beaten as our 
ereat Roads, and no Herb grows therein. They 
Iwim over the Rivers they meet in their Way, to go 
and graze in other Meadows. But the care of the 
Cows for their Young Ones, cannot be too much 
admir'd ^ for there being in thefe Meadows a great 
quantity of Wolves, who might furprize them, they 
go to Calve in the Iflands of the Rivers, from whence 
they don't flir till the Young Calves are able to folJ 
low them^ for then they can proted them. againftl 
any Beaft whatfoever. 

Thefe Bulls being very convenient for the Subli-;- 
Itence of the Savages, they take care not to fcare'c 
them from their Country •, and they purfue only^ 
thofe whom they have wounded with their Arrows : 
But thefe Creatures multiply in fuch a manner, thati 
not with Handing the great Numbers they kill everyy 
Year, they are as numerous as ever. 

The Women fpin the Wooll of thefe Bulls, and! 
make Sacks thereof to carry their Flefh in, which' 
they dry in the Sun, or broil upon Gridirons. They^ 
liave no Salt, and yet they prepare their Flefh fo wellj-, 
that it keeps above four Months without breeding! 
any Corruption •, and it looks then fo frefh, that one? 
would think it was newly killed. They commonly/ 
boil it, and drink the Broth of it inftead of Waten 
This is the ordinary Drink of all the Savages of A- 
7nerica^ who have no Commerce with XhQ t urofeans. 
We followed their Example in this particular ^ and itt 
muft be confell that that Broth is very wholfom. 

The Skin of one of thofe Bulls ufually weighs^ 
about fixfcore Pound ; but the Savages make ufe only 
of the thinneJl part, as that of the Belly, which they? 
drefs with the Brains of all forts of Beaits and there- 


4 Large Country in America. 89 

jby make it as foft as our Shmno'Cs Skins. They paint 
(them with feveral Colours, and adorn with pieces 
3 of Porcupine-Skins, red and white, the Gowns they 
[make thereof, to appear fplepdidly at Feafts, and on 
[other folemn Occafions. They make other Gowns 
iagainltcold Weather, wherewith they cover them- 
Telves during the Winter^ but thefe plain Gowns, 
icovered with curled WooU, are, in my Opinion, the 
! fineffc as well as the belt. 

! When they kill any Cows, their young Calves fol- 
;low them, and licktheir Heads. They bring them to 
jtheir Children, whor eat them, after having for 
ifome time play'd with them. They keep the Hoofs 
:of thofe little Creatures, and when they are very 
Idry, they tie them to fome Wand, and move thera 
according to the various Pollures of thofe who ling 
and dance. This is the moll rediciilous Mulical In- 
llrumentthat ever I met with. 

Thefe young Calves might ealily be tamed, and 
made ufe of to plow the Land, which would be very 
advantagious to the Savages. Thefe Bulls find in all 
Seafons JForrage to Subfill by ^ for if they are fur- 
prized in the Northern Countries by the Snow, be- 
fore they can reach the Southren Parts, they have 
the dexterity to remove the Snow, and eat the Grafs 
under it. They bellow like our JE;^?-opf^/z Bulls, but 
not fo frequently. 

Though thefe Bulls are taller, and bigger than thofe 
of Enropej they are however fo fwift that no Savage 
can overtake them ^ They are fo timorous, that they 
run away from any Man, except when they are 
wounded ^ for then they are dangerous, and often 
kill the Savage who purfues them. 'Tis a diverting 
Profped to fee near the Banks of the Rivers, feveral 
Droves of thofe Bulls of about four or five hundred 
together, grazing in thofe green Meadows. 

There are feveral other Beafls in that Country, as 
lobferved in my Account of Lomfiana^ as Stags, wild 
Goats, Beavers, and Otters j there are aifo Bultards, 


9 b A New Difcovery of 

which have an Excellent Tafle ^ Swans, Tortoife^, 
Tiirkey-Cocks, Parrots, and Partridges. There arc 
alfoan incredible quantity of Pelicans, whofe Bills 
are of a prodigious Size ^ and a great many other 
forts of Birds, and other Beafls. 

The Rivers are plentifully ftock'd with Fifh, and 
the Soil is very fertile. The Foreils afford all inan- 
ner of Timber fit for Building, and efpecially Oak 5 
W'hich is there much better than in Canada^ and 
would be excellent for Building Ships. That Timber 
might be fquar'd, faw'd, and ready prepar'd upon 
the Spot, and brought over into Europe ; which v/ould 
be very convenient, and give time to the Trees of 
our Foreilsto grow, whereas theyar.ein a manner 
exhaufted. . . 

There are in thofe Forefls abundance of Trees bear- 
ing good Fruit, and of wild Vines, which produce 
Bunches of Grapes a foot and a half long, and of ; 
which, when Ripe, may be made very good Wine. 
One may fee there alfo large Countries cover'd with 
good Hemp, growing naturally fix or feven foot in > 
height. In Ihort, by the Experiments I made among 
the JJIatl^ and the Illinois^ I am perfuaded that the 
Soil of that Country would produce all manner of 
Corn, Fruits, &c. even more plentifully than in any 
part of Europe, feeing there are two Crops every 

The Air is very temperate, cle'ar, and open, and 
the Country water'd with feveral ■ Lakes, Brooks, 
and Rivers, which are for the moH part navigable. 
The Gnats and other little Flies that are fo trouble- 
fome in Canada, and fome other dangerous Beafls, 
are unknown in this Country •, which in two Years 
time might fupply its Inhabitants, if cultivated, 
with all things neceflary for Life, v\^ithout wanting 
any thing from Europe ^ and the Illands of America^ 
with Wine, Bread, and Flefii. The Bncamers might 
kill in'that Country a greater number of Bulls than 
in all the Illands they refort to. There are Mines of 
1 Coal, 

a LitVge Country in America. 9*i 

Coal, Siate, and Iron ^ and feveral Pieces of fine red 
Copper, which I have found now and then upon the 
Surface of the Earth, makes me believe that there 
are Mines of it ^ and doubtlefs of other Metals and 
Minerals, which may be difcover'd one time or ano- 
ther. They have already found Allom in the Gburi- 
-try of thQlro^nefe. 


^'jAn Accoimt of our Arrival to the Country of the Illinois, 
one of the mofi nnmeroiis Nations of the Savages of 

r "inHis Word IlUnoii^ comes, as it has been already 
X obferv'd, from IlUni^ which in the Language of 
that Nation lignifies A perfcB and accomvlifli'd Man. 
The Villages of the IlU-nois are fituated in a Marlhy 
Plain, about the Fortieth Degree of Latitude, on the 
Right fide of the River, which is as broad as the Men- 

fe. Their greateft Village may have in it Foure or five 
hundred Cabins, every Cabin five or iiyi Fires, and 

'each Fire one or two Families, who live together irl 
great Concord. Their Cabins are cover'd with-Mat^ 
of flat Rufhes, fo clofely fow'd together, that no 
Wind, Rain, or Snow can go thro' 'em. The llniori 
that reigns amongfl that Barbarous People, ought to 
cover with Shame the Chrillians-, amongft whoni 
we can fee no Trace of that brotherly Love, which 
united the Priinitive Profeffors of Chriftianity. 

When the Savages have gather'd in their Indian 
Corn, they dig fome Holos in the Ground, where 
they keep it for Summer-time, becaufe Meat does not 
keep in hot Weather ^ \yhereas they have very little 
occafion for it in Winter ^ and 'tis then their Cuftoni 
to leave their Villages, and with their whole Families 
to go a hunting wild Bulls, Beavers, &c, eari^ying" 
^'ith them but a fmall quantity of their Corn, which 
H . Itowever 

-^2 A Nerv Dijeovery of 

however they value fo much, that the moft fenfible 
Wrong one can do them, in their Opinion, is to 
take fome of tiieir Corn in their abfence. We found 
no Body in the Village, as we had forefeen ^ for the Il- 
linois had divided themfelves, according to their Cu- 
ftom , and were gone a hunting. Their Abfence 
caus'd a great Perplexity amongft us j for we want- 
ed Provifions, and yet durfl not meddle with the /«- 
dian Corn the Savages had laid under Ground, for 
their Subfillence, and to fow their Lands with. How- 
ever, our Neceffity being very great, and it being 
impoffible to continue our Voyage without any Pro- 
vilions, efpecially feeing the Bulls and other Beafts 
had been driven from the Banks of the River, by 
means of Fire, as I have related in my former Chap- 
ter, M. U Salle refolv'd to take about forty Bufhels 
of Corn, in hopes to appe^fe the Savages with fome 

We embarji'd again with thefe frefh Provifions, 
and continu'd to fell down the River, which runs 
diredlly to the South. Four Days after, being the 
Firft of January^ 1 680. we faid Mafs ^ and having 
wifh'd a happy New-year to M. U Salle^ and to all 
others, I thought fit to, make a pathetical Exhortati- 
on to our Grumblers, to encourage them to go on 
chearfully, and iiifpire them with llnionj and Con- 
cord. Father Gabriel^ Zenobe^ and I, embraced them 
afterwards 5 and they promis'd us to continue firmiu 
their Duty. The fame Day we went thro'aLa^e 
form'd by the River, about feven Leagues long, an^ 
one broad. The Savages call that Place Pimiteom j 
that is, in their Tongue, A Place where there is ahun- 
darice of fat BeaFls. When the River of the Illinois 
freezes, which is but feldom, it freezes only to this 
Lake, and never from thence to the Mefchafipiy into 
which this River falls. M. la Salle obferv'd here the 
Elevation of the Pole, and found that this Lake lies 
in the Latitude of 33. Degrees and 45. Minutes. 

\V<; had been informed that the Illinois were our 

Enemies v 

a Large Country in America. 9 J 

Enemies •, and therefore M. U Salle had refolv'd td 
life all manner of Precaution when we fhoiild meet 
with them •, but we found our felves on a fudden in 
the middle of their Camp, which took up both {ides 
of the River. M. la Salle order'd immediately his 
Men to make their Arms ready, and brought his Ca- 
nou's into a Line, placing himfelf to the Right, and 
M. T^nti to the Left ^ fo that we took al-noft the 
whole breadth, of the River. The Blmis^ who had 
not yet difcover'd our Fleet, wer^ Very much fur-^ 
priz'd to fee us comeing fo fwiftly upon them •, frit 
the Stream was extraordinary rapid in that Place t 
Some run to their Arms \ but moft took their Flight 
with horrid Cries and Howlings. 

The Current brought us in the mean time to their 
Camp \ and M. la Salle went the very firft a-lhore^ 
followed by his Men i which encreas'd the Confter- 
nation of the Savages, whom we might have eafily 
defeated ; but as it was not our Defign, we made a 
Halt to give them time to recover themfelves, and 
fee that we were no Enemies. M. la Salle might have 
prevented their Confufion, by fhewing his Calumet 
or Pipe of Peace \ but he was afraid the Savages 
wou'd impute it to our Weaknefs. • 

The lllimu being exceedingly terrify'd, thj^** they 
were feveral thoufand Men, tender'd us the Galumei 
of Peace ^ and then we offer'd them ours \ which 
being accepted on both fides, an extraordinary Joy 
fucceeded the terrible Fears they had been under up- 
on our landing. They fent immediately to fetch back 
thofe who fled away j and Father Zembe and I went 
]to their Cabins. '\A''e took their Children by the 
i Hand, and exprefs'd our Love for them with all the 
Signs we cou'd : We did the like to the Old Men^ 

I having Compaflion of thofe poor Creatures, who 
ijare fo miferable as to be ignorant of their Creator 
jand Redeemer. 

II Moft of the Savages j who had run ^way upon our 
ll landings underftanding that we were Friends^ re- 

■ "\ H t turn'd 

94 ^ Ne)v Difcovery cf 

turn'd ; but fome others had been fb terrifi'd, that 
they did not come back till three or four Days after 
that they were told that we had fmoak'd in their Ca- 
Inmet of Peace. In the mean time we had difcours'd 
the Chief of the Illinois by our Interpreter, and told 
them that we were Inhabitants of Canada , and 
their Friends ^ that we were come to teach them the 
Knowledge of the Captain of Heaven and Earth,and 
the ufe of Fire-arms, which were unknown to them \ 
with feveral other things relating to their advantage. 
We were forced to make ufe of thefe metaphori- 
cal Expreiflons, to give them fome Idea of the Su- ^ 
pream DEITY. They heard our Difcourfes' 
with great attention, and afterwards gave a great 
Shout for Joy, repeating thefe Words: Tefatom-Nlka-^ 
That is, Well^ my Brother^ my Friend-^ thoH haft done 'very 
7i-ell. Thefe Savages have more Humanity than all 
the others of the Northern America j and underftand- 
ing the Subjeft of our Errand, exprefs'd great Gra- 
titude thereupon. They rubb'd our Legs and Feet 
near the Fire, with Oil of Bears and Wild Bulls Fat, 
which^ after much Travel, is an incomparable Re- 
frelhment •, and prefented us fome Flefh to eat, put- 
ting the three firft Morfels into our Mouth with great 
Ceremonies. T^is is a great piece of Civility amongfl 
them. • 

M. la Salle prefented them with fome Tobacco 
from Martinico^ and fome Axes \ and told them, that 
he had delired them to meet to treat about fome 
weighty Matters j but that there was one in parti- 
cular, which he would difcourfe them upon before 
any other. He added, that he knew how necefiary 
tiieir Corn was to them \ but that being reduced to 
an unfpcakable Neceflity when became to their Vil- 
lage, and feeing no probability tofublift, he had been 
forced to take fome Corn from their Habitations 
without their leave : That he would give 'em Axes, 
and other things, injieu of it, if they could fpare it j 


a. Large Country in America. 95 

that if they could not, they were free to take it 
again; concluding, that if they were not able to 
fupply US with Provifions, he defigned to continue 
his Voyage, and go to their Neighbours, who would 
heartily give him what»was necellary for his Subfi- 
ftence ; but however, to Ihew them his Kindnefs, he 
would leave a Smith among them, to mend their 
Axes and other Tools we fhould fupply them with. 
The Savages having confidered our Propofals, granted 
all our Demands, and made Alliance with us. 

We were obliged to ufe many Precautiwhs to make 
our Alliance lafting and foiid, becaufe our Enemies 
did their utmoft to prevent it. The very fame Day 
we came to the Camp of the Illinois^ one of the 
Chief Captains of t\iQ Mafcontens^ whofe Name was 
Monfo^ arrived alfo with fome MiamPs^ and other 
young Men, who brought with them fome Axes', 
Knives, Kettles, and other Goods. Our Enemies 
had chofen him for that Embaflie, knowing that the 
Jllimls would rather believe him than the yI<f/<^?72iV, 
becaufe they had never been in War with the Mafcou- 
tens. This Savage arrived pretty late, and cabaird all 
the Night long againft us : He told them, That M. 
U Salle was a great Friend of the IrocMe[e^ who were 
to follow him fpeedily with fome of the E-^irofeanj 
from Canada^ to invade them, and deflroy their Na- 
tion '^ and that he was fent by fome of the Enrofeans 
themfelves, who could not approve that Treachery 
of their Country-men, to give them notice thercOT, 
that they might not be furpriz'd. He enforced His 
Arguments, by prefenting them with all the Goods 
he had brought along with him ^ and thinking he 
had gain'd his Point, went back the fame Night, fear- 
ing, with much Reafon, that M./^/S^//V would re^ 
fent that Mafler-piece of Villany, and punifii him 
for it. The Illinois were affembled in Council all the 
Night, (for they never Treat of any fecret A fairs du- 
ring the Day) and did not know what Meafure> to 
H 3 ' ' take 

96 A New Difcovery of 

take ^ for tho' they did not believe all the Stories the 
MafcoMten had made unto them, yet the next Day 
they appeared very indifferent, and miftruftful of us. 
As they feemed to contrive fomething againftus, we 
began to be be uneafie ^ but ^1. la Salle, who fufpefted 
that their fudden alteration towards us was the Ef- 
feft of a falfe Report, made fuch prefents to one 
of their Chiefs, that he told him all the Particulars of 
the Embaffie and Negotiation of Mofjfo j and there- 
by enabled him to remove the Jealoufie of the IlUmisy 
and confousid the wicked Defigns of our Enemies. 

He managed that point with fuch Dexterity, that 
hedid not only regain the Friendfhip of that Nation, 
but likewife undeceived the Mafcouten and Miami'' s\ 
and was Mediator between the latter and the Mimis^ 
who by his means made an Alliance, which lalted all 
the while we remained in thofe Countries. 


'j4/J ylccomt of what happened to m -while we remained 
among- the Illinois, till the building of a New Fort. 

SOme Days after, Nikanape, Brother to Chejfagou^ 
affe, the moll confiderable Chief of the Illinois^ 
who was then abfent, invited us to a great Fealt •, 
and before we fate down to eat, made a long Speech, 
very different from what the other Captains had told 
us upon our arrival. He faid that he had invited us 
not fo much to give us a Treat, as to endeavour to 
diffw^ade us from the Refolution we had taken to go 
down to the Sea by the great River Mefchafipi. He; 
added, That feveral hadperifh'd, having ventured 
upon the fame Enterprize, the Banks of that River 
being inhabited by barbarous and Bloody Nations, 
whom we ihould be unable to refill, notwithllanding 
our Valour and the Goodnefs of our Arms ; That that 
River was full of dangerous Monllers, as Crocodiles, 


A Large Country in America. 96 

Tritons, f meaning a Sea-monfter j and Serpents ; 
that fuppofing the Barque we defign'd to build was 
big enough to prote(fl: us againffc the dangers he had 
mention'd, yet it would avail us nothing againft ano- 
ther which was inevitable, For^ faid he, the River Mef- 
chalipi is fo full of Rocks and Falls towards its Month. 
tht€t the Rapidity of the Current cannot he mafiered^which 
will carry yonr Barque into a horrid IVhirlpool^ that Jw al- 
lows up every thing that comes near it *, and even the River 
itfelfy which appears no more ^. lofmg it felfin th^t hide- 
OHS and bottomlefs Gulph. 

He added fo many other Circumftances, and ap- 
pear'd fo ferious, and fo much concerned for us, that 
two of our Men who underllood their Language, 
but not their Politicks, were moved at it, and their 
Fear appeared in their Faces. We obfervedit, but 
could not help it , for it would be an unpardonable 
Affront to interrupt a Savage ; and befides, we had 
perhaps encreas'd the Alarms of our Men. Whea 
Nikanape had made an end of his Difcourfe, we an- 
fwered him in lb calm a manner, that he could not 
fancy we were furprizedat his Objedions againft our 

Our Interpreter told him, by order of M. la Sall'e^ 
that we were much obliged to him for the Advices he 
gave us ^ but that the Difficulties and Dangers he had 
mentioned, would make our Enterprize ftill more 
glorious \ that ^e fear'd the Mafter of the Life of all 
Men, who rul'd the Sea, and all the World y and 
therefore would think it Happinefs to lay down our 
Lives to make his Name known to all his Creatures. 
We added, that we believ'd that moft of the Dan- 
gers he had mention'd were not in being, but that 
the Friendlhip he had for us, had put him upon that 
Invention, to oblige us to remain with them. Wq 
thought fit, however, to let him know, thatweper-t 
ceiv'd our Enemies had fomented fomc Jealoufies ia 
their Mind, and that they feem'd to millruft our De-s 
figns \ but as we were fincere in our Dealings, we 
H 4 derir'4 

9^ A New Difcovery of 

defired them to let us knaw freely, and without any 
pifsuife, the Grounds of then* Sufpicions, that we 
might fatisfie them, and clear our felves •, concluding, 
that feeing our Demand was fo juft and equitable, 
we expeded they would grant it, or elfe that we 
ihould have reafon tothii:fk that the Joy they had ex- 
prefs'd upon our Arrival, and the Friendlhip they had 
fmce fhew'd to us, was nothing but a Deceit and Dif- 
fimulation. iV^'^^^^pf was notable to anfwer us, and 
therefore changed his Difcourfe, deiiringus to eat. 

The Dinner being over, our Interpreter reaiTum'd 
his Difcourfe, and told the Company, that we were 
not furprii'd at the En.vy their Neighbours exprefs'd 
about oiir Arrival into their Country, becaufe they 
knew too well the Advantages of Commerce, and 
therefore would ingrofs it to themfelves, and obllru^l 
by all means our good Correfpondence ^ but that we 
\|\ronder'd that they wopld give Ear to the Suggeftions 
of bur Common Enemies, and conceal any thing 
from us, iince we had fo lincerely act^uainted them 
with our peiigns. 

WedidnQtJlee^^ Brother^ faidhe, direding his Dii^ 
COUrfe to Nlcanafe^ when Monlb was caballing amongfi 
you in the Night to our Prejudice^ endeavouring to make you 
believe that we were Spies of the Iroquefe. The Frefen^s 
he made to enforce his Lies^ are (lill hidden in this Cabin. 
But why has he rim away immediately aftcr^ inflead ofaf- 
fearing publickly to jujiifie his Accusation ? Thou art a 
Witnejsthyfelf^ that upon our landing we might have kilPd 
all thy Nephews^ and done what our Enemies tell you we 
idefgntodo^ after we have made Alliance with thee^ and 
fettled our felves amongfiyou. But if it were our Defign^ 
whyjhould we drfer to put it into execution ? And who hin- 
ders our Warriours^ who ar^ here with me^ to hill all ef 
ypu whiljl your young Aden arQ a Hunting ? Thou haft been 
told^ that our Valour is terrible to the Ixoc^Q^^thcmfelves'^ 
and. therefore we need not their AJfi fiance to wage War with 
thee J If it were our Defign, 


a Lar^e Country in America. 99 

But to remove even the leafi Pretence of fufpiclon and 
Jealoiifie^ fe?jd fomehody to bring bach that malicious Ac- 
cufer^ and we will flay here to confute him in thy Vre fence: 
For how can he know m^ feeing he never f aw m in his Life? 
uind how can he be acefitainted with thefecret League we 
have made with the Iroqiiefe, whom he knows only by 
I^ame ? Confder our Eqnifage •, We have nothing but 
Tools and Ooods^ which can never be mad.e ufe of^ but for 
thejjcod of thy Nation^ and not for its DefindlioNy as. 
^iir Enemies would make thee believe. 

This Difcourfe mov'd them very much ; and they 
fent after Monfo to bring him back ^ but the Snow 
which fell that Night fpoil'd the Trad, andfohe 
could not be overtaken. He had remained for fome 
Days not far from us, to know what would be the 
fuccefs of his Embaflie. However, fome of our Men 
lay under fueh terrible Apprehenfions, that we could 
never recover their Courage, nor remove their Fears-, 
fo that fix of them who had the Guard that Night 
(among which were two Sawyers, the moll neceffary 
of our Workmen for building our Ship) run away, 
taking with them what they thought neceflary ; 
but confidering the Country through which they 
were to Travel, and the Seafonof the year, we may 
lay, that for avoiding an uncertain Peril, they exr 
pos'd themfelves to a moft certain Danger. 
: M. la Salle feeing that thofe fix Men were gone, 
and fearing that this Defertion v/ould make a difad- 
vantagious Imprefljon upon the Savages, he order'd 
his Men to tell the Illinois^ that he'hadrefolv'd to 
fend after them to punifh them as they deferved •, but 
that the Seafon being fo hard, he was loath to expofe 
his Men ^ and that thofe Deferters would be feverely 
punifhed in Canada. In the mean time we exhor- 
ted the relt to continue firm in their Duty, aifuring 
them. That if any were afraid of venturing them- 
felves upon the River of Adcfhafifi^ becaufe of the 
Dangers Nikanafe had mentioned, M. la Salle would 
give them leave to return next Spring to Gi»^ci.,and 


loo ^ New Difcovery of 

allow them a Canou to make their Voyage ^ where- 
as they could not venture to return home at this time 
of the Year, without expofing themfelves to perilh 
with Hunger, Cold, or the Hands of the Savages. 

They promis'd Wonders \ but M. la Salle knowing 
their Inconltancy, and dillembling the Vexation their 
want of Courage and Refoiution caused him, refolv'd 
to prevent any farther Subornation, and to leave the 
Camp of the Illinois'^ but left his Men fhouldnot 
confent to it, he call'd them together and told them 
we were not fafe among the Illinois^ and that perhaps 
the Iroquefe would come in a little time to attack them j 
and that thefe being not able to refill, they were like 
to run away, and betake themfelves to the Woods, 
and leave us expos'd to the Mercy of the /ro^/^^y^, 
whofe Cruelty was fufficiently known to us j there- 
fore he knew no other Remedy but tofortifie a Poll, 
where we might defend our felves both againll the //- 
linois and IrocjHefe^ as occalion fhould require. Thele 
Reafons, withfome other Arguments which I added 
to the fame purpofe, proved powerful enough to enr 
gage them to approve M. la Salle's Defign ; and fo it 
was refolved to build a Fort in a very advantageous 
Place on the River, four Day's Journey below the 
great Village of tkQ •Illinois. 


RefleElions ttfon the Temper and Manners of the Illi- 
nois, and the little Difpojition they have to embrace 

< Efore I fpeak in particular of the Illinois, I think 
to obferve here, that there is a Nation of the 
Miami's, who inhabit the Banks of a fine River,with- 
in fifteen Leagues from the Lake, in the Latitude of 
41 Degrees. The Mashntens and Outtonagami's live 
more Northward on the River Mcllioh\ which run? 

a Large Country in America. loi 

into the Lake in the Latitude of 43 Degrees. To the 
Weft of it live the Kikapons and Amoves^ who have 
two Villages •, and to the Weft of thefe there is the 
Village of the Illinois Cafcafchia, lituated towards the 
Source of the River Checagoumenans. The Amhou- 
tantas and Mashntens-Nadoiteffians live within one 
hundred and thirty Leagues of the Illmols^ in three 
great Villages, on the Banks of a fine River which 
difcharges it felf into the great River Mefchafipi. We 
fhall have occalion to talk of thefe and feveral other 

Moft of thefe Savages, and efpecially the ////^/o/V, 
make their Cabins of flat Rufhes, which they fow to- 
gether, and line them with the fame-, fo that no Rain 
can go through it. They are tall, ftrong, and ma- 
nage their Bows and Arrows with great dexterity j 
for they did not know the ufe of Fire- Arms before 
we came into their Country. They are Lazy, Vaga- 
bonds, Timerous, Pettilh, Thieves, and fo fond 
of their Liberty, that they have no great Refpe^t for 
their Chiefs. 

Their Villages are open, and not enclos'dwith 
Pallifado's, as in fome other Places, becaufe they have 
not Courage enough to defend them, for they fly 
away as foon as they hear their Enemies approa ch. 
Befides their Arrows, they ufe two other Weapons, 
a kind of a Pike, and a Club of Wood. Their Coun- 
try is fb fertile, that it fupplies them with all Necef^ 
faries for Life, and efpecially fince we taught them 
the ufe of Iron Tools to cultivate it. 

Hermaphrodites are very common amongft them, 
which is fo much the more furprizing, becaufe I 
have not obferved any fuch thing amon^fl the other 
Nations of the Northern America. Poligamy is al- 
lowed among them ^ and they generally marry fe- 
veral Sifters, thinking they agree better than Stran- 
gers. They are exceedingly Jealous, - and cat the 
Nofes of their Wives upon the leafl fufpicion. I\' ot- 


102 A New Difcovery of ^ 

withflanding they have feveral Wives, they are fo ' 
iafcivious as to be guilty of Sodomy, and keep Boys 
whom they cloath with Womens Apparel, becaufe 
they make of them that abominable Ufe. Thefe Boys 
live in their Families araongft Women, without going 
either to their Wars or Hunting. As to their Religion 
I obferv'd that they are very fuperllitious^ but I cou'd 
never difcover that they had any Worlhip, nor any 
Reafon for their Superftition. They are great Game- 
fters,as well as all the other Savages that I have known 
in j^merica. 

As there are fome ftony Places in this Country, 
where there is a great quantity of Serpents, very trou- 
blefome to the IHhwis^ they J<;now feveral Herbs which 
are a quicker and furer Remedy againll their Venom, 
than our Treacle or Orvietan. They rub themfelves 
with thefe Herbs, after which they play with thofe 
dangerous Serpents, without receiving any hurt. 
They take the young ones and put them fometimes 
into their Mouth. They go flark naked in Summer- 
time, wearing only a kind of Shooes made of the^ 
Skins of Bulls ^ but the Winter being pretty fevere' 
in their Country, tho' very fhort, they wear Gowns 
made of the Skins of Wild Beafls, or of Bulls, which 
they drefs and paint moll Curioully, as I have alrea- 
dy obferved. 

The Illinois^ as rnoll of the Savages of America^ 
being brutilh, wild, and llupid, and their Manners 
being fooppolite to the Morals of the Gofpel, their 
Gonveriion is to be defpaired of, till Time and Com- 
merce with the Eitrofea-ns has remov'd their natural 
Fiercenefs and Ignorance, and thereby made 'em more 
apt to be fenlible of the Charms, of Chriflianity. I 
have met with fome who weremore teachable^ and 
Father Zenohe told me, that he_ Baptized two^or three 
of them at the point of Death," becaufe they delir'd 
it ^ and^d fome good Difpolition to induce him 
to grant that Demand. They will readily fufter us 
to baptize their Children, and would not refufe it 


a Large Country in America. 105 

themfelves •, but they are incapable of any previous 
Inftruclion concerning the truth of the Gofpel, and 
the Efficacy of the Sacraments. Would* I follow the 
Example of fome other Miflionaries, I could have 
boalled of many Converfions ^ for I might have eafi- 
ly baptiz'd all thofe Nations, and then fay, as I am 
afraid they do without any ground, That I had con- 
verted them. 

Fatl^ier Zenohe had met with two Savages, who had 
promised to follow hmi every where, whom he in- 
ftruded and baptiz'd ^but tho' they were more tracta- 
ble than the reft, they would not leave their Coun- 
try ^ and he underltood afterwards, that one of them, 
whofe Name was Chajfagonache^ was dead in the hands 
of the Junglers^ and confequently in the Superllitions 
of his Country-Men ^ fo that his Baptifm fery'd only 
to makQh'im duplo Filius Gchem<s. 


j4n Account of the Bmldwg of a New Fort on the River 
. o/Vk Illinois, named by the Savages ChecagOU, and 

by ta Fort Crevecoeur j as alfo a Barque to go down the 

\^/Vfr Mefchafipi. 

IMuflobfervehere, that the hardeft Winter lafls 
not above two Months in this Charming Country^ 
fo that on the 1 5 th of Ja?inary there came a fuddeii 
Thaw, which .made the Rivers Navigable, and the 
Weather fo mild as it is with us in the middle of the 
Spring. M. la Salle improving this fair Seafon,' de- 
fir'd me to go down the River with him to choofe a 
Place fit to build our Fort. After having view'd the 
Country we pitch'd upon an Eminence on the Bank 
of the River, defended on that fide by the River, and 
on two others by two Ditches the Rains had made 
very deep by fuccelfion of Time ^ fo that it was ac- 
ceffible only by one way ^ therefore we call a Line 


104 A New Difctyvery of 

to joyn thofe two natural Ditches, and made the 
Eminence fteep on every fide, fupporting the Earth 
with great pieces of Timber. We made a hafty 
Lodgment thereupon, to be ready to defend us in 
cafe the Savages would obftruft the building of our • 
Fort^ but no'body offering to diflurb us, we went 
on diligently with our work. Fathers Gabriel^ Zemhe^ 
and I, made in the mean time a Cabin of Planks^ 
wherein our Workmen came to Prayers every Morn- 
ing and Evening ^but having no Wine, we could not 
fay Mafs. The Fort being half finifh'd, M. la Salle 
lodg'd himfelf in the middle with M. Tomi ^ and eve- 
ry body took his Poll:. We plac'd our Forge along 
the Curtain on the fide of the Wood, and laid ina 
great quantity of Coals for that ufe . 

In the mean time cmv thoughts were always bent 
towards our difcovery, and M. la Salle and I had fre- 
quent Conferences about it: But our greateft diffi- 
culty was to build a Barque ^ for our Sawyers being 
gone, we did not know what to do. However, as 
the Timber was cheap enough, we told our Men, 
that if any of them would undertake to faw Boards 
for Building the faid Barque, we might furmount 
all other Difficulties. Two Men undertook it j and 
though they had never try'd it before, they fucceedr 
ed very well, fo that we began to build a Barque, 
the Keel whereof was forty two Foot long. Our 
Men went on fo briskly with the Work, that on the 
firll: of March our Barque was half built, and all the 
Timber ready prepared for the finifhing of it. Our 
Eort was alfo very near finifh'd ^ and we nam'd it 
the Fort of Crevecceur^ becaufe the defertion of our 
Men, and the other Difficulties we labour'd under, 
had almoft broke our 'Hearts. 

Tho the Winter is not harder nor longer in the 
Country of the IlHmis^ than in Provence^ the Snow 
remain-'d upon the Earth, in the Year 1680,. for 
twenty days togetlier, which had not been feenin 
the Memory of Man. This made the Savages migh- 

a Large Coumy m Amenc2i, 105 

tily concern'd, and brought upon us a World of In- 
conveniences, befides the many others we fufi^r'd. 
In the mean time we perfefted our Fort j and our 
Barque was in fuch a forwardnefs, that we might 
have expeded to be in a condition to fail in a very 
fhort time, had we been provided with all other Ne- 
cellaries^ but hearing nothing of our Ship, and 
therefore wanting the Rigging and other Tackle for 
our Barque, we found our felves in great perplexity 
and did not know what to do in this fad Juncture, 
being above five hundred Leagues from Fort Frome- 
mc^ whither it was almoft impollible to return at 
that time, becaufe the Snow made the travelling very 
dangerous by Land, and the Ice made it impracti- 
cable to our Canon's. 

M. la Salle did not doubt then but his belov'd Grlf- 
fifjwas loft ^ but neither this nor the other Difficulties 
dejefted him^ his great Courage buoy'd him up 
and he refolv'd to return to Fort Frontenac by Land, 
notwithllanding the Snow, and the unfpeakable Dan- 
gers attending fo great a Voyage. We had a long 
Conference about it in private, wherein having exa- 
min'd all things, it was refolv'd, that he fhould re- 
turn to Fort Frontenac with three Men, to bring along 
with him the neceflary things to proceed on our Dif- 
covery, while I with two Men fliould go in a Canou 
:to thekiver Mefchajipi ^and there endeavour to get the 
Friendlhip of thofe Nations inhabiting the Banks of 
■that River. Our Refolution was certainly very great 
'and bold y but there was this efiential difference, that 
ithe Inhabitants ot the Countries through which M, la 
Salle was to travel, knew the Europeans-^ whereas 
thofe Savages, whom I defign'd to vilit, had never 
heard of us in their Life j and had been reprefented 
by the Illinois^ as the moft barbarousNations in the 
World. However, M. la Salic and I had Courage 
enough to undertake our Difficult Task j but we had 
much ado to perfwade five of our Men to follow us, 
3rto engage toexped our Return at Fort QcvecoeHr. 


io6 -A New Dlfcovery of 


Containing an Account of what was tranfaBed at Fori 
Crevecoeur before M. la ^2}^€s return to Fort Fr.onte- 
nac ^ md the InBruBions we received from a Savage 
concerning the River Mefchalipi. 

BEfore M. la Salle and I parted, we found means 
to undeceive our Men, and r^emov'd the ground- 

lefs Fears they had conceiv'd from what the IlUmi^^ 
through the Suggeftions of Monfo^ had told us con- 
cerning the Dangers, or rather the Impofllbility of 
Sailing upon the River Mefchafifi. Some Savages in- 

. habiting beyond that River, came to the Camp of 
the Illinois^ and gave us an Account of it, very diffe- 
rent from what Nikanape had told us, fome other Sa- 
vages own'd that it was navigable, and not inter- 
rupted by Rocks and Falls, as the Jllinot.s would make 
us believe •, aud one of the Illinois themfelves, being 
gain'd by fome fmall Prefents, told us in great fecre- 
fie, that the Acconnt their Chief had given us, wasa; 
downright Forgery, contriv'd on purpofe to oblige ; 
us to give over our Enterprize. This reviv'd fom- 
what our Men ^ but yet they were ftiil wavering and 
irrefolute ^ and therefore M. la Salle Taid, that he 
w^ould fully convince them, that the Illinois had re- 
folv\l in their Council to forge that Account, in or- 
der to Hop our Voyage ^ and few days after we met 
v/ith a favourable opportunity for it. 

The Illinois had made an excurfion South-ward ; 
as they were returning with fome Prifoners, one of 
their Warriors came before their Comrades, and 
vifited us at our Fort •, we entertain'd-him as well as 
we could, and ask'd him feveral Queftions touch- 
ing the River Mefchafipi^ from whence he came, 
and where he had been oftentimes, giving himi 
to underftand, that fome other Savage had given 
us an Account of it. He took a piece of Char- 
coal , and drew a Map of the Gourfe. of that 


a Large Country h America. 107 

River, which I found afterwards pretty exaft ^ and 
told us, that he had been in a Vyrogue ^ that is ; a 
Canou made of the Trunk of .a Tree, from the 
Mouth of this River, very near the Place where the 
Mefchaftfi falls into the great Lake ^ for To they call 
the Sea. That their was neither Falls, nor rapid 
Currents , as we had been told ^ that it was very _ 
broad towards the great Lake, and inreri'upted with 
Banks of Saftd ^ but that there were large Canals be- 
twixt them, deep enough for any Vyrogue. He told 
us alfo the Name of feveral Nations inhabiting the 
Banks of Mefchajip<\. and of feveral Rivers that fall 
into it. I fet down in my Journal all that he told us, 
of which I fhall perhaps give a larger Account in 
another place. We made him a fmall Prefent to 
thank him for his Kindnefs,*in difcovering a Truth 
which the Chief of his Nation had fo carefully eon-* 
ceafd. He defir'd us to hold our tongue, and never 
to mention him, which we promis'd ^ and gave him 
an Axe, wherewith he fhut his mouth, according to 
to the Cuflom of the Savages, when they recom- 
mend a Secret. 

The next day, after Pray^s, we went to the Vil- 
lage of the Jllimis ^ whom we found in the Cabin ^ of 
one of their Chiefs j' who entertain'd them witli a 
Bear, whofe Flefh is much valu'd among them. 
They delir'd us to fit down upon a fine Mat of 
Rulhes : And fome time after our .Interpreter told 
them, that we were come to acquaint them, that 
the Maker of all Things, and the Mailer of the 
Lives of Men, took a particular Care of us, and had 
been pleas'd to let us have a true Account of the Ri- 
ver Mcfcha/tpi ., the Navigation v/hereof they had rc« 
prefented to us as imprad icable. • We added all the 
Particulars we had learn'd, but in fuch Terms, that 
it was impoffible they fhould fufped any of their Men. 

TheSavages were much furpriz'd and did not doubt. 

but we had that Account by fome extraordinary 

Way^ therefore they fhut their Mouths .with their 

i Hands 

I o8 J New Dijcovery of 

Hands ^ which is their iifual Cul] exprefs their 
Admiration by. They told us frankly afterwards, 
that the great defire they had to flop amongfl them 
our Captain, ^n<i th^Grey-Coats ov Earefeet^ as they 
call the Frandfcans^ had obliged them to forge the Sto- 
ries they had told us, and to conceal the Truth ^ but 
fince we had come to the Knowledge of it by ano- 
ther' way, 'they would tell us all that they knew:; 
and confirm'd every Particular their Warriour had 
told us^. This GonfelTion removM the Fears of our 
•Men, who were few dayes after Hill more fully per- 
fvvaded that the Jlumis had only defign'd to frighten 
us, from our Difcovery : For Several Savages of the 
Nations of Of^ges^ ^Cihaga^ and Akanfa^ came to fee 
us, and brought fine Furrs to barter'for our Axes 
They told us that the was navigable almoft 
from its Source to the Sea ^ and gave us great En- 
couragerTient to. go on with ourDefign, affiiring us 
that -all the Nations inhabiting along the River, from 
■ the Mouth of that of the Illinois^ to the Sea, would 
come to meet us, and dance the Cahmtet of Peace^ 
as they exprefs it, and make an Alliance with us. 

The Mldrn?s arriv'd much about that time, and 
danc'd the Cidnmet with the Illinois^ making an Al-s- 
liance with them againft the 'Jroquefr^ xhdx irapl^ 
cable Enemies. We were Witnefles to their Treaty f 
and M. la Salle made them fome Prefents, the better 
to oblige botlir Parties to the Obfervation of theirn 
League. .'ij 

We were three MiiTionaries for that handful of 
'Eitro^jeans at Fort Crevecocur , and therefore we thought 
fit to divide our felves: Father Gabriel being very 
■old, was TO continue with our Men j and Father Zf- 
^/i?^f among the Illinois^ having delir'd it himfelf, in/ 
hopes to convert that nimierous Nation : And I, as I 
iiave.alrcady related, v/as to go on v.'ith our Difco- 
very. Father Zemhe liv'd already among the IlBiois^ 
but the rude Manners of that People made him fooff. 
weary of it. His Landlord, whofe Name was OmA'\ 

a Large Country /> America. 109 

honha, that is to fay IVolf^ was the Head of a Tribe, 
and took a fpecial Care of Father Zembe^ efpecially 
'after M. la Salle J^iad made him fome Prefents : He 
lov'd'him as his Child*, but however, I'perceiv'dia 
!the Vifitshemadeus,rforhe liv'dbut within half a 
League of our Fort) that he was not fatisfi'd to live 
jamongfl: that brutifh Nation, though he had already 
jlearn'd their Tongue. This obliged me to offer him 
lo take his place, provided he would fnpply mine, 
and gp on with our Difcovery amongHfeveral Na- 
tions, vyhole Language' we did not underfland, and 
who had never heard of us^ but Father Z^;7<?k fore- 
seeing the Danger and Fatigue I was like to beex- 
pos'd to, chofe to remain with the Illl-nois^ whofe 
Temper he knew, and with whome he was able to 

hi. la Salle left M. T<7;7f/ to command in Fort Cr^- 
vecceur^ and order'd our Carpenter to prepare fome 
thick Planks of Oak, to fence the Deck of our 
Barque in the nature of a Parapet, to cover it againft 
the Ai-rows of the Savages, in cafe they deliga'd to 
(^oot at i^s from the Shoar.^ Then calling his Men 
together, he delir'd them to obey M. TomPs, Orders 
in his Abfence, to live in a Chriftian Union and 
Charity^ to be courageous and firm in their Delign ^ 
and above all , to give no credit to the felfeReports 
that the Savages might make unto them, either of 
him , or of their Comrades that were going with me. 
He alTur'd them, that he would return with all the 
fpeed imaginable, and bring along with him a frelh 
Supply of Men, Ammunition, and Rigging for our 
Barque , and that in the mean time he left them Arms, 
and other things neceflary for a vigorous Defence, 
in cafe their Enemies Ihould attack them before his 

He told me afterwards, that he expeded I fhould 

depart without any farther Delay ; but I told him 

that tho' I had promis'd him to do it, yet a Defluxi-^ 

oa I had on my Gums a. Year fmce, as he knew 'very 

I 2 well 

lio. J New t^ifcoverycf 

well, obliged me to return to Canada^ tobecur'd; 
and that 1 would then come back with him. He 
was very much furprized and tol^ me, he would 
write to my Superiours, that I had obftruded the 
good Succefs of ourMilTion, and defir'd Father G"^- 
hriel to perfuade me to the contrary. That good 
Man had been my Mailer, during my Novinate'm 
our Convent of Bcthiwe^ in the Province of ^rmV^ 
and therefore I had fo great a Refpeft for him, that 
I yielded to his Advice ^ and conlider'd that lince 
a Man of his Age had ventured to come along with 
me in fo dangerous a Miifion, it would look as a Pufi- 
lanimity in me to return and leave him. That Fa- 
ther had left a very good Eflate, being Heir of a 
Noble Family of the Province of Burgmdy^ and I 
muft own, that his Example reviv'd my Courage up- 
on feveral OccaJions. 

M. la Salle was mightily pleas'd when I told Ji'iiTi I 
wasrefolv'd to go, notwithltanding my Indifpoliti- 
on : He embrac'd me, and gave me a Calumet ^q{ 
Peace •, and two Men to manage our Canou, "whofe 
Names were Anthony Aiigitel^ firnamed the Picard dn- 
Gay ^ and Mitchel Ako^ of the Province of FoiHoiA 
to whom he gave fome Commodities to the value of 
about I coo Livers, to trade with the Savages, or 
make Prefents. He gave to me in particular, and 
for my own ufe, ten Knives, twelve Shooe-maker's 
Auls or Bodkins, afmall Roll of Tobacco from yJ/^rw 
tinico^ about two pounds oiRajjade-^ that is to fay, 
Little Pearls or Rings of coloured Glafs, wherewithl 
the Savages make Bracelets, and other Works, and a 
fmail Parcel of Needles to give to the Savages j tel-l 
ling me that he would have given me a greater quan-i 
tity, if it had beeninhisPoWer. 

The Reader may judge by thefe Particulars, of the 
reft of my Equipage for fo great an Undertaking 5 
however, relying my fclf on the Providence of 
God, I took my leave of M. /^ 5^//^, and embrac'd 
all our Men, receiving the Bleffing of Father G'^^w/, 


a Large Country in America. 1 1 1 

who told me feveral things, to infpire me w^th Cou- 
rage i concluding his Exhortation by thefe Words of 
the Scripure, Vmilttrdge^ & confortetnr Cor t mm, 

M. la Salle fetbut a few days after for Canada^ with 
three Men, without any Provifions, but what they 
kill'd in their Journey, during which they fnffer'd 
very much, by reafon of the Snow, Hunger and cold 


The Author fets out from Fort CrevecCEur to continue his 

WHofoever will confider the Dangers to which 
I was going to ^pofe my felf, in an unknown 
Country, where no Eurofean had travelled before, 
and amongft fome Savages whofe Language I did not 
underftand, will not blame the Reludancy I expreft'd 
againft that Voyage: I had fuch an Idea of it, that 
neither the fair Words or Threats of M./.z S^//^,vv;ould 
have been able to ingage me to venture my Life fo 
rafhly, had I not felt within my felf a fecret but 
ftrong Aflurance, if I may ufe that Word, that God 
would help and profper my Undertaking. 

We fetout from Fort Crevecocur on the- 29th of 
February^ 1680, and as we fell down the River,vYe met 
with feveral Companies of Savages, vyho returned to 
their Habitations, with their FyrogMes or Wooden- 
Canou's, loaded with the Bulls they had kill'd : they 
would fain perfuade us to return with them, and the 
two Men who were with "me, v/ere very Willing to 
follow their Advice •, telling me that M. U Salle had as 
goodtohavemurther'dus: Butloppos'd their Der 
fign, and tol^them thatthereit of OLW.Mea would 
ftop them asthey fnould come by the Fort, if they 
offer'd to return, and fo we contiuu'd our Voyage, 
They confefs.'d to me the next Day, that they had, 
'^ ■ ' I 3 ' refolv^d 

112 ^ ' A New Dlfcovery of 

refolv'd to leave me with the Savages, and make their 
Efcapewith theCanou and Commodities thinking 
that there was no Sin in that, finc^ M. la Salle was in- 
debted to them in a great deal more than their Va- 
lue^ and that I had been very fafe. This was the 
firfl Difcouragement I met with, and the Fore-run- 
ner of a great many others. 

The River of the Illwois is very near as deep and 
broad as the Aieufe and Smnhre before Namur ^ but we 
found feme Places where 'tis about a quarter of a 
League broad. The Banks of the River are not even, 
but interrupted w^th Hills, dispofs'd almolt at an e- 
qual diftance, and cover'd with fine Trees. The Val- 
ley between them is a Marfhy Ground, which is o- 
verfiowed after great Rains, elpecially in the Autumn 
and the Spring. We had the Curiofity to go up one 
of thofe Hills, fr(?m whence«ve difcoverdvafl Mea- 
dows, withForefts, fuch as we had feen before we 
arrived at the Village of the Illinois. The River flows 
fo foFtly,that the Current is hardly perceptible,except 
when it fwells : But it will carry at all times great 
Barques for above loo Leagues, that is, from the 
faid Village to its Mouth. It runs -diredly to the 
South-Welt. On the 7th of March we met, within 
two Leagues from the River Mefchafip^ a Nation of 
theSaYaQ^QscaWdTamaroaOY Maroa^ confiiting of a- 
bout 200 Families. They defign'd to bring us along 
with them to their Village, which lies to the Weft of 
Mcfcha/ipi\ about feven Leagues from the Mouth of the 
River of the Illinois-^ but my Men followed my Advice^ 
and v^ou'd not itop,in hopes to exchange thtirComnio- 
dities' with more Advantage in a more remote Place. 
Our Rcfolution was very good ^ for I don't queftion 
but they would have robb'd us ^ for feeing we had 
fome Arms,they thought we were going to carry them 
to their Eneniies, They purfued us i»thuv Xyrognes 
or Woodden-Canou's* -, but ours being made of Bark 
of Birch-lYees, and confequently ten times lighten 
than theirs,and better frara'd,vve laught af their En- 

A Large Country in America. ' iij 

deavours,and got clear of them. Thev had fent a Par- 
ty of their Warriours to lie in' Ambufcadeon a Neck 
of Land advancing into the Riyer,where they thought 
■ we fhould pafs that Evening or the next Morning •, 
but having difcover'd fome Smoak on that Point, we 
fpoii'd their Defign, and therefore crofs'd the River 
and landed in a fmall Ifland near the other fide, where 
we lay all the Night, leaving our Canou in the Wa- 
ter under the Guard of a little Dog; v/ho doubtlefs 
wou'd have awak'd us, if any body had offered to 
. come near him •, as we expecfted the Savages might 
attempt it fwimming over in the Night •, but no bo- 
dy came to dillurb us. Having thus avoided thofe 
Savages, we came to the Mouth of the River of the 
Jllinols^ diftant from their great Village about loo 
Leagues, and 50 from Fort Creveccear^ It falls into 
the Mefchafifi between 35. and 35 Degrees of Lati- 
tude,and within a 1 20 or 1 30 Leagues from the Gulph 
of Mexico^ According to our Conjecture, without in-- 
cluding the Turnings and Windings of the /i^efchajipi.^ 
from thence to the Sea. 

The Angle between the two Rivers on the South- 
fide is a lleep Rock of forty Foot high, and flat oa the 
Top, and confequently a fit Place to build a Fort ^ 
and on the other fide of the River ,the Ground appears 
blackifh, from whence I judge that it would prove 
fertile, and afford two Crops every Year for the fub- 
fifl;ence of a Colony. The Soil looks as if it had been 
already manur'd. 

The Ice which came dov/n from the Source of the 
■Mefchajipi^ ftopp'd us in that place till the 12th of 
March', for we were afraid of our Canou : But when 
we faw the Danger over, we continued eur Courfe 
founding the River, to knov/ whether it was naviga- 
ble. There are three fmall Iflands over-agaiail the 
Mouth of the River of the Ilii/iois, which flop the 
Trees and Piece's of I'lmber that come down the Pvi- 
ver ; which by fucceflion of time, has for m'd feme 
Banks : But the Canals are deep enoush for the greats 
■ • ■ I 4 ' ' : ^il 

ii4 A ISfew Difco^ery of 

eft Barques ^ and I judge that in the drieft Summer 
there is Water enough for flat-bottora-Boats. 

The Mefchafifi runs tq the South-South-Weft, be- 
tween two Ridges of Mountains, which follow the 
great Windings of the River. They are near the 
Banks, at the Mouth of the River of the ////wo/V, and 
are not very high •, but in other Places, they are fome 
Leagues diftant :, and the Meadows between the Ri- 
ver and the Foot of thofe Hills, are covered with an 
infinite number of wild Bulls. The Country beyond 
thofe Hills ^s fo fine and pleafant, that according to 
the Account I have had, one might juftly call it the 
Deligkft of America. 

The Mefchafifi is in fome places a League broad, 
and half a League where it is narrow eft. The Ra- 
pidity in its Current is fomewhat abated, by a great 
number of Iflands, cover'd with fine Trees interlac'd 
with Vines. It receives but two Rivers from the Weft 
Side, one whereof is calfd Otontema ^ and the other 
difcharges it felf into it near the Fall of St. Anthony 
of Tadoua^ as we fhall obferve hereafter ^ But fo ma- 
ny others run into the Mefchafifi from the North,that 
it fwells very much toward its Mouth. 

I am refolv'd to give here an Account of the Courle 
of that River ^ which I have hitherto conceal'd, for 
the 'Sake of M. la Salle., vyho v^ould afcribe to himfelf 
alone the Glory, and themoft fccret part of this Dif- 
covery-. He was fo fond of it, that he has exposed to 
vilible danger feveral Ferfons, that they might net 
publifti what they had k^n.^ and thereby prejudice 
fas fecret Deligns, 


a Large Country in America. 115 

CHAP, xxxvir. 

Tke Courfe of the River Mefchafipi/ro»2 the Mouth of the 
River of the Illinois, to the Sea j which the Author did 
not think fit t<fpiblijlj in ^/'j Louifiana ^ with an Account 
of the Reafons he had to undertake thut Difc'overy, 

THere is no Man but remembers with Pleafuretlffe 
great Dangers he has efcap'd ^ and I muft con- 
fefs, that when I call to mind the great Difficulties I 
was under at the Mouth of the River of the Illinois^ 
and the Perils I was expos'd to. in the Difcovery of 
the Courfe of the Mefchafipi^ my Joy and Satisfadion 
cannot be exprefs'd. I was as good as fure that M. la 
Salle would llander me, and reprefent me to my Su- 
periors as a willful and obftinate Man, if I prefum'd 
to go down the Mefchafipi inltead of going up to the 
North^ asl wasdefired, and as we had conferted to- 
gether^ and therefore I was very loath to undertake 
it : But on the other Hand, I was expos'd to flarve, 
and threatned by my two Men, that if I oppofed their 
Refolution of going down the River, they would 
leave me afhore during the Night, and carry away 
the Canou where-eyer they pleas'd ^ fo that I thought 
it was reafonable to prefer my own Prefer vation to 
the Ambition of M. la Salle yaad fo I agreed to follow 
my Men •, who feeing me in that gocd Difipofition,pro- 
mis'd that they would be faithful unto me. 

We fhook Hands, tofealthefe Promifes;, anjl af- 
ter Prayers imbark'd in our Canou the 8th of March 
idSo. The Ice which came down from the North, 
gave us a great deal of trouble j but vv^e were fo' 
careful, that our Canou received no hurt - and after 
^x hours Rowing, we came to a River of a Nation 
called Ofages^ who live toward the Mejforites, That 
River comes from the Wellward, and feems as big 
; gs the Mefchafipi-^ but the Water is fo muddy that 
'tis ^liTioIl xmDoffible to drink of it. 

y The 

1 15 J Ne V Difcovery of 

The Jff'iu^ who Inhabit towards the Source of the 
Mefchafipi^ make fometimes Excurfions as far as the 
Place where I was then ^ and I imderflood afterwards 
from them, having learned their Language, that this 
^iver oitht Ofa^es and Mejforites, is form'd fromfe- 
veral other Rivers which" fpring from a Mountain 
about twelve Day's Journey from its Mouth. They 
told me farther, that from that Mountain one might 
fte the Sea, and now and then fome great Ships -^ that 
the Banks of that River are inhabited by feveral Na- 
tions ^ and that they have abundance of wild Bulls and 

Tho'ihis River is very big, the Alefchafipi does not 
vifibly fwell by the acceflio^i of it •, but its Waters 
continue muddy to its Mouth, albeit feven other Ri- 
yers fall into it which are near as big as the Mefihafip 
and whofe Waters are extraordinary clear. 

We lay every Night in Iflands, at lead if it were 
pofiible, for our greater Security ^ and as foon as we 
had roBfled or boyl'd our hdiarj Corn, we were very- 
careful to put out our ^Fire ^ for in thefe Countries 
they fmell Fire at two of three Leagues diflance, ac- 
cording to the Wind. The Savages take a particu- 
lar notice of it, to difcover where their Enemies are 
and endeavour to furprizethem. 

The pth we continu'd our Voyage,and fix Leagues 
from the River of the Ofages^ difcover'd on the South- 
fide of the Mcfchajip^ a Village, which we thought 
to be inhabited by the Tatnaroa^ who ha4 purfu'd us, 
as I have related. Seeing nobody appear,^ we landed, 
and went into their Cabins, wherein we found /W/^« 
Corn, of which we took foine Bufhels, leaving iii 
'lieu of it lix Knives, and a fmall quantity of little 
Glafs Beads. This was good luck for us , for we 
durll not leave the River, and go a hunting for fear 
of falling into the Hands of the Savages. 

The next Day, being the Tenth of March^ we 
came to a River within Forty Leagues of T^wz^r^^j 
near which, as the /;7/?7i7/j informed us, there is a Na- 

A Large Country m America, 117 

tfon of Savages call'd Ouadehache. We remain'd there 
till the Fourteenth, becanfe one of our Men kill'd a 
' wild 'Cow, as flie was fvvimming over the River, 
whofe Flefh we were obliged to dry with Smoak, to 
preferve it from putrifying. Being thus'provided 
with Indian Corn and Flefh, we left that Place the 
Fourteenth, and faw nothing worth Obfervation. 
The Banks of the River are fo muddy, and fo full of 
Ruflies. and Reeds, that we had much ado to finda 
place to go aihore. 

The 15th we difcover'd three Savages, who 
came from Hunting, or from fome Expedition. As 
we were able to make head againft them, we landed, 
and march'd up to them ^ whereupon they run away; 
but after fome Signs, one returned,, and prefented us 
the Calumet of Peace, Which we received ; and the 
others came back. We did not underiland a Word of 
what they faid ^ nor they, I fuppofe, what we' told 
them : Tho' having nam'd them two or three differ- 
ent Nations, one anfwered three times Chikacha^ or 
Sikacha^ which was likely the Name. of his Nation. 
They gave us fome Pelicans' they had kill'd with 
their Arrows, and we prefented them with part of 
our- Meat. Our Canou being too little to^ take them 
in, they continu'd their way, making feveral Signs 
with their Hands to follow them along the Shore j 
but we quickly, loft the Sight of them. 

Two days after, we faw a great number of Sava- 
ges near the River-fide^ and heard immediately after ' 
ascertain Noife, as of a Drum ^ and as we came 
near the Shore, the Savages cry'd aloud Safacoiiefl ^ 
that is to iky^Whogoes there s' as I have been informed." 
We were unwilling to land ^ but they fent us a Fy^ 
rogue or heavy Woodden Canou, made of the Trunk 
of a Tree, which they made hollow with Fire ^ and 
and we difcover'd amongft them the three Savages we 
had met two Days before. We prefented our Calumet 
of Peace which they received ^ but gave us to un- 
^snlafld by Signs, that we mull: go to xh^Jhanfa ; 


iiS A New Difcovery of 

for they repeated fo often that Word, pointing at 
the Savages a-(hore, that I believe this is the right . 
Name of their Nation. We could not avoid it^and 
as foonaswewere landed, the three Chikacha took 
our Canon upon their Shoulders, and carry'd it to the 
Village. Thefe Savages received us very kindly, and 
gave us a Cabin for our felves alone ; and prefented 
us with Beans, Indian Corn, and Flelh to eat. We 
made them alfo feme Prefents of our European Com- 
modities, which they admir'd : They put their Fin- 
gers upon their Mouth, efpecially when they faw our 
Gunsj and I think this way of exprefling their Sur- 
prize, is common to all the Savages of the Northern 

Thefe Savages are very different from thofe of the 
North, who are commonly fad, penfive, andfevere; 
where as thefe appear jovial^ civil, and free. Their ' 
Youth are fomodefl that they dare not fpeak before 
Old Men, unlefs they are ask'd any Queltion. I ob- 
ferved they have tame Poultry, as Hens, Turkey- 
Cocks and Buftai'ds, which areastame asourGeefe. 
Their Trees began to "fhew their Fruit, as Peaches, 
and the like ^ which mufl be a great deal bigger than 
ours. Our Men lik'd very well the Manner of thefe 
People •, and if they had found any Furrs and Skins 
to barter for their Commodities, they would have 
left me amongil them; but I told .them, that our 
Difcovery was more important to them than their 
Trade ; and advis'd them to hide their Commodities 
under-ground, which they might take again upqji 
our return, and exchange them with the Savages of 
the North. They approv'd my Advice, and wer^ 
fenfible that they fhould prevent niany Dangers ^ fof 
Men are covetous in all Countries. 

The Eighteenth we embark'd again after having 
been entertained with Dancing' and. Feafling; and 
carry'd away our Commodities, tho'the Savages 
were very loath to part with them ; but having ac- 
cepted our Catiw-ct of Peace, they did not prcfume 
to flop us by Force C H A ^, 

tL Large Country in America^ 119 


A Contimtation ofonr Voyage on f /?e i^Z-z/f r Mefch^pi. 

AS we fell down the River we look'd for a fit 
Place to hide our Commodities, and atlaft 
pitched upon fcne between two Eminences near a 
Wood. We took up the, green Sodds, laid'thera 
by, and diggM a Hole in the Earth, where we put 
our Goods, and cover'd them with Pieces okTimber 
and Earth, and then put on again the green Turf ^ 
fo that it was impoflible to fufped that any Hole had 
been digg'd under it, for we flung the Earth into 
the River. We tore afterward the Bark of there 
Oaks and of a large Cotten-tree, and ingraved there- 
on four CrofFes, that we might not mifs the Place at 
our Return, We embarked ag^in with all fpeed, and 
pall; by another Village of Savages about Six Leagues 
from lAkanfa^ and then landed at another two Leagues 
-lower, where v>'e were kindly entertained •, Men, 
Women, and Children came to meet us-, which 
makes me believe that' the firft Akanfa had given no- 
tice.of our Arrival, to all the Villages of their Na- , 
tion. We made them fome Prefents of little Value, 
, which they thought very confiderable. Prefents are 
the Symbols of Peaf e m all thofe Countries. 

The Twenty firft thofe Savages carry'd us in a P)'- 
rogue to fee a Nation farther off into the Countryj 
which "they call Taenfa ^ for they repeated often that 
Word, fo that we could not but remember it. Thofe 
Savages inhabit the Banks of a Lake form'd by the 
Mefchafifi j l^it I had not time enough to make any 
particular Obfervation concerning feveral of the 
Villages which I faw. 

Thefe Savages received us with much more Cere- 
monies than the Akanfa •, for their Chief came in 
great Solemnity t04he. Shore to meet us. He had a 


1 20 A New Difcovery of 

kind of a white Gown on, made of Cloth of Bark 
of Trees, which their Women fpun •, and two Men 
carry'd before hjm a thin Plate of Copper, as fhining 
as Gold. We prefented our Calumet of Peace, which 
he receiv'd with Joy and much Gravity. The Men, 
Women and Children, who attended him, exprefs'd* 
a great Refped for me, and kifs'd the Sleeves of the 
Uahit of St. Francis ^ which made'toe believe that 
they had feen fome Spamjk Francifcms from New Mex- 
ico^ it being ufual there to kifs the Habit of our Order : 
But this is a meer Conjefture^ tho' I obferv'dthey 
did not pay that Refpcct to the two Men that were 
with me. 

The Taenfa condnded us into a line Cabin of flat 
Rnlhes and fhining Reeds, and entertain'd us as well 
as their Country could afford; and then Men and 
Women, who are half cover'd in that Country, 
danc'd together before hs. Their way of Dancing is 
much more difficult than ours, but perhaps as pleafant, 
were it not for their Mufick, which is very difagree- 
able. Women repeat every Word the Men have fung. 

That Country is full of Palm-trees, wild Laurels, 
Plum-trees, Mulbery-trees, Peach-trees, Apple-trees, 
and \A^alnut-trees of five or lix kinds, whofe Nuts 
are a great deal bigger than ours. They have 'alfb 
feveral forts, of Fruit-trees unknown in Europe^ but I 
could not difcern the Fruit, becaufe of the Seafon of 
the Year. 

The Manners and Temper of that Nation is very 
different from th*t of the Iroquefe^ Hnr*orJs^ and Illinois 
Thefe are Civil, Eafie, Tradable, and capable of 
Inftrudions ; whereas tjhe others are meer Brutes, as 
fierce and cruel as any wild Beafts. • We lay that 
Night in their Village, and were entertain'd as civilly 
as we could have wifn'd for ; and w ; did likevvife our 
utmofl to oblige them : We Ihevv'd them the Effed of 
our Firc-Arms, and a- Piftol which fhot four Bullets 
one after another, without needine; to be new charg'd 


a Large Count fy in America. I2i 

Our Men took their beft Cloth, which pleas'd them 
very much •-, and they feem'd well fatisfy'd with ns, 
as they exprefs'd by many Signsand Demouftrations. 
They feat over-night to the Koroa^ who are their Al- 
lies, to give them notice of our Arrival \ and their 
Chief came the next Morning in great Ceremony to 
fee usr They feem'd tranfported with Joy, and 'tis 
great pitty we could not* underlland what they told* 
us, to know what Opinion they entertain'd of us, 
and from what Part of the World they fanlicd we 
came. I order'd my Men to fquare a Tree,. and ha- 
ving made a Crofs, we planted it near the Cabin 
where we lay. 

■ The Twenty fecond we left that obliging People 
and the Chief of the Koroa attended us to his Vi^ 
lage, which is fituated about ten Leagues lower, upon 
the River, in a fertile Soil, which produces abun- 
dance of India-n Corn , and other things neceffary 
for Life. We prefented them with three Axes, fix 
Knives, ^^^f^ Yards of good Tobacco, feveral Awls 
and Needles. They receiv'd ourPrgfents with great 
Shouts, and their Chief prefented us withaG^to^r 
of Peace of red Marble, the Qinll whereof "was- 
adorn'd with Feathers of five or fix forts of Birds. 

They gave us alfo a Noble Treat according to their 
own way, which I lik'd very well ^ and after we had 
din'd, the Chief of that Nation underilanding by our 
Signs which way we were bound, took a Stick, and 
made fdch IFemonftrations, that we underltood that 
we Ead not above feven Days Journey to the Sea, 
which he reprefented as a great Lake with large 
wooden Canon's. The next 031^"^ we -prepared to 
Continue our Voyage^ but they made fuch Sign^to 
oblige, us to flay a Day or two longer, that I "was 
almoll perfuaded to do it j byt feeing the Weather 
fo favourable for our Journey, we em bark'd again. 
The Chief of that Nation, feeing v/e were refolv'd 
to be gone, fent feveral Men in two Pyrc&ues^ to at- 
tend us to the^ Mouth of tht River with Provifions 5 

■ but 

122 • A New Difcovevy of 

but when I faw that the three Chlhacha^ of whom I 
have fpoken, followed us every where, I bid my Men 
to have care of them, and obferve. their Motions 
upon our landing, for fear of any Surprize. It was 
then E^fier-day^ which we kept with great Devoticrn 
tho' we could not fay Mafs for want of Wine ^ but 
we fpent all the Day in Prayers in fight of the Sa- 
■ vages, who wonder'd much at it. 

, The Mefchafifi divides it felf into two Channels, 
and thereby forms a large Ifland, which to our think- 
ing was .very long, and might be about fixty Leagues 
broad. The Korea ohW^d us to follow the Canal to 
the Weftward, tho' the Chikacha^ who were in their 
Pyro^ues^ endeavour'd to perfwade me to take the 
ftther : But as we had fome fufpicion of them, we 
r'efus'd to follow their Advice ^ tho I was afterwards 
convinc'd, that they defign'd only to have the Ho- 
nour to bring, us to feveral Nations on the other fide 
of the .River, whom we vifited in our Return. 

We loft quickly the Company of our Savages ^ for 
the Stream being very rapid in this Place, they could 
not follow us in their Pyrognes^ which are very heavy. 
We made that Day near forty Leagues, and landed 
in the evening upon the Ifland, where we pitch'd 
our Cabin. 

The Twenty fourth we continued our Voyage ; 
Jind about five and thirty Leagues below the Place 
we had lain, we difcover'd two Fifhermen, who Im- 
mediately ran away. We heard fome* time after a 
great Cry, and the Noife of a Drum j but as we fulpe- 
ded the Chikacha^ v/e kept in the middle of the Ri- 
ver, rowing as fq/l as we could. This was theNa- 
ti(^n of Qiiimpifa^ as we underftood fince. We land- 
ed* that Night in a Village belonging to the Nation 
of Tangihac^ as we h^ve been informed j but the In- 
liabitaiits had been furj^riz'd by their Enemies , for 
we found ten of them murther'd in their Cabins ; 
which obliged us to embark again, and crofs the Ri- 
ver, where we landed; and having made a Fire , 
roaited our I/idia}2 Corn. The ' 

, a Large Country m America. 12^ 

^The Twenty Fifth we left the Place early in th^ 
Morning ^ and after having row'd the befl part of the 
iDay came to a Point where the Mefchafifi divides i^ 
felf into three Qhanels : We tooke the middle one, 
which is very Broad and Deep. The Water began 
there to talle brackifh,but four Leagues Lower it was 
as laltas the Sea. We rowed about four Leagues far- 
ther, and difcovered the Sea, which obliged us to go 
a-lhore to the Eaftward of the River. 


Rtafons which obliged m to return towards the Source df 
the River Mefchafipi, rvithoptt going any farther to- 
' ward the Sea. 

MY two Men were very much afraid of the 5p4- 
niardi of New Mexico^ who inhabit to the 
Weflward of this River j and they were perpetually 
telling me, that if they were taken, the Spaniards 
would ne^r Ipare their Lives or at leafl; give them 
the Liberty to return itito Europe. I knew their Fears 
were not altogether tmreafonable ; and therefore I 
refolved to go no further, tho' I had no reafon to be 
afraid for my felf, our Order being fo numerous in 
New Mexico^ that, on the contrary, I might exped to 
have had in that Country a peaceable and eafie Life. 

I don't pretend to be a Mathematician, but having 
learned to take the Elevation • of the Pole, and make 
ufe of the Aftrolabe, I might have made fome ex^dl 
Obfervations, had M. la Salle trufted me with that 
Inftrument : However , I obferved that the Mefchafipi 
falls into the Gulph of Mexico^ between the 27th^nd 
28th Degrees of Latitude, where, as I believe, our 
Maps mark a River call'd Rio Efcondido, the Hidden 
River. The Alagdalen River runs between this River 
and the Mines of St.Barbe that are ia New Mexico. 

K The 

124 ANervDiJcoveryof, 

The Mouth of the Mefchafpi may be about tbirty 
Leagues from i?/o Bravo^{ixty from Talmas^ and eighty 
or a hundred from Flo Pannco^ the nearelt Habitation 
of the Spamards ^ and according to theft Obfervati- 
ons, the Bay dl Spirlto SanElo lies to the North-Eafl of 
the Mefchajip^ which from the Mouth of the River 
of the ilhmis to the Sea, runs diredly to the South, 
or South-Well, except in its Windings and Turnings, 
which are fo great, that by our Computation there 
are about 340 Leagues from the River of the Illinois 
to the Sea, whereas there are not above.i 30 in a di- 
reftLine. The yI/(?/t^^/p/ is very deep, without be- 
ing interrupted by any Sands, fo that the biggeft 
Ships may come into it. Its Courfe from its Source 
to the Sea may be 800 Leagues, including Windings 
and Turnings, as 1 Ihall obferve anon, having tra- 
velled from its Mouth to its Head. 

My. Men were very glad of this Difcovery, and to 
have efcaped lb many Dangers ^ but on the other 
hand, they exprefs'd a great deal of di{Iatisfacti<^n to 
have been at fuch trouble without making any pi'9" 
iit, having found no Furrs to exchange for their 
Commodities. They were fo impatient to return, 
that they would never fufTer me to build a Cabin up- 
on the Shoar, and continue there for fome days, the 
better to obferve where wc were. They fquar'd a 
Tree of twelve foot high, and made a Crofs thereof, 
which we ereded in that Place, leaving there a Let- 
ter figned by me and my two Men, containing an 
Account of our Voyage, of our Country, and Fro- 
fefiion. We kneel'd then near the Crofs,and having 
{ntig I'vi^Ve xilla Regis ^ and fome other Hymns, em- 
l}arked again on the firlt of wlpi'l to return towards 
the Source of the River. 

We faw no Body while we continued there, and 
therefore cannot tell whether any Natives inhabit 
thatCoall. We lay, during the time we remain'd 
a-fhore, under our Canon's fupportcd with four 
Forks 5 and the better toproted usagainfttheRain, 


d Large Country in America. 125 

we had fome Rolls of Birch-Bark, wherewith we 
made a kind of Curtains about our Canou, hanging 
from the top down to the ground. 'Tis obfervable, 
that during the whole Courfe of our Sailing, God 
protefted us againft the Crocodiles, which are very- 
numerous in that River, and efpecially towards the 
Mouth: Theylook'd dreadful, "and would have at- 
tack'd us, had we not been very careful to avoid 
them. We were very good H^usbands o^om Indian 
Corn ^ for the Banks of the River being full of Reeds, 
it was almoft irapoflible to land to endeavour to kill 
fome Bealfs for our Subfiflence. 

Our Canou being loaded only with three Men and 
xdur Provifions, did not draw three" Inches-Water, 
and therefore we could row very near the Shore, 
and avoid the Current of the River ^ and befides, my • 
Men had fuch a delire to return to the North, That 
that very Day we came to Ta?7gibao ^ but becaufe the 
Savages we had found murther'd in their (Cabins, 
made us believe that that Place was not fafe, we 
continued our Voyage all the Night long, after ha- 
ving fupp'd, lighting a great Match to fright the Cro- 
codiles away, for they fear nothing fo much as Fire. 

The next day, Afrili, we faw towards break of 
Day a great Smoak not far from us, and a little while 
after we difcovered four Savage Women loaded with 
Wood, and marching as faft as they could to get to 
their Village before us-, but weprov'd too nimble for 
them at firft. However fome Buftards coming near 
us, one of my Men could not forbear to fhoot at 
them ; which fo much frighted thefe Women, that 
they left their load of Wood, and run away to their 
Village, where they arrived before us. The Savages 
having heard the Noife, were in as great fear as 
their Wives, and left their Village upon our approach j 
but I landed immediately, and advanced alone with 
the Calumet of Peace •, whereupon they returned, 
and received us with all theRefped and Civility ima- 
ginable. They brought us into a great Cabin, and 
K 2 gave 

126 A Netv Difcovery cf 

gave us feveral things to eat, fending notice in the 
mean time to their Allies, that we were arriv'd there ^ 
fo that a great number of People crowded about to fee 
us. They admired our Guns, and lifting up their 
Hands to Heaven, made us Conceive- they compar'd 
them to Thunder and Lightning ^ but feeing us fhoot 
Birds at a great dillance, they were fo amazed, that 
they could not fpeak a word. Our Men were fo 
kindly entertained, that had it notbe^ for the Com- 
modities they had hid under Ground, they would 
have remained among that Nation ^ and truly it 
was chiefly to prevent any fuch thing that I ordered 
them to do it^ judging from the Civility of thofe 
Savages, that they were like to be tempted to re- 
main with them. This Nation calfd themfelves 

We made them fome fmall Prefents, to fhew our 
Gratitude for their kind Entertainment, and left that 
Place Ji^ril 4. and row'd with fuch diligence that 
we arrived the fame Day at Koroa. That Nation was 
not frighted as at the firfl time, but receiv'd us with 
all imaginable Deitionllrations of Joy, carrying our 
Canou upon their Shoulders in a triumphant manner, 
and twelve Men dancing before us with fine Feathers 
in their hands. The Women followed us with their 
Children, who held me by my Gown and Girdle, 
exprefljng much the fame kindnefs to my two Men. 
They condnded me in that manner to the Cabin 
they had prepar'd for us, made of fine Mats of paint- 
ed Ruihes^ and adorned with white Coverings made 
x)f the Bark of Trees, fpun as finely as our Linnen 
Cloth ^ and after we had refrelhed our felve^, with 
the Victuals they had prepar'd for us,they left us alone 
to give us time to reft our felves, which we did all 
the Night long. The next Morning I was furpriz'd 
to fee their hidian Com^ which we left very green, 
grown already to Maturity ; but I have learned fince, 
that that Corn is ripe fixty Days after it is fown, I 
obfcrvcd there alio another fort of Corn \ but for 


a Large Country in America. 127 

want of underflanding their Language, I was not 
able to know its life and Name. 

C H A P. XL. 

An Account of our De^anure from Koroa, to ominite 
opir Voyage, 

I Left KoYoa the next Dsq^ April 5«. with a defign to 
viiit feveral Nations inhabiting the Coall of the 
ylt/^y^^^/p/, but my Men would never confent there- 
unto, telling me that they had no bufinefs there, 
and they were obliged to make all the hafl they could 
towards the North, to exchange their Commodities 
for Furrs. I told them that the Publick Good was 
to be preferr'd to Private Interell ^ but I could not 
perfwade them to any fuch thing ^ and they ^Id me 
that every one ought to be free^ that they were refolv'd 
to go towards the Source of the River, but that I 
might remain amongll thofe Nations, if I thought 
fit. In fhort, I found my felf obliged to fubmit to 
their Will, though they had receiv'd Orders to obey 
my Diredion. \A^e arriv'd the 7th in the Habitati- 
on of the Taenfasj who had already been informed 
of our return from the Sea, and were prepared to re- 
ceive us J having for that end fent for their Allies in- 
habiting the in-land Country to the Weft-ward of 
the River. They us'd all poflible endeavours to oblige 
us to remain with thenf, and offered us a great many . 
things •, but our Men would not Hay one lingle Day •, 
though I confefs the Civility of that People, and the 
good Difpolition I obferved in them, ' would have 
Itopp'd meamongit them, had I been provided with 
thi|igs necefTary for the Function of my Miniltry. 

We parted the 8th, and the Taehfas followed us fe- 

Yeral Leagues in their lightelt Vyrogiies^ but were at 

lafl obliged to quit us, being not able to keep pace 

^itli Gur^Canou. One of our Men faot three Wild.- 

- K 3 Pycksi 

I2S A NewDifcovery of 

Ducks at once, which they admir'd above all things, 
it being impoffible to do fb with their Arrows. XVe 
gave them feme Tobacco, and parted from them, our 
Men rowing with all their Strength, to let them fee we 
had kept company with them out of meer Civility. 

The 9th ■ we came to the Place where our Men had 
hidden their Commodities ^ but when my Men faw 
that the Savages had burnt the Trees which. we had 
mark'd, they were fo afraid, that they were near 
fowning away , and did not doubt but their Goods 
were loft. We went a-fhore^ and while I was 
mending our Canou, they went to look for their 
Treafure, which they found in good condition. They 
were fo tranfported with Joy, that Pkard came im- 
mediately to tell me that all was well. In the mean 
time, the Ahanfas haying received advice of our Re- 
turn, came down in great numbers along the River 
to m^t us ^ and left they Ihould fee our Men taking 
again nieir goods from under the Ground, I advan- 
ced to meet them with the Calumet of Peace, and 
ftopt them to fmoak, it being a facred Law amongft 
theni to fmoak in fuch a Jundure; and whotfoever. 
would refufe, muft run the danger of being mur- 
ther'd by the Savages, who have an extraordinary 
Veneration for the Calumet. 

Whilft I ftopt them, my Men put their Com- 
modities into their Canou, and came to take me into 
it. The Savages faw nothing of it, of which I 
was very glad ^ for though they were our own , 
perhaps they might claim part of them upon fome 
Pretence or other. I m.ade feverai hgns upon the 
Sand, to make them apprehend what I thought ^ 
but with what Succefs I don't know, for I could not 
underftand a word of what they faid , their Lan- 
guage having no affinity with thofe of their Neigh- 
bours I have' conversM withall , both fince and after 
my Voyage to the Mouth of the Alefchafip, 

I got into the Canou, and went by Water to th^ 
Village of the ■Manfa's^ while they went by Land \ 


a Large Country in America. 129 

but our Men row'd fo fafl, that they could hardly 
keep pace with us. One of them, who was a good 
JRunner, arriv'd at the Village before, us, and came 
to the Shoar with the Women and Children to 
receive us, which they did even with more Civility 
. than they had exprefs'd the firft time. Our Men fuf- 
pefted that this was only to get our Commodities, 
which they admir'd ^ but they are certainly a good 
Ibrt of People ^ and inftead of deferving the Name 
of a Barbarous Nation, as the Europeans call all the 
Natives of America^ I think they have more Huma- 
nity than many Natives of Europe^ who pretend to 
be very civil and affable to Strangers. 

It would be needlefs to give here an exad Account 
of the Feafts and Dances that were made for our 
Entertainment, or of the Melancholy they ejprefs'd 
upon our Departure. I muft own, that I had much 
a-do to leave them, but my two I\len would not give 
me leave to tarry a day, feeing thefe Nations, having 
had no Commerce with the Europeans^ did not know 
' the Value of Beavers Skins, or other Furrs, whereas 
they thought that the Savages inhabiting about the 
Source of tlie Mefchafipi^ might have been inform'd 
thereof by the Inhabitants of the Banks of the upper 
or Great Lake, which we found to be true, as we 
fhall obferve anon. We left the Akanfd's upon the 
24th of April^ having prefented them with feveral 
little Toys, which they*receiv'd with an extraordi- 
nary Joy^ and during lixty Leagues,. faw no Savage 
iieither of the Nation of Chikacha^ or Mefforite^ which 
made us believe they were gone a hunting with their 
Families, or elfe fled away, for fear of the Savages 
of Thitonha^ that is to fay, fuch as inhabit the Mea- 
dows, who are their irreconcileable Enemies. 

This made our Voyage the more ealie, for our 
Men landed feveral times to kill fbme Fowl and 
other Game, with which the Banks of the Alefchafipt 
are plentifully ftock'd j however, before we came to 
the Mouth of the River of the Illmois^ we difcover'd 
. K 4 fviv'cral. - 

1 50 -^ A^ftv Dlfeovery of 

feveral of the Mefforites^ who came down all alorig the 
River ^ but as they had Tio Vyrogues with them, we 
crofs'd to the other fide •, and to avoid any Surprize 
during the Night, we made no fire \ and thereby the 
Savages could not difcover whereabout we were *, 
for doubtlefs they would have murther'd us, thinking 
we were their Enemies. 

I had quite forgot to relate, that the Illinois had 
told us, that towards the Cape, which I have call'd 
in my Map St. Anthony near the Nation of the Mef- 
forites^ there were fome Tritons^ and other Sea-Mon- 
fters painted, which theboldeft Mendurfl not look 
upon, there being fome Enchantment in their Faces. 
I thought this was a Story ^ but when we came near 
the Place they had mention'd, we fav/ inftead of thefe 
Monflers, a Horfe and fome other iBeafts painted up- 
on the Rock with red Colours by the Savages. The 
Illi??Q:s had told us likewife, that the Rock on which 
thefe dreadful Monfters Itood,^ was fo deep that no 
Man could climb up to it , but had we not been 
afraid of the Savages more than of the Monflers, we 
had certainly got up to them. There is a common 
Tradition amongft that People, That a great num- 
ber of Miami's were drown'd in that Place, ■ being 
purfued by the Savages of Matfigamea-^ andiince 
that tim,e the Savages going by the Rock, ufe to fmoke 
and offer Tobacco to thofe Beafts to appeafe, as they 
fay, the Maniton^ that is, in^the Language of the Al- 
goncjuinsdxAAccadlans^ an evil . Spirit, which the/ro- 
quefe call Othn •, but the Name is the only thing they 
know of him. 

While I was at Quebec^ I underltood that M. Jol- 
//f? had been upon the Mefchafip^ and obi ig'd tore- 
turn without going down that River, becaufe of the 
Monfters I have fpoken of, who had frighted him, as 
alfo becaufe he was afraid to be taken by the Sfo,- 
niards ^ and having* an opportunity to know the Trutji 
of that Story from M. JolUct hirafelf, with whom 
I had often TravelFd upon the River St. Laurence^ I 


A Large Country in America. iji 

ask'd him whether he had been as far as the Ahanfa^s ? 
That Gentleman anfwer'd me. That the O/ataonats 
had often fpoke to him of thofe Monfters ^ but that^he 
had never gone farther than thQ Hptrons sindOiittaouatSj 
with whom we had remain'd to exchange our European 
Commodities with their Furrs. He added, that the 
Savages had told him, that it was riot fafe to go down 
the River, becaufe of the Spaniards. ' But notwith- 
llanding this Report, I have found no where upon 
that River any Mark, or CrolTes, and the like, that 
could perfuade me that the Spaniards had been there. ^ 
and the Savages inhabiting the Mefchafipi would not 
have exprefs'd fuch Admiration as they did when they 
faw us, if they had feen any' Europeans before. Til 
pxamjne this Quellion m-ore at large in my Second 


\A particular Account of the River Mefchafipi^ Of the 
Country through which it flows ^ andoftheMi'nes of 
Copper^ Lead and Coals we difcovered in our Voyage. 

FRorn thirty Leagues below Maroa^ down to the 
Sea, the Banks of the Mefchafipi are full of Reeds 
pr Canes ^ but w^e obferv'd about forty places, where 
one may land with great Facility. The River 
overflows its Banks now and then ^ but the In- 
undation is not very confiderabie, becfbfe of the lit- 
tle Hills which flop its Waters. The Country beyond 
thofe Hills is the finefl that ever I faw, it being a 
Plain, wiiofe bounds I don't know, adorned nov/ and , 
then with fome Hills and Eminences covered with 
fine Trees, making the rareft Prolped in the World. 
The Banks of the fraall Rivers flowing through the 
Plain, are planted with Trees, v/hich look as if they 
had been diipofed into that curious Order by the Art 
of Men, and they are plentifully flock'd with Fiih, 

' ' as 

1^2 J Neiv Difcovery of 

as well as the Mefcha/ipl. The Crocodiles are very 
dangerous upon this e^reat River, as I have already 
obferv'd ; and they devour 'a Man if they can fur- 
prize him ^ but it is eafie to avoid them,for they don't 
fwim after Men nor follow them a-lhore. 

The Country affords all forts of Game, as Tur- 
key-Cocks, Partridges, QuaiIs,Parrots, Wood-Cocks, 
Turtle Doves, and Wood-Fid geons^ and abundance 
ofwild Bulls, wild Goats, Stags, Beavers, Otters, 
Martins, and wild Cats : But as we approached nearer 
the Sea, we faw no Beavers. I defign to give a par- 
ticular Account of thefe Creatures in another place *, 
in the mean tim e' we fhall take notice of two others, 
who are unknown in Europe. 

I have already mentioned a little Animal, ^ike a 
Musk'd-Rat, that M. la Salle kilFd as we came from 
Fort Miamis to the Illinois^ which deferves a particu- 
lar Defcription. It looks like a Rat as to the Shape 
of its Body, but it is as big as a Cat. His Skin looks 
Silver-like, with fome fair black Hair, which makes 
the Colour the more admirable. His Tail is without 
any Hair, as big as a Man's Finger, and about a 
Foot long, v/herewith he hangs himfelf tothe Boughs 
of Trees. That Creature has under the Belly a kind 
of a Bag, wherein they put their young ones when 
they are purfu'd ; which is one of the mofl wonder- 
ful things of the World, and a clear Demonftration 
of the Providence and goodnefs of the Almighty, 
whotakes fo mrticular a care of the meanefl of his 

There is no fierce Beaft in all that Country that 
dares attack Men ^ for the Mcchibichi^ the molt terri- 
ble of all, and who devours all other Bealls whatfo- 
ever, runs away upon the approach of a Savage, 
The Head of that Creature is very like that of the 
ipottcd Lynx, but fomewhat bigger : His Body is 
long, and as large as a Wild Goat, but his Legs are 
fnortcr ^ hjs Paws are like a C^t's-Foot ^ but the 
Claw€ arc fo long and ftrong, that no other Bcaft 

I an 

a Large Country in America. i ^ ^ 

can refill them. When they have killed any Beafl, 
they eat Part of it, and carry the reft upon their 
Back to hide it in the Woods \ and I have been told 
that no other Beaft durfi; meddle with it. Their Skin 
is much' like that of a Lion, as well as their Tail : 
but their Head is much bigger. 

TheSavages gave us to under Hand that to the Weft- 
ward of their Habitation, there are fome Beafls who 
carry Men uppn their Backs, and (hew'd us the Hoof 
and part of the Leg of one, which was certainly the 
Hoof of a Horfe j and furcly Horfes mull not 
be utterly unknown in the Northern America: 
for then how could the Savages have drawn up- 
on the Rock I have mentioned, the Figure of that 
Animal ? 

They have in that Country all forts of Trees we 
have in Europe^ and a great many other unknown to 
us. There are the fineft Cedars in the World ^ and 
another fort of Tree, from which drops a mofl fra- 
grant Gum, which in my opinion exceeds our belU 
Perfumes. The Cotton-Trees are of a prodigious 
height ^ the Savages make them hollow with Fire, to 
make their Pyro^^^j of them ^ and we have feen fome 
of them all of a Piece, above an hundred Foot long. 
The Oak is fo good, that 1 believe it execeds ours for 
Building Ships. 1 have obferved that Hemp grows 
Naturally in that Country, and that they make Tarr 
and Pitch towards the Sea-CoaHs ^ and as I don't que- 
llion but that there are fome Iron-Mines, the Build- 
ing of Men of War would be Very cheap in the Ri- 
ver Mefchajtpi. 

I took notice in my Defcription of Loitipana^ that 
there are vail Meadows, which need not to be grubb'd 
lip, but are ready for the Plow and Seed ^ and cer- 
tainly the Soil mull be very fruitful, iince Beans grow 
Naturally without any Culture. Their Stalks fubiill 
feveral Years, bearing Fruit in the proper Seafons : 
They are as big as ones Arms, and climb up the high- 
cfl Trees, jull as Ivy does. The Peach- Trees are 


1^4 A Nerv Difcovery of > 

like ours, and fo fruitful, that they wou'd break if 
they were not fupported. Their Forefts are full of 
Mulberry-Trees and Plnm-Trees, whofe Fruit is be- 
musk'd. They have alfo plenty of* Pomegranate- 
Trees and Cheftnut-Trees : and 'tis obfervable, that 
all thefe Trees are cover'd with Vines, whofe Grapes 
are very big and fweet. 

They have three or four Crops of Indian Corn in 
one Year^ for they have no other Winter than fome 
Rain. We had not time enough to look for Mines ^ 
but we found in feveral Places fome Pit-Coal^ and 
the Savages Ihew'd us great Mines of Lead and Cop- 
per. They have alfo Quarries of Freeftone ^ and 
of black, white, and Jafper-like Marble, of which 
they make their Cahmiets. 

Thefe Savages are good-naturd Men, affable, ci- 
vil, and obliging ^ but I defign to make a particular 
Tract concerning their Manners, in my Second Fo- 
lame. It feeins they have i^o Sentiments' of Religi- 
*on \ though one may judge from their Aftions, that 
they have a kind of Veneration for the Sun, which 
they acknowledge, as it feems, for the Maker and • 
Preferver of all things. 

When the NadoMeJfians and Ifiti take Tobacco, they 
look upon the Sun, which they call in their Language 
Louis ^ and as foon as they have lighted their Pipe, 
they prefent it to the Sun with thefe Words Tchen- 
dioitha Louis^ that is to fay Smoak Sun ^ which I took 
for a kind of Adoration. I was glad when I heard 
that this only Deity was call'd Zow>, becaufe it was 
alfo my Name. They call the Moon Lonli. Bafatfche 
that is to fay. The Sim of the Night ^ fo that the Moon 
and Sun have the fame iSlanie, except that the Moon 
is'diftinguifh'd by the V^foxd. Bafatfche. 

They offer alfo to the Sun the bell Part jof the 
Beail they kil]^ which they carry to the Cabin of 
their Chief, who makes his Profit thereof, and mum- 
bles feme Words as it raifes. They offer alfo the fir/t 
Smoak of their Cdamcts^ and then blow the Smoak 


A Large Country in America. . 135 

towards the four Corners of the World. This is all 
1 have obferv'd concerning their Religion ^ which 
makes me believe that they have a Religious Venera- 
tion for the Sun. » 


An Account of the varlms Languages of the Nations hihor 

' biting the Banks of the Mefchallpi -^ of their Submijfion 

to their Chief '^ of the Differ e}jce of their Ma?mersfrom 

the Savages of Canada ^ and of the Difficulties , or 

rather ImfojfihUities attending their Converfion. 

'ryi I s very ftrange that every Nation of the Sava- 
\_ ges of th*^ Northern America fhould have a pe- 
culiar Language^ for though fome of them live not 
ten Leagues one from another,they muft ufe an Inter- 
preter to talk together, there being no univerfal Lan- 
guage amongil them ^ as one may call the Lingua, 
Fra-nca^ which is underftood ^pon all the Coaft of the 
Mediterranean-Sea \ or the Latin Tongue, common to 
all the Learned Men of Europe, However thofe, who 
live fo near one another, underftand fome Words 
us'd among their Neighbours, but not well enough to 
treat together without an Interpreter ; and therefore 
they us-d to fend one of their Men to each of their Al- 
lies, to learn their Language, and remain with them 
^s their Relident, and take Careof their Concerns. 

Thefe Savages differ from thofe of Canada both in 
their Manners, Cuftoms, Temper,* Inclinations, 
and even in the Shape of their Heads \ thefe of the 
ALefchafipi havmo, their Heads very flat. They' have 
large Places in their Villages, where they meet to- 
gether upon any publick Rejoycings ^ and where 
they have pubHck Games at Certain Seafons of the 
Year. They are lively and adive, having nothing 
of that MorOlity and Penfivenefs of the Iroquefe and 
others. Their Chiefs have a more abfolute Autho- 

1^6 A New Difcovery of 

rity than thofe of the other Savages, which Power" 
is very narrow^ and thofe who live the neareftto 
the Month of the River, have flich a Deference for 
their Chief, that they dare no$ pafs between him and 
a Flambeau, which is always carry'd before him in 
all Ceremonies. Thefe Chiefs have Servants and Of- 
ficers to wait upon them t They diftribute Rewards 
and Prefents as they think fit. In fhort, they have 
amongfb them a Form of Political Government 5 
and I muft own they make a tolerable ufe of their 
Reafon. • 

They were altogether ignorant of Fire- Arms, and 
all other Inftruments and Took of Iron and St^el, 
their Knives and Axes being made of Flint, and other 
lliarp Stones : And whereas we were told that the 
Sf awards of New-A'fexico liv'd not above forty 
Leagues from them, and fupply'd them with all the 
Tools and other Commodities of Europe ^ we found 
nothing among them that might Befufpeded to colne 
tr^^m the Eurofcani^ unlefs it be fome little pieces of 
Glafs ftrung upon. a Thread, with which their Wo- 
men ule to adorn their Heads. They wear Brace- 
lets and Ear-Rings of -fine Pearls, which they fpoil 
having nothing to boar them with , but by Fire. 
They made us to underftand that they have them in 
exchange for their Calnmets^ from fome Nations in- 
habiting the Coaft of the great Lake to the South- 
ward, which I take to be the Gidfh of Florida, 

ril fay nothing here, or at leaft very little, con- 
cerning their Converlion, referving to difcourfe 
fully upon that Subjed, in another K<?/^/w^, wherein 
I promife my felf to undeceive many People about 
the falfe Opinions they entertain on this Matter. 
Wlicrever the Apofties appear'd, they converted 
fo great a number ofPeople,that theGofpei was known 
and believ'd in a fhort time, thru'"' moll.*part of the then 
known World. But our Modern Millions are not 
attended with that Grace and Power, and therefore 
we are not to expert thofe miraculous Converlions. I 

a. Large Country in America. i.^ 

have imparted to therrt, as well as I cou'd, tjaechief 
and general Truths of the Chriftlan Reliffl^n : But, as 
I have obferv'd already, the Language-s of thofe Na- 
tions having little or no Affinity one with another, 
I cannot Hiy that my Endaavonrs have been very fuc- 
cefsful, tho' I learn^d the Language of the Ijfati 
or Nadouffians , and imderftood indifferently well 
that of the IlUmis: But the Truths of Chriftianity are 
fo fublime, that I fear, neither my words nor 
Signs and Adions have beeoL able to give them an 
Idea of what I preach'd unto them. GOD alone, 
who knows the Hearts of Men, knows alfo what 
Siiccefs my Endeavours hav6 had. The Baptifm I 
have adminifter'd to feveral Children, of whofe 
Death I was morally afTur'd , is the only certain 
Fruit of my Miffion. But after all, I have only difr 
cover'd the Way for other Miffionaries, and fhall be 
ready at all times to return thither, thinking my felf 
very happy if I can fpend the reft of my Da yes ia 
endeavouring my own and other Mens Salvation-, 
and efpecially in favour of thofe poor Nations, who 
have been hitherto ignorant of their Creator and 
Redeemer. But left I fhould tire the Reader, I reaf- 
fume the Thread of my Difcourfe. , 


Ai Acconm of the Fljhery of the Sturgeons ^ and of the 
Courfe we took^ for fear- of meeting fame of our Men 
from Fort Crevecoeur. 

E embarqu^d the Twenty fourth of ^f r//, as 
I have already faid ^ and our Provifions being 
fpent fome dayes after, we had nothing to live upon 
but the Game we kill'd, or the Filh we cou'd catch. 
Stags, and wild Goats, and evea wild Bulls are pretty 
fcarce toward the Mouth of the River of the lilwols ; 
for this Nation comes as far as the Mefchafip to hunt 


i^S A NerV^Difcovery of 

them ^ but by good chance we found a great quan- 
tity of Sturgeon, with lang Bllls^ as we calFd them, 
from the fhape of their Head. It was then the Sea- 
fon that the Fifhes fpawn ^ and they come as near 
the Shore they can;, fo€hat wekill'd as many as 
^ we wou'd with our Axes andSwords, without fpend- 
' ing our Powder and Shott. They were fo numerous, 
that v/e took nothing but the Belly, ahd othe^ dainty 
Parts, throwing off the re/l. 

As we came near the^ Mouth of the Riyer of the 
Jllwois^ my Men began to be very much afraid to meet 
with their Comrades of Fort Creveccenr ^ for having 
not yet Exchang'd their Commodities, as they were 
order'd, and refus'd to go -Northward at firfl, as 
1 defir'd them they had great reafon to fear that they 
v/ou'd Hop them, and p,unifh them for not having 
followed my Direftions. I was likewife afraid that 
\ bythefe Means our Voyage toward, theSeawou'd 
be difcover'd, (there being fome Reafons to keep 
it fecret, as I fhall obferve in another placej and 
our farther Difcovery Ilopt \ and therefore to pre- 
vent any fuch thing, I advis'd them to row all the 
Night, and to reft our felves during the Day in the 
lilands, which are fo numerous in that River. The 
Trees and Vines wherewith thofe Iflands are cover'd 
arsb fo thick, that one can hardly land •, and fo we 
might lie there very fafe, it being impoffible to Dif- 
cover us. This Advice was approved, and thereby 
we avoided any Rencounter ; for I did not doubt but 
our Men came now and then from Fort Creveccenr^ 
to obferve the /t/<?/c/?^/f;', and get Intelligence of us. 
But when we found our felves pj-etty far from the 
River of the Illinois^ we ti-^avell'd in the Day-time, 
as we ufed to do, in order to make our Obfervations, 
and View the Country •, which does not appear fo 
fertil, nor cover'^d with fo fine Trees above the River i 
6f the Illinois^ as it* is below, down the Mefchafip to 
the Sea. 


a Large Country in -America. i^ 


Jlport Account of the Rivers that fall into the Melcha" 
lipi ^ of the Lale of Tears ^ of the Fall of St. Antho- 
ny ^ of the wild Oats of that Country j and fever at 
other Circumfiances of our Voyage, o 

NO Rivers, as I have already faid, run into the 
Mefchafifi between the River of the Illinois 2^x16. 
the Fall of St. Anthony^ from the Weft ward, but the 
River Ottenta^ and another which difcharges it felf 
into it within Eight Leagues of the faid Fall : But on 
the Eaftward we met v\rith a pretty large River, call'd 
Oiiifconfin^ or Mifconfi-n^wihich. Gomes from the North- 
ward. This River is near as large as that of the ////- 
nois ^ but I cannot give an exad Account of the 
length of its Courfe, for we left it about fixty Leagues 
from its Mouth, to make a Portage into another Ri- 
ver, which runs into the Bay of Pmns^ as I Ihall ob- 
ferve when I come to fpeak of our return from Ifjati 
into Canada. This River Ouifconfin, runs into the 
Mefchafifi about an hundred Leagues above that of 
the Illinois, 

Within five and twenty Leagues after,we met ano-" 
thcr River coming from the Eaftward, nam'd by tht 
IJfati and NadouJfianSj Chebadcba^ that is. The Blai k Ri^ 
ver. I can fay very little of it, having obferv'd only 
its Mouth ^ but I judge from that, that it is not very 
confiderable. About thirty League> higher we found 
theLakeof T(?^r/, which we nam'd xo, becaufeth© 
Savages, who took us, as will be hereafter related^ 
confulted in this Place, what they fhould do with 
their Prifoners •, and thofe who w^ere for murthering 
Bs, cry'd all the Night upon us, to oblige, by their 
Tears, their Companions to confent to our Deaths 
This Lake is form'd by the Mefchafipi^ and may be 
L fev^rt 

1^6 J Nerv Difcovery of 

feven Leagues long, and five broad. Its Waters are 
almolt ftagnant, the Stream being hardly perceptible 
in the middle. We met within a League above the 
Lake, another River, calFd, The River of the Wild 
Bulls^ becaufe of the great number of thofe Beafts 
grazing upon its Banks. It falls with a great rapidity 
into the Mefchafifi ^ but fome Leagues above its Mouth, 
the Stream is very gentle and moderate. There is 
an infinite number of large Tortoifes in that River, 
which are very relifbing. A Row of Mountains fence 
its Banks in fome places. 

There in another River, which falls forty Leagues 
above this lalt, into the Mefchafipi ^ thro' which one 
may go into the Upper Lake, by making a Portage 
from it into the River Nifipkonet^ which runs into 
the fame Lake. It is full of Rocks and rapid Streams. 
We nam'd it The River of the Grave^ or MaufoUitm^ 
becaufe the Savages bury'd there one of their Men, 
who was bitten by a Rattle-Snake. They us'd great 
Ceremonies in his Funeral, which I fhall defcribe in 
another place •, and I put upon his Corps a white 
Covering \ for which the Savages returned me their 
publick Thanks, and made a great Feaft, to which 
above an hundred Men were invited. 

The Navigation of the Mefchafipi is interrupted 
ten Leagues above this River of the Gravc^ by a Fall 
of fifty or fixty Foot, which we called the Fall of St, 
Afjthony of PaAita^ whom we had taken for the Pro- 
tedor of our Difcovery. There is a Rock of a Py- 
ramidal Figure, jull in the middle of the Fall of the 

The Row of Mountains fencing the Banks of the. 
Mefchafifi^ ends at the Mouth of the River of Oa^-T^ 
corifm ^ and there we likewife obferved, that that Ri- 
ver which runs from thence to the Sea almofl dired- 
ly North and South, runs then from the Weltward or 
the North- Well. The Misfortune we had of being 
taken Friibners, hindred us from going as far as its 


k Large Coumry in America. 157 

Source, which we cou'd never learn from the Sava- 
ges, who told us only, that about twenty or thirty 
Leagues above the Fall of St. Anthony^ there is ano- 
ther Fall •, near which a Nation of Savages inhabit 
at certain Seafons of the Year. They call thofe Na- 
tions Tintouha^ that iS, The Inhabitants of the Mta^ 

Eight Leagues above the Fall of ist. Anthony^ we 
met with the River of the J([ati or Nadoupanf^ which 
is very narrow at the Mouth, It comes out from 
the Lake of the Jfatl^ lying about feventy Leagues 
from its Mouth. We called this River, The River of 
St. Francis j and it was in this Place that we were 
made flaves by the Iffati. 

The Courfe of the Mefchafipi^ according to our 
bell computation, is about Eight hundred Leagues 
long from Tintonha to the Sea, including its Wind- 
ings and Turnings ^ which are very great, and may 
be navigable from the Fall of St. Anthony^ for flat- 
bottom'd Boats, provided the Iflands were clear'd 
from Trees, and efpecially from Vines, which ha- 
ving ty'd the Trees together, would ftop a Boat in 
many places. 

The Country about the Lake Jjfati is a Marfhy 
Ground, wherein grows abundance of Wild Oats, 
which grow without any Culture or Sowing, in 
Lakes, provided they are not above three Foot deep. 
That Corn is fomewhat like our Oats , but much 
better ^ and its Stalks are a great deal longer when it 
is Ripe. The Savages gather it, and live thereupon 
feveral Months of the Year, making a kind of Broath 
thereof The Savage Women are oblig'd to tie feve- 
ral Stalks together with White Bark of Trees, to 
fright away the Ducks, Teals, or Swans,which other- 
wife would fpoil it before it be ripe. 

This Lake of Vj!/^f? lies within lixty Leagues to the 

Weftward of the Upper Lake ^ but 'tis impoifible to 

travel by Land from one to the other, unlcfs it be in 

h % a hard 

1^8 J New Difcovery cf 

a hard Froft, becaufe of the Marfhy Grounds, which 
otherwife (ink under a Man ^ but, as I have already 
faid, they may ufe their Canou's, tho' it be very 
troublefom, becaufe of the many Portages^ and the 
length of the Way, which, by reafon of the Wind- 
ings of the River , is about a hundred and fifty 
Leagues. The fhorteffc way is by the River of the 
Grave^ thro' which we went in our return. We found 
nothing but the Bones of the Savage we had bury'd 
there, the Bears having pulled oat with their Paws 
the great Stakes the Savages had beat deep into the 
Ground round aboHt the Corps j which is their ufu- 
al way of Burying their Dead. We found near the 
Grave, a Cahmet or Pipe of War, and a Pot,in which 
the Savages had left fome fat Meat of Wild Bulls, 
for the ufe of their dead Friend, during his Voyage 
into the Country of Souls ^ which Iheweth that they 
believe their Immortality. 

There are many other Lakes near the River Ijfati^ 
from which feveral Rivers fpring. The Banks of 
thofe Rivers are inhabited by the Jjfati^ the NadoMJfi- 
ans^ the Tintonha^ or Inhabitants of Meadows^ the Oua- 
dehatkon or Men of Rivers^ the ChongMceton or Nation 
of the Wolf or the Lcg^ for Ckonga fignifies either of 
thefe Creatures. There are alfo feveral other Nati- 
ons, which we include under the general Denomina- 
tion of Nado^'ffians. Thefe Savages may bring into 
the Field eight or nine Thoufand Men : They are 
Brave, Bold, great Runners, and good Markfmen 
with their Arrows. It was a Party of thefe Savages 
that took us Prifoners, and carry'd us to the Iffati^ as 
I am going to relate in the following Chapter. 

C K A P. 

4 Large Country in America. 159 


The Author and his Canon-Men are tahn by the Savages^ 
who^ after fever al Attempts upon their' Lives^ carry 
them away with them into their Country above the Rl- 
'ver Mefchafipi. 

WE iifed to go to Prayers thrice a Day, as I 
have elfewhere obferved ^ and my conftant 
Requeft to God was. That when we Ihould firft meet 
the Savages, it might happen to be by Day. Their 
Cuftom is, to kill as Enemies all they meet by Night, 
to enrich themfelves with their Spoils, which are no- 
thing but a parcel of Hatchets, Knives, andfuch 
like Trifles^ which yet- they value more than we do 
Gold or Silver. They make no fcruple to aiTaflinate 
even their own Allies, when they think they can 
handfomly conceal the Murder ^ for by fuch Exploits 
it is they hope to gain the Reputation of being great 
Soldiers, and to pafs for Men of Courage and Refo- 

'Tvvas with a great deal of Satisfadion that wq 
furvey'd the Pleafures of the River Mefchafipi^ all 
along our PalTage up it, which had been fince the 
firll of April. Nothing as yet had interrupted our 
Obfervations, whether it were Navigable above or 
below. In our way we kill'd feven or eight Bultards 
or Wild-Turkeys, which in thofe Countries encreafe 
mightily, as well as all other Wild Creatures. We 
had alfo plenty of Bulls, Deers, Caftors, Fifh, and 
Bears-jlefh j which lalt we kill'd as they werefwim-? 
ming over the River. 

And here I cannot forbear ferioufly reflecting on 

thatfecret Pleafare and Satisfadion of Mind, which is 

to be found in Prayer,and the real Advantages which 

may be drawn from thence, when I confider how 

L 3 effedu^ 

1 6o J New Difcovery of 

effedually my own were heard : For the fame Day, 
being the Twelfth of April^ as our two Men were 
boiling one of the Buftards, and my felf refitting our 
Canou on the Banks of the River, I perceived all of 
a fudden about two in the Afternoon, no lefs than 
fifty Canou's which were made of Bark, and mann'd 
with a hundred and twenty Savages, who were ftark 
naked, and came down the River with an extraordi- 
nary Swiftnefs, to furprize t\{Q Miami'' s^ Iltimii^ and 
Marhoans their Enemies. 

We threw away the Broath which was a preparing, 
and getting aboard as faft as we could, made towards 
them, crying out thrice, Mljiigouche^ and Diatchez,^ 
which in the Language of the Iroquefe and Algonqmns^ 
is as much as to fay. Comrades^ we are Men of Wooden 
CanoiUs ^ for fo they call thofe that Sail in great Vef- 
fels. This had no effed, for the Barbarians under- 
ftood not what we faid \ fo that they furrounded us 
immediately, and began to let fly their Arrows at a 
dillance, till the Eld eft amongft them perceiving 
that I had a Calumet or Pipe of Peace in my hand, 
came up to us, and prevented our being murder'd 
by their Warriours. 

Thefe Men who are more brutal than thofe of the 
lower River, fell a jumping out of their Canou's, 
fome upon Land ^ others 'into the Water ^ furround- 
ing us on all fides with Shrieks and Out-cries that 
were indeed very terrifying. 'Tv^^as to no purpofe to 
refift, being but three to fo great a number. . One of 
them faatcht the Pipe of Peace out of my Hand, as 
our Canou and theirs were faftned together on the 
Bank of the River. We prefented them with fome 
llnall pieces of Martinico Tobacco,becaufe it was bet- 
ter than what they had. As they received it, the El- 
ders of them cry'd out Miahima^ Miahima ^ but what 
they meant by it, we knew not. However, we made 
Signs with our Oars upon the Sand, that the MiamPs 
their Enemies, whom they were in fearch of, had 


a, Large C^ountry in America. i6i 

pafsM the River, and were upon their Flight to join 
the Illinois. 

When they faw themfelves difcovered, and conle- 
qiiently out of all hopes of furprizing their Enemies, 
three or four of the Eldeft of them laid their hands 
on my Head, and began to weep bitterly, accom- 
panying their Tears with fuch mournful Accents 
as can hardly be exprefled ^ till with a forry Hand- 
kerchief of Armenian Cloth, which I had left, 
I made a fhift to dry up their Tears : However, to 
very little purpofe^ for refufing to Smoak in our 
Calumet or Pipe of Peace, they thereby gave us to 
underftand, that their Defign was ftill to Murder us. 
Hereupon with an horrid Out-cry, which they fet up 
all at once, to make it yet the more terrible, they 
hurry'd us Grols the River, forcing us to redouble the 
the Stroaks of our Oar, to make the more fpeed , and 
entertaining us all the while with fuch difmal Howl- 
ings, as were capable of ftriking Terrour into the 
moll refolute aud daring Souls. Being come a-lhore 
on the other fide, we unloaded our Canou, and 
landed our Things, part of which they had robb'd 
us of already. Sometime after our Landing, we 
made a fire afecond time, to make an end of boiling 
our Buftard. Two others we prefented the Barbari- 
ans, who having confulted together what they fhould 
do with us, two of their Leaders came up to us, aad 
made us to underfiiand by Signs,that their Warriours 
wererefolved upon our Death. This obliged me, 
whilfl one of our Ganou-Men look'd after our 
Things, to go with the other, and apply my felf to 
their Chiefs. Six Hatchets, fifteen Knives, fome 
pieces of Tobacco, was the Prefent that I made 
them. After which, bending my Neck, and point- 
ing to a Hatchet, I fignified to them by that Submif- 
fjon, that we threw ourfelves on their Mercy. 

The Prefent had the good efied to foftea fome of 

them, who, according to their Cultom, gave us 

\^ \ ' ' fome 

1 62 A New Difcovery of ■ 

forae Flefh of Beaver to eat, themfelves putting thf 
three firft Bits in our Mouths ; having firft blown 
lipon ii, becaufe the Meat was hot. After this they 
fet their platter before us, \yhich was made of the 
Bark of a Tree,- leaving us at liberty to feed after 
oiiT ownfaOiion. Thefe Civilities did not hinder us 
from pafling the Night very uneafily, becaufe in 
the Evening before they v/ent to lleep , they 
had returned us our Calumet of Peace. The two 
Canou-Men refolved to fell their Lives as dear as 
they could, and to defend themfelves like Men to 
the laft, in cafe they ihould attack us. For my part, 
I told them I refolved to fufler my felf to be (lain 
v/ithout the ieall Refifl-ance, in Imitation of our Sa- 
viour, who reljgned himfelf up voluntarily into the 
hand of his Executioner. However, we watch'dall 
Night by turns, that we might not be furpriz'd in 
our Sleep. 


^'he Refohition which the Barbarians took to carry the Aht 
thor and his two Men along with them Hp into their 
Cowntry^ abov^the /^/wr Mefchafipi. 

THE 13th of ^/nV, very early in the Morning, 
one of their Captains, whofe Name was Nar- 
rhetoba^ being one of thofe who had been for killing 
us, and whofe Body was painted all oyer, came and 
demanded my Pipe of Peace. It being delivered 
him, he filled with it Tobacco of their own Growth, 
and made thofe of his own Band fmoak in it firlt \ 
then all the reft that had been for putting us to death. 
After this he made Signs, that we mqft go with them 
into their Country, whither they were then about 
to return. This Propofal did not ftartle me much, 
for having caus'd the Enterprize which they hac^ 


a Large Country in America. i6^ 

fram'd againll: their Enemies to mifcarry, I was not 
unwilling to embrace any opportunity of making 
farther Difcoveries amongfb thefe barbarous Na- 

That which perplex'd me molt, was the Difficulty 
1 had of faying my Office, and performing the reft 
of my Devotions, in the prefence of thefe Wretches. 
Manyof them cbferving my Lips to move, told me 
in a harPn and fevere Tone, OM-ackanche •, from 
whence, becaufe we underftood not a word of their 
Language, we concluded them to be very angry. 
Michael Ako^ one of the Canou-Men, told me with 
a frightful Air, that if I continu'd to fay my Bre- 
viary, we Ihould infallibly be murther'd by them. 
Ticard du Gay defir'd me atleaft to fay my Prayers in 
private, for fear of enraging them too far. The laft 
Advice feem'd the belt \ but the more I endeavour'd 
to conceal my felf, the more of them had I at my 
Heels. If at any time I retir'd into the Woods, they 
immediately concluded 'twas to hide fomething : So 
that I knew not which way to turn me for the perfor- 
mance of my Duty ^ for they would never fuffierme 
a moment out of their Sight. 

This compeird me at lalt to acquaint the two Ca- 
nou-Men, that I could no longer difpenfe with my 
felf in omitting the Duty of my Office , That if 
they Ihould murder us on this Account, I ffiould in- 
deed be the innocent Caufe of their Death as well 
as my own ^ that therefore I ran the fame Rifque as 
they, but that no Danger was great enough to jufti- 
fie me in the Difpeniing with my Duty. In fine, the 
Barbarians underftood by the Word Oiiackanche that 
the Book in which I read, was an evil Spirit, as laf- 
terw^ards underftood by being amongft them. How- 
ever, I then knew by their Geftures, that they had 
had an averfion for it. Wherefore to ufe them to it by 
degrees, I w^as wont to fing the Litanies, as we were 
ppontheWay, holding the Book in my Hand- They 


164 -^ New Difiovery of 

fondly believed my Breviary was a Spirit which 
taught me to fmg thus for their Diverfion. AH thele 
People naturally love Singing. 


The many Outrages donens by the Savages^ before we or- 
ri'ved in their Country. They frequently dejign againjt 
our Lives. 

THE many Outrages which were done us by 
thefe Barbarians, through the whole Courfe of 
our Voyage, are not to be imagin'd. OurCanou 
was both bigger and heavier laden than theirs. They 
feldom cany any thing buta Qjiiver full of Arrows, 
a Bow, and fome forry Skin or other, which ufually 
ferves two of them for a i^overlet. The Nights 
were Iharp as yet for the Seafon, by reafon of our 
advancing ftill Northwards j fo that at Night 'twas 
necelfary to keep our felves as warm as we could. 

Our Condudlors obferving that we did not make 
fo much way as themfelves, order'd three of their 
Warriours to go aboard us. One feated himfelf on 
my ^Left, the other two behind the Men ^ to help 
them to row, that we might make the more hafte. 
The Barbarians fometimes row no lefs than thirty 
Leagues a day, when they are in hafte to take the. 
Field, and defign to furprize their Enemies^ Thofe 
who took us were of divers Villages, and as much 
divided ill their Sentiments, in regard of us. Every 
Evening 'twas our peculiar Care to plant our Cabin 
near the young Chief, who had taken Tobacco in 
our Pipe of Peace ^ fignifying to him thereby, that 
wo'piit our felves under his Protection, 

This we did, by reafon of the Divilions which 
reigned amonft the Savages. A^jaipagnetw^ one of 
their Chiefs, whohada Son kilFd by the i^<^/^wi'/, 


a. Large Country in America. 165 

finding he could not revenge himfelf of that Nation, 
thought of venting his Paflion upon us. Every 
Night would he bewail his Son, whom he had lofl in 
the War, thinking thereby to ftir up thofe of his 
Band to revenge his Death, by killing us, feizing our 
Effeds, and after that purfuing the Miami's. But 
the other Savages, who were very fond of European 
Commodities, thought it more advifeable to proteft 
us, that other Europeans might be encourag'd to come 
amongft them. They chiefly defir'd Guns, upon 
which they fet the highefl: Value, having feen the 
ufe of them upon one of our Canou-Men's killing 
three or four wild Bullards or wild Turkies at one 
fingle Difcharge of his Fufil ^ whereas they could 
not kill above one at a time with their Bows. 

We have underflood by them fince, that the 
Words Manz.a Onackanche lignifie. Iron pcjfefs^d by an 
Evil Spirit. So they call the Fufil, which breaks a 
Man's Bones ^ whereas their Arrows glide only be- 
tween the Flefh and the Mufcles, which they pierce 
without breaking the Bone at all, or very feldom at 
lealt. For which reafon it is, that thefe People do 
much eafier cure the Wounds which are made by the 
Arrow or Dart, than thofe of the Fufil. 

When we were firft taken by the Barbarians, we 
were got about an hundred and fifty Leagues up the 
River, from that of the Illinois. We row'd afterwards 
in their Company for nineteen Days together, 
fometimes North , fometimes North-Eaft , as we 
judg'd hj the Quarters, from whence the Wind 
blew, and according to the bell obfervations we 
cou'd make by our Compafs. So that after thefe Bar- 
barians had forc'd us to follow them, we made more 
than two hundred and fifty Leagues upon that fame 
River. The Savages are of an extraordinary Force 
in a Canou. They'll row from Morning to Night 
without relling, or hardly allowing themfelves fo 
much time as to eat their Viduals. 
^ To 

1 66 A Nerv Difcovery of 

To oblige us to follow them the fafter, the^-e wer© 
tifuallyfour or fiveof their Men a-board iis^ for our 
Canou was larger, and deeper load en than theirs, fo 
that- we had need of their afiiftance, to be able to 
keep 'em company. When it rain'd, we fet up our 
Tilts ^ but when 'twas fair, the Heavens were our 
Canopy. By this means we had leifure to take our 
Obfervations from the Moon and the Stars when it 
was clear. Notwithftanding the fatigue of the Day, 
the youngeil of the Warriours went at Night and 
danc'd the Heed before four or five of their Captains 
till Midnight. The Captain to whofe Qiiarter they 
went, fent with a deal of Ceremony to thofe that 
danc'd, a Warriour of his own Family, to make 
them fmoak one after another in his own Reed of 
War, v/hich is diilinguifh'd from that of Peace by 
its Feathers. 

This fort of Ceremony is always concluded by the 
two Youngefl of thofe who have had any Relations 
kiird in the Wars. Thefe take feveral Arrows, and 
laying them a crofs at the point, prefent them in 
that manner to their Captains, weeping very bitter- 
ly '^ who , notwithftanding the excefs of their Sor- 
row, return them back to be kifs'd. In fhort, nei- 
ther the Fatigues of the Day, nor Watchings, are 
fufficient to prevail with the Elders fo much as to 
fliut their Eyes, moft of them watching till almoft 
Break of Day, for fear of being furpriz'd by their 
Enemies. As foon as the Morning appears, one of 
them fets up the ordinary Cry, when in a moment 
the Warriours are all in their Canon's. Some are 
fent to encompafs the lilands, and to fee what Game 
they can meet vnth ^ whilft others that are more • 
fwift go by Land to difcover by the Smoak the Place 
where the Enemies lie. 


A Large Country in America. 167 


T\}t Advantages which the Savages- of the -North have 
over thofe of the South^ in relation to the War : As 
alfo the Ceremony which was perforrn'd by one of our 
Capains^ having cans' d us to halt at Noon^ 

WHen the Savages of the North are at War, 'tis 
their Cuftom to poll thetnfelves upon the 
point of fome one of thofe many Iflands, of v/hich 
this River is full, where they look upon themfelves 
to be always fafe. Thofe of the South, who are 
their Enemies, having nothing but Pyrogncs^ or Ca- 
nou's of Wood, with which they cannot go very 
fait, becaufe of their weight. None but the Nor- 
thern Nations have Birch to make Canon's of their 
Bark. The People of the South are depriv'd of this 
Advantage, whereas thofe of the North ca^n with aa 
admirable facility pafs from Lake to Lake, and River 
to River, to attack their Enemy : Nay, when they 
are difcover'd they value it not, provided they have 
time to recover their Canou's ^ for 'tis impoffible for 
thofe who purlue them either by Land, or in the 
Tyrogues^ to do it with any Succefs. 

As to what relates to Ambufcadcs, no Nation in 
the World comes near thofe Northern Savages, being 
patient of Hunger, and the Utmoll Severities of the 
Weather, beyond belief "Tis their fure Game-, and 
they never fail being fuccour'd by three or four of 
their Comrades, whenever their Enemies attack 'em. 
So that they , always bring their Defigns about this 
way at leaft, if not over power'd ^o by Numbers, 
as not to be able to recover their Canou's, and fave 
themfelves by flight. 

One of the nineteen Days of our moil tirefome 
Voyage, a Captain call'd Aquidagitetiv^ v\/ho after- 


168 J New Difcauery of 

wards adopted me for his Son, as we fiiall fee anoHj 
thought it advifable to halt about Noon in a fine large 
Meadow, fituate on the Well of the River Mefcha- 
jfipL This Chief had kill'd a large fat Bear, to which 
he invited the Principal Captains of the Warriours. 
After the Repaft, the Savages having all of them 
certain Marks in the Face, and their Bodies painted ! 
with the Figure of fome Beafl:, fuch as every one 
fancy'd belt, their Hair being alfo annointed with the 
Oil of Bears, and ftuck all over with red and white 
Feathers, and their Heads covered with the Down of 
Birds, began to dance with their Hands all upon 
their Hip, and ftriking the the Soles of their Feet 
with that violence againft the Earth, that the very 
Marks appear'd. During the Dance, one of the Sons 
of the Mailer of the Ceremonies, made 'em all fmoak 
in the Pipe of War, himfelf Ihedding abundance of 
Tears during the whole Aftion. And the Father, 
who marlliaird the whole melancholy Scene, accom- 
pany'dhim with a Voice fo lamentable and broken, 
with fo many rifing Sighs, as were capable of melting 
the moll obdurate Heart, bathing himfelf all the 
while in his Tears: Sometimes would he addrefs 
himfelf to the Warriour, fometimes to me, laying 
his Hands on my Head, as he did alfo on my Mens^ 
Sometimes would he lift up his Eyes to Heaven, re- 
peating the word Loms^ which in their Speech lig- 
nifies the Sun, appealing to him for Juflice on the 
Murderers of his Son , and hoping to engage his 
Followers to avenge his Death* 

As for us, as far as we could judge, all this Gri- 
mace boded us no good : and indeed we afterwards 
underllood, that this Barbarian meant nothing left 
than our Deflrudion by it, as well now as at other 
times. But finding the oppofition he was like to 
meet with from the other Chiefs, who were of a 
contrary Opinion, he was content to fuffer us to re- 
€mbark, refolving however to make ufe of fomeo- 


/? Large Country in America. , 169 

ther Stratagem to get into his own hands by little 
and little the reft of our Things. To take them 
from us openly by force, though heeafily could he 
durll not, for fear of thofe of his own Nation, who 
for fuch an Adion would have accus'd him of a 
Bafenefs of Spirit, which even the moil barbarous 


What Tricks and Artifices were nfed by Aquipaguetin 
to cheat as handfomely of cur Goods , with many other 
Accidents that happened in our Voyage. 

BY what has been faid, it plainly appears, that 
AquifagHetin was a crafty deligning Knave. He 
had with him the Bones of one of his deceas'd Friends, 
which he kept very choicely in the Skin of aBealt, 
adorned with feveral red and black Lifts of a Porcu- 
pine's. He would be from time to time afTembling 
his Followers to make them fmoak •, and then would ' 
he fend for us ione after another, and oblige us to 
cover the Bones of their Deceas'd with fomeof our 
Enrofean Merchandife , in order to dry up the Tears 
which he had fhed for him and his Son, who had been 
kill'd by the Miami'' s. 

To appeafe the crafty old Savage, we ftrewed on 
the Bones of the Deceas'd feveral Pieces of Marti- 
»/co-Tobacco, Hatchets, Knives, Beads, and fome 
Bracelets of black and white Porcelain. Thus you 
fee how we were drain'd by fuch Methods and Pre- 
tences, as we could not eafily gainfay. He gave us 
to underltand, that what he had thus demanded of 
us, was not for himfelf but the Dead, and to give 
the Warriours that he brought with him ^ and indeed 
he diftributed amongll them whatever he took from 
us. He v/ould have had us underflood by this. That 

lyo A Ner^ Difcbvery of 

as a Captain he would take nothing himfelf but what 
we fhould freely prefent him with. 

All this while we lay at the point oitYitLah of Tears i, 
we nam'd it fo by reafon of the Tears which this Chief 
didfhed here every Night.' When he was weary of 
Weeping, he made one of his Sons come and fupply 
his Place. His defign in this was to excite the Com- 
palTion of the Warrionrs, and to prevail with them to 
kill us, and after that to purfue their Enemies ^ and 
fo revenge the Death of his Son which he had loft. 

Sometimes they fent the fwifteft amongll them by 
Land to feek for prey,who would drive whole Droves 
of wild Bulls before them, and force them to fwim the 
River. Of theiethey fometimes kill'd forty or fifty, 
but took only the Tongues, and fome other of the 
belt Pieces : The reft they left, not to burden them- 
fclves, that they might make the more halt home. 

'Tis true, we had Provifions plenty and good 5 
but then we had neither Bread nor Wine, nor Saltj 
nor indeed any thing elfeto feafon it ^ and this lafted 
during the Four laft Years of the almoft Twelve that 
I jiv'd in America. In our lait Voyage, we liv'd much 
after the fame manner, fometimes abounding, and 
at other times again reduc'd to the laft Extremity j- 
fo that we have not eat a bit for four and twenty 
hours together, and fometimes longer. The reafon 
is, becaufe in fmall Canon's of Bark, one can Itow 
but little : So that what ever precaution a Man may 
ufe, he will often find himfelf deftitute of all. things 
neceflary for Life. Did the Religious of Eurofe un- 
dergo half the Fatigue, or did they but obferve the 
Falts that we have kept for fo long a time together 
in America^ there would need 'no Proofs to Cano- 
nize them. But then it muft be own'd, that what 
deitroys the Merits of our Fafts, was, that if we 
did fufer on fhch occafions,or our Sufferings proceed- 
ed, not from our Choice^ but, as the Proverbial 
Saving is, oar Vertite was our NccejTity, 

^ ^ CHAP- 

a Large Country in America. 1 6 1 


,*The Elders weep for m during the Night. New Outrages 
ii^i done m by Aquipaguetin. The manner how the Sa- 
vages make Fire by Friction. 

MAny,Nights together fome or other of the El- 
ders came and wept over us. They rubb'd 
our Arms and Bodies very often with their Hands, 
which they afterwards laid on our Heads. Thefe 
. Tears gave us many uneaiie Thoughts ; 'twas im- 
polTible to fleep for them ^ and yet we had need 
enough of Reft, after the great Fatigues of the Day.' 
Nor was I ealier by Day : I knew nqjt what to think j 
dfbmetimes I fanlied that they bewail'd us, as know- 
ing fome of the Warriors had refolv'd to kil] us ^ 
and other times again I flatter'd my felf, that their 
Tears were the effedt of their Compaffion, for the 
evil Treatment they made us undergo. However it 
were, I am fure thefe Tears afFeded me more than 
thofe that flied them. 

About this time, Aqmfaguetin had another oppor- 
tunity of perfScuting us afrefti : He had ^o dexterouf- 
ly manag'd the Matter with the Warriors of his Par- 
ty, that it was one Day impradicable for us to en- 
camp near the young Chief iV^rk^o/?^, whoproteded 
us ^ but were forc'd to go and place our feives, with 
pur Canou and Effeds at the end of the Camp. 
Then it was that thefe Barbarians gave us to under- 
ftand, That the aforefaid Captain was fully refolv'd 
to have our Heads. This oblig'd us to have recourfe 
once more to our Chelt, and to take out twenty 
Knives and fome Tobacco, which we diftributed a- 
mong them with an Air that fufficiently teftify'd our 

^ The unreafonable Wretch look'd earneftly upon 

his FOifowers one after another, as if he were in 

M doubt 

1 62 'A New Dlfccverj of 

doubt what to do,' and confequently to demand their 
Advice, whether he ought to receive our Prefenc or 
refufe it. But whilfl we were inclining our Necks, 
and delivering him the Ax, the young Commander, 
who feem'd to be our Protedor (and it may be real- 
ly was) came and fnatch'd us by the Arm, and all in 
a rage hurry'd us away to ' his Cabin. His Brother 
too taking up fome Arrows, broke 'em in our light, 
to aiTure us by that Adion, that he would proted 
our Lives at the hazard of his own. ^ ^ 

The next Day they left us alone in. our Canou, 
without putting any of their Men a-board to affift us, 
as they had hitherto done: However, they kept all 
in the reer of us.. After rowing four or five Leagues, 
another of their Captains came up to us, and made 
us land. As foon as we got on^ihoar, he fell to cut- 
ting of Grafs, which he made into three little Heaps, 
and bad us fit down upon them : Then he took a 
piece of Cedar, which was full of little round Holes, 
into one of which he thruft a Stick of a harder Sub- 
llance than the Cedar, and began to rub it about 
pretty fall between tbe Palms of his Hands, till at 
length it took fire. The ufe he put it to was to 
li^ht the Tobacco in his great Piue^^ and after he 
had wept fome time over us, and laid his Hands on 
our Heads, he made me fmoak in a Calumet^ or Pipe 
of PeaceV and then acquainted us by Signs, that with- 
in fixteen Days we Ihould be at home. 


Ceremonies pts'd hy the Savages when they jhare their Pri- 
foners. Comimtation of om' Journey by Land. 

Aving thus travell'd nineteen Days in our Canou 
ji, j^. by Water, we arriv'd at length within five or 
fix Leagues of the Fall, to which we had formerly 



a Large Country in America. 1 6 3 

given the Name of St. Anthony^ as we came to iin- , 
dcrftand afterwards. Here the Barbarians order'd us 
to land in a Creek of the River Mefchafi^i ; after 
which, they held an Allembly, to confult what they 
were to do with us. In fhort, they feparated, and 
gave us to three of their Chiefs, inltead of three of 
their Sons which had been kill'd m the War : Then 
they feiz'd our Canou ^ and took away all our 
Equipage. The Canou they pull'd to pieces, for fear 
it might aflill us to 'return to their Enemies : Their 
own they hid among the Alders , to ufe again when 
they fhould have occafion to hunt that way. So that 
tho' we might have gone conveniently enough quite 
up into their Country by Water, yet were we oblig'd, 
by their Condud, to travel no lefs thaniixty Leagues 

•Our ordinary Marches were from break of Day 
till ten at Night : And when we met with any Ri- 
vers, we fwam them, themfelves (who for the moft 
part are of an extraordinary fize ) carrying our 
Clothes and Equipage on their Heads , and the 
Canou-Mcn , who were lefs than me , upon their 
Shoulders , b|caufe they could not fwim. As I us'd 
to come Qiit of the Water, which v/as often full of 
Ice, for we travell'd itill North, I was hardly able to 
ftand upon my Legs. In thefe Parts the FroHs eon- 
tmue. all Night even at this time of the Year ^ fo 
that our Legs were all over Blood, being cut by the 
Ice , which we broke by degrees in our PafTage as 
we waded o'er the Lakes and River. We never eat 
but once m. four and twenty Hours, and then no- 
thing but a few Scraps of Meat dry'd in Smoak after 
their Falhion, which they afforded us with abundance 
of regret.. 

^ I was fo weak that I often laid me down, refolv- 
mg rather to die than follow thefe Savages any far- 
ther, who travell'd at a rate fo extraordinary, as far 
furpalTes the Strength of any European. Hov/ever, to 
M 2 . haileji 

'164 ^A NewDifcovery of 

haften us , they fometimes fet fire to the dry Grafs 
in the Meadows through which we pafs'd ^ fo that 
our Choice was march or burn. I had a Hat which 
I had taken with me, to fence me from the Sun du- 
ring the Heats of the Summer. This would often 
fall from my Head into the Fire, becaufe it was not 
over-fit, and the Fire fo very near. The Barbarians 
would fhatch it out again, and lend 'me a hand to 
fave me from the Flames , which they had kindled j 
as well as to haften our March , as I have faid , 
as to give notice to their People of their return. 
I muft here acknowledge, That had it not been 
for dH Gay , who did all he could to encourage 
me , through the whole Courfe of this tirefome 
March, I had certainly funk under the Fatigues of 
Jt, having neither Spirits nor Strength left to fup- 
pof t me. ♦ 


< ■ 

A qreat Conteft arifes among the Savages^ about divi- 
ding, oar Merchandife and Equipage -f as alfo my Sa- 
cerdotal Ornaments and little Chefi: * 

AFter having traveU'd about fixty Leagues a-foot, 
and undergone all the Fatigues of Hunger , 
Thirft, and Cold, befides a thoufand Outrages daily 
done us in onr Perfons, after we had march'd Night 
and Day without cealing , wading through Lakes 
and Rivers, and fometimes fwam. As we now be- 
gan to approach the Habitations of the Barbarians, 
which are fitiiated in Morafies inaccelTible to their 
Enemies, they thought it a proper time to divide the 
Merchandife which they had taken from us. Here 
they had like to have fallen out and cut one another's 
1 hroats, about the Roll of Martinlco-TobRCCO , 
which might ftill weigh about fifty Pound. Thefe 


a Large Couniry in America . 165 

People value this Commodity far beyond what we 
do Silver or Gold. They have very good of their 
own growth ^ but this was fo well drefs'd, and made 
up into fuch beautiful Rings, that they were perfect- 
ly charm'd with it. The moft reafbnable amongit 
them made us'underlland by Signs, that they would 
give their Canou-Men feveral Caflor-Skins in return 
for what they had taken : But others looking upon 
us as Slaves, becaufe they fiid we had furnifh'd Arms 
to their Enemies, maintain'd that they were no ways 
oblig'd to make any return for the Things they had 
taken. # 

The reafbn why they divided the Spoil here, was, 
becaufe this Band was compos'd of two or three dif- 
ferent People : So that thofe that liv'd at a diftance, 
were apprehenlive left the others, who were juft at 
home," might -detain all the Merchandife which they 
had taken, in the firft Villages they Ihould come at ^ 
and therefore v/ere refolv'd to play a fiire Game, 
and have theiTto|are aforehand. Nor had they any 
greater RelJDipfor what belong'd to me, than for 
the Merchandne which they took from the Canon- 
men \ for they feiz'd my Brocard Chafuble, and all 
the Ornaments of my portable Chapel , except the 
Chalice , which they durft not touch. They ob- 
lerv'd that this VefTel, which was of Silver gilt , caft; 
a glittering Light, io that as often as they chanc'd to 
look towards it, they would Ihut their Eyes : The 
Reafon was , as we underftood afterwards, becaufe 
they believ'd it to be a Spirit which would kill them. 
I had a little Gheft, which I kept lock'd ^ they made 
me underftand by Signs , That if I did not open it, 
or break the Lock, they would do it for me, againft 
fome Iharp Stones which tliey fliew'd me. The Rea- 
fon why they threatned me thus, was , becaufe they 
had not been able to open it all the way, though 
they attempted it feveral times , to fee what was in 
it, Thefe People, underftand nothing of Locks and 
M 3 ' Keysi 

\66 ' A New Dif cover y of I 

Keys : Befides, their Delign was not to cumber them- 
felves with the Box it felf, but only to take out the 
Things that were in it. After I had open'd it, and 
tl>ey faw there was little or nothing in it but Books 
and Papers, they left it me untouchU 

C H A- P. Llir. 

The Troop approaches the l^illage. A Grand Confult amor.a 
the Savages^ -whether they Jhonld kill m^ or fave and 
adopt m for their Sons, ThP Reception which we had 
from them j a-nd the life they made of my Chafuhle. 

AFter five hard Days travel, without fb much as 
reiling, except a little by Night in the open 
Air, we perceiv'd at laft abundance of Women and 
Children coming out to meet our little Army : All 
the Elders of the Nation were al^mbled upon this 
Occafion. We obferv'd feveral yj.ns , near the 
Polts of which lay feveral Trufles (Mfcraw and dry'd 
Weeds , where thefe Barbarians are wont to fallen 
and burn the Slaves which they bring home with 
them from their Wars. Here they order'd I'icard dii 
Gay to fing, who all the time rattled a hollow Gourd 
full of little round 'Stones , which he held in his 
Hand. I obferv'd moreover, that his Hair and Face 
were painted with different Colours , and that they 
had faftned a Tuft of white Feathers to his Head. 
Thefe Ceremonies renew'd our Fears ^ and we 
thought we had more realbn than ever to believe, 
that they had ftill a Delign to put us to death. Nor 
were our Fears groundlels , fince thefe, with many 
others, are the Ceremonies which they ufe at the 
burning of their Enemies. 

The worll was, we could not make our felves be 
imderftood. Hov/ever, after many Vows and fecret 
i'rayerswiuch we offer'd up to *God on this Occalioii, 
• - ■ ' the 

a. Large. Country in Apierrca. 167 

0ie Barbarians at Ufl gave lis fom^ wild Oats to eat, 
of which I have fpoken elfe where. They gave them 
us in great Difhes made of Birch-trees j and the Sa- 
vage Women feafon'd them with BUie^, This is a 
fort of Black Grain, which they dry m the San m the 
Summer, and are as good as Corrans: The X)/^ft^ call 
-them CUh-hefien. 

All the while the Fealt lafted, which was the bell 
.Meal that we had made ever lince we had been ta- 
ken, there was a. high Difpute between Acim^iigmtln 
and the others, about the Diftribution they were to 
make of the two Canou-men and my felf. At laft 
Aqul^agHetin^ as Head of the Party, carry'd it •, who 
•turning from one of the principal Captains towards 
me, prefented me to fmoak in his Calumet of Peace, 
receiving from me at the fame time that which we 
had brought, as a certain Pledge of the Union which 
was to be for ihe future 'twixt them and us. After 
this, he adopted me for his Son, in the room of him 
that he had loft in the War. 

Cnarhetoha -Rnd another Captain did the fame by 
the two Canou-men. This Seperation was very 
grievous to us, tho fomewhat allay'd bythe Satisfa- 
dion • we had to find our Lives were fafe. Da Gay 
took me aiide to confefs him, being fenfible of the 
uncertain Condition his Life was in, amongft fo bar- 
barous a People. This oblig'd him to embrace me 
very heartily, and to beg my Pardon for what was 
paft, having firft made the fame Requeit to God. I 
ihould have been overjoyed to have feen Michael Ako 
as well difpofed : However, I did not omit to ihew 
both the one and the other all the Marks of a mofc 
tender AfFedion. . , 

In Ihort, the Savages having parted us, led us 
away each to his own Villige. Our Way lay over a 
Moras, where we march'd half way the Leg in Wa- 
ter for a League together, at the end of which we 
were met by five of AmV'-imdn^ Wives, who re- 
M-4 ceiv'd 

i68 A New Difcovery of 

ceiv'd me in one of the three Canou's of Bark which 
they had brought with them, and then carry'd me a- 
little League farther into a fmall Ifland, where their 

Cabins, were. 


The Aitthor'^s Exception by' the Relations of Aquipaguetin. 
Tljey make hhn fweat to recover him of his Fatigues. 
The ufe they make of his Chafuhle And other Ornaments. 

IArriv'd at this Place in the Month of ^Wkj', i<58o. 
the Day I cannot precifely tell ^ for 1 was fb ha- 
rafs'd by the Savages on the Way, that I could not 
make all the little Obfervations which otherwife I 
woald ha^^edone: Befides, there is fome feven or 
ei^ht Hours difference between the days and Nights 
of EnropCy and tliofeof North-^/^enV^, becaufe of 
the Retrogradation of the Sun. The Gape was al- 
ways to weft of us from Rochel to Onebec ^ but to 
South-weft from thence, till we came to Mefchafipi, 
which made a confiderable Variation in the Needle. 

This Variation was occafion'd by the unconftant 
motion of the Needle, which in certain Latitudes 
would encline to the North, or North-Eaft v where- 
as in others 'twould turn from the North to the 
North-weft. We never could be fo well afTur'd of 
our Computations in our long Voyages, as to know 
ex idly the way our Canou's made in a Day, or 
what was the Variation of the Needle in 'each Lati- 
tude. But we found there were many Minutes of 
Variation, according to the Point the Wind was in. 
To lay the Truth, able Men might have loft the Me- 
mory of many things under the fame Circumftan- 
ces with my felf. , 

At the entry of the Captain's Cabin who had a- 
dopted me, one of the Barbarians, who feem'd to 


A Large Country in America, 169 

be very old, prefented me with a great Pipe to fmoak 
in, and weeping over me all the while with abun- 
dance of Years,, rubb'd both my Arms and my Head. 
This was to Ihew how concern'd he was to fee 
me lo harafs'd and fatigu'd : And indeed I had 
often need enough of two Men to fapport me 
when I was up, or raife me when I was down. 
There was a Bears-Skin before the Fire, upon which 
the youngeil Boy of the Cabin caus'd me to lie 
down, and then with the Greafe of wild Gats anoint- 
. ed my Thighs, Legs, and Soles of my Feet. 

Aqui^agmtlns Son, who call'd me Brother, had 
got my Brocard Chafuble, and was ftrutting up and 
*down with it upon his naked back. He had wrapp'd 
• up in it the Bones of a Man who had been very con- 
iiderable amongit them, for whofe Memory they had 
itill a wonderful Refped. The Prieft's Girdle which 
mas made of red and white Wooll, with two Loops 
at the end ferv'd him to faden it, whi'^t he carry'd 
it up and down in Triumph, calling ii t^^mis Chinneriy 
which iignifies, as I fince uiiderftand, the Robe of 
him, who is nam'd the Sm. After |hey had for fbme 
time us'd my Chafuble as an Ornament to cover the 
Bones of their Dead, at the celebrating their molt fo- 
lemn Rites, ^ey made a prefent of it to a People 
in Alliance with them, who iiv'd 4 or- 500 Leagues 
diltant towards the Welt, but were come in Embaffie, 
and had danc'd the Cahmet. 

The day after my Arrival, Aqui^agnetifi^ who was 
Head of a Great Family, put me on a Robe which was 
made of the Skins of the Bellies of wild Bulls : He gave 
me a fecond, made often large Caftor-Skins. Thea 
he fhew'dme fix or feven of his Wives, (for Poligamy 
is in falhion here ; ) he told them, as I afterwards un- 
deritood. That they were toelteem me as one of their 
Sons. After this, he fet a Bark-dilh before me, in 
which were Bremes, and other white Fifh, to regale 
me withal He gave Orders to thofe about him, to 
> ' - give 

I^o 4 Nem Difcovery of 

give me the Title that was due to the Rank which I 

was to hold amongfl my new Kindred. 

Farther ^ this new Father of mme oblervmg that 
I could not well rife without two or three to heln me, 
order'd a Stove to be made, into .which he caus d^me 
to enter flark-naked with four Savages^ who before 
they began to fweat, ty'd their Pr^p/^c^^ about with 
certain Strings made of the Bark of a white Wood. 
This Stove was cover'd with the Skins of wild Bulls, 
and in it they put Flints and other Stones red-hot. 
They order'd me by Signs to hold my Breath, time at-, 
ter time, as long as I could, which I did, as well as 
thofe that were with me. As for the Privy Parts, I had 
only a Handkerchief to cover me. '.it. 

As foon as the Savages that were with me had let 
go their Breath which they did with a great torce, 
%mm.Hem began to fing with a loud and thundrmg 
Voice; the others feconded him^ and laying their 
Hands on my Body, began to rub it, and at the lame 
time to weep bitterly. ♦! was like- to fall into a 
-Swoon, and fo was forc'd to quit the Stove. At my 
coming out, I was fcarce able to take up my Habit 
of St. Fr^./c;. to cover me withal, I was fo weak: 
However, they continu'd to make me fweat thrice a 
Week, which at laft: reitor'd me to my priitme Vi- 
gour, fo that 1 found my felf as well as ever. 


The Author like to be famijVd. They admire his Com^afh 
and an Iron Pot which he h^d. He makes a D^^wnary, 
and inftri45ts them in Points df Religion, m relation to 
PoUgamy and Celibacy. 

MAnya melancholy Day did I pafs amongit 
thefe Savages, ^^^ip^^^^t^w, who adopted me, 
gave me nothmg to eat but a few wild Oats five qr 

a Large Country in America. 171 

fix times a Week, and the Roes of dry'd Fiih, All 
this Trafh the Women boil'd up in an Earthen Pot : 
Bel^des^ he fent me into a Neighbouring Ifle, with his 
Wives, Children, and Servants, where I vv as to hough 
and dig with a Pick-axe and Shovel, which I hadreco- 
ver'd from thofe that robb'd us. Here we planted Tor- 
bacco, and ibme European Pulfe, which I brou ght from 
thence, and were highly priz'd hf Acpiipagnetin. 

This Man, to make himfelf the more cpniiderable 
among thofe of his Tribe , would often aflemble 
the Ancients of his Village, and in prefence of them, 
fend for my Compafs, which I had ftill by me. Up- 
on my turning the Needle with a K^, he took oc- 
calion to tell them, and with Truth enough, That 
by the Guidance of that Machine it was, that we 
Enropeafjs travelled the whole World. Nay, being aa 
able Spokefman, he poflefs'd them farther. That we 
were Spirits ^ and that we were capable of bringing 
things to pafs that were altogether out of their power. 
At the end of his Diicourfe, which was very pathe- 
tick, all the Elders wept over me, admiring in me 
-what they could not comprehend. 

I had an Iron Pot about three foot round, which 
had the Figure of a Lion on it, which during our 
Voyage ferv'd us to bake our Viduals in. This Vef- 
fd was not lb apt to break as our ordinary Kettles, 
wliich are more brittle^ for which reafon it was, not 
being likely to meet with Bra^iars to furnifli us with 
new upon occalion, that we took this with us. This Pot 
the Barbarians durft never fo much as touch, with- 
out covering their Hands firft in fomething of Gaftor- 
Skin. .And ib great a Terrour was it to the.W^omen, 
that they had it hung abroad upon the Bough of a 
Tree •, for they durlt not come or deep in the Gabiii 
when it Was there. 

We would have made a Prefent of it to ibme of 
their Chiefs ^ but none of them would either accept 
or make ufe of itj becaufe they thought that there 


172 A New Difccwery of 

was a Spirit hid within, that would certainly kill them. 
Thefc People are all of them fubjecl to the like Super- 
Itition. Their Jugglers impofe whatever they think fit 
upon their Belief, 'Twas fome time I fpent amOng 'em, 
before I could make my felf be uhderftood. But Hun- 
ger beginningto prefs me hard, Ifet about making a 
Didionary in their Tongue, the which I did by means 
of their Children, with whom I made my felf as fa- 
miliar as poffible, to inform my felf by their Prattle. 

When once I had got the Word Tahetchiaben , 
which fignifies in their Language, How call yon this ? 
I began to be foon able to talk of fuch things as are 
molt familiar^^ This difficulty was hard to furmount 
at firft, becauie there was no Interpreter that under- 
itood both Tongues. For Example ^ If I had a mind 
to know what to nm was in their Tongue, I was 
forc'd to mend my pace , and indeed adually run 
from one end of the Cabin to t'other, till they un- 
derflood what I meant, and had told me the Word \ 
which I prefently fet down in my Didionary. The 
Principal of them obferving the great Inclination I 
had to learn their Language , would often tell me, 
Vatchifo/t igagahe^ Sprit ^ thou tahfi a great deal of Fains. 
Titt Black to White. One Day they told me the Names 
of all the Parts of a Man's Body. Howevever, I for- 
bore fetting down feveral immodeft Terms, which 
thefe People fcruple not to ufe every foot. Obferving 
it, they would often cry igagahe^ igagahe ^ Svirit^ Spi- 
rit^ fet down that Word as well as the reft. 

Thus would they divert themfelves with me, and 
often lay .to one another, When we ask Father Louis 
any things (for they had heard' our Canou-Men call 
me fo} he does not anfwcr m. But when he has look tip- 
on the White, (for they have no word for Paper) he 
then talks, and males us under ft and his Thoughts. This White 
thing, wou'd they add, muf; needs he a Spirit, which 
teatshes him to underfland all we fay. Hence they conclu - 

de(% that neither of the CanoiwMen had fo much Wit 
■ as 

a Large Country in America. 1 7 j 

as my felf, becaufe they could mtvoork Hf on that which 
was White. So that this Qualification in me, made them 
fondly imagine that I could do any thing elfe. 

One Day, feeing the Rain fall in fuch abundance, 
that they fear'd 'twould fpoil their hunting,^ they or- 
dered me to bid it ceafe. I told them, pointing with 
my Finger to the Clouds, That He^ who was the Great 
Captain of Heaven ^ was the fole Mafier of the Rain and 
Sitnjlnne y That He was the Great Diffofer of all the 
Events that happen to Mortals ^ or the Vniverfe in general j 
That what they bid me do., depended not on me^ but the 
Firfi Mover^ who had fefit me thither^ to teach them to 
acknowledge him for their Creator and Redeemer. 

Obferving me diltinguilh'd from the Canou-Men by 
my Habit , and having no Notion of Celibacy, they 
would often ask what Age I was, and what Wives and 
Children I had. Their way of reckoning their Years is 
by Winters. Thefe Wretches, void of Light and In- 
ftrudion, were ftrangely furpriz'd at the Anfwer I 
made them. I told them, pointing to the two Canou- 
Men, whom I wa^ come three Leages to vifit. That 
with fiSy one Man might marry but one Wife, a?jd that no- 
thing coiCd feparate him again from that One, but Death : 
'That for myfelf, I had promised the Great Mafier of Life: 
never to marry any; bnttocome and dwell among fir them, 
and infiri'iEh them in the Commands of the Great Mafier of 
Heaven and Earth, and to live poorly among fi them, far 
from my own Country, where all good Things did abound. 

^Tis true, fays one of them, here is little or ;/o Hint- 
ing in thefe Parts, and thoitfufferpfi much : But have but 
patience till Summer, Wf jhall then go into the hot Countries j 
where we fimll kill B/ills enough, and then thou wilt make 
thy felf fufficie-nt amends for the time thou hafi fpent here. 
I had been well content, had they let me eat as their 
Children did •, but they hid the Viduals from me, and 
would rife to eat in the Night, when I knew nothing 
of it. And although Women haveufually more Com- 
palTiOfl than Men, yet they kept the little Fiih chat they 


174 j4 Ne0 Difcoverj of 

had, all for their Children. They confider'd me as ar 
Slave whom their Warriours had taken in their Ene- 
my's Country ^ and preferred the Lives of their Chil- 
dren before any Confideration they had for me ^ as 
indeed it was but reaibnable they IhouM. 

However, fome of the Elders would come often, and 
mourn over me in a very doleful manner. One wou'd 
call me Grandfon^ another Nepheiv *, and all would lay 
to me, / am flrangely afflicted to fee thee fo long witho'it: 
eatings and to miderfiand than hafi been Jo ill treated in 
thy Journey. Thofe were yonng Warriors withoHt Courage^ 
who woM^d have kilPd thee^ and who robbed thee of what 
thoit hadfi. If thou wou'djl have had Robes of CafiorSj or 
wild BhUs^ to dry thy 'Tears^ we wou'd havf given ^em 
thee ^ but thou wouldfi accept of nothing we have fre^ 
fented thee. 


The mofi confderable Captain of the and Nadouefll- 
ans upbraid thofe that took us. The Author 
the Daughter of Mamenifi. 

OVaficoude^t that is to fay. The Pierc'dpine^ thewi- 
felt and moft confiderable of all the Chiefs of the 
JJfati and Nadouejfiansy made it publickly appear, that 
he was highly incens'd againft the Warriors tfiat had 
us'd us fo very ill. He faidonce in a full Council, That 
thofe who had robb'd us of our Things, were to be 
compar'd to famifh'd Dogs, which having ftole a piece 
of Flelh outof aDifli, fneak away with it when they 
have done : That they that had aded much after the 
fame rate in regard of us, ought to be look'd upon as 
Dogs, who cou'd put fuch unworthy Affronts upon 
Men, who brought them Iron, and other Merchan- 
dizes, which they had no knowledge of, though they 
were found to be fo ufeful : Thi^t for Himfelf, he 


A Large Country in A met ica. 175 

Ihou'd one Day have an opportunity of being reveng'd 
on him, who had been Author of all our Sufferings. 
This Reprimand was worthy the Charader of a Perfon 
of Ouaficoiide^s Authority : And the Generofity of the 
Action redounded fince to the Benefit of the whole 
Nation, as we fiiall fee anon. 

Going one Day, as I often did, to vifit the CatinSj 
I found the Infant-Child of one call'd Mamenp^ very 
Hck. Having a little examin'd the Symptoms of its 
Diftemper, I found the Child paft hopes of Reco- 
very. I deiir'd our two Canou-Men to give me their 
Opinions, telling them, I thought my felf oblig'd in 
Conlcience to Baptize it. Michael Ah cou'd not be 
prevail'd with to enter the Cabin where the Infant 
lay. • He faid in Excufe, That I could not forget 
what a Rifque we had run once already, of being 
murder'd by the Savages through my Obilinacy, in 
perfifting to fay my Breviary \ whence 'twas to be 
fear'd, that what I was now going to do, might ex- 
pofe us again to the fame Danger. 

The Wretch had rather comply with certain Su- 
p^ftitions of the Barbarians , than aflilt me in fb 
pious a Defign. Being follow'd then by none but 
Pkard du Gay^ who aflifted as God-father, or rather 
Witnefs of the Baptifm, I chriHen'd the Child, and 
nam'd it Antonetta^ from St. Anthony of Padua \ and 
the rather, becaufe the faid Veter du Gafs Name was 
Anthofiy Angnelle^ Native of Amiens^ and Nephew of 
Monfieur dn Conroi^ Prodor-General of the Premon- 
firesy and fince Abbot of BeaulieH^ to whom I pre- 
fented him fafe at our Return from Canada. But to 
proceed \ for want of more proper lltenlils, I took a 
wooden Difh, and having put fome common ordi- 
nary Water into it, fprinkled it upon the Head of 
the little Savage, pronouncing the following Words, 
Creature of God-, I baptlz.e thee in the Name of the Father^ 
of the Son^ and of the Holy Ghofi. Then I took half 
my Altar-Cloth , which I had fnatch'd out of the 

Ha^ads A 

jn6 A New Difcovery of 

Hands of a Savage, who had ftole it from me, andi 

fpread it over the Body of the Infant. 

The Baptifm was accompany'd with no other Ce- 
remony, becaufe 1 was no longer in a Condition to 
fay Mafs, my Sacerdotal Robes being all taken from 
me* I believ'd the Linen could not ferve to a more 
proper End than a Winding-Sheet to the firll Infant 
of the Country, that had the Happinefs to be bapti- 
sed. I know not how far its Pains might be aflwag'd 
by Virtue of the Linen, or what Alterations it might 
feel. I am fure I faw it laughing the next Day in 
its Mother's , Arms, who believ'd I had cur'd her 
Child. However it dy'd fome time after, which af- 
fected me more with Joy dian Grief. 

Had this Child recover'd, 'twas much to be fear'd 
'twou'd have trod in the fteps of its Fore -fathers, and 
been over-grown with their Infamous Superftitions, for 
want of a Preacher to inftrud it. For indeed, if thofe 
of its Nation dwelling in Darknefs and Ignorance, con- 
tinue to Jin without Law-, they jlmll alfo prijh without Law, 
as we are told by the Apoftle. Uponthefe Confiderati- 
ons I was glad it had pleas'd God to take this little Chri- 
ftianout of the World, left it might have tall'n ii!to 
Temptations, had it recover'd, which might have en- 
gag'd it in Error and Superfiition. I have often attri- 
ted my Prefervation amidft the great eft Dangers which 
I have fmce run, to the Care I took for its Baptifm. 


An Emhajfy fent to the Iflati by the Savages that inhabit 
to the Wefi of them. Whence it appears that there is no 
fuch thing oi the Streights of Anian-, and that Japan 
is on the fame Continent as Louifiana. 


Nder the Reign of the Emperour Charles V. the 
Fathers Reclufe of our Order were the firft that 


a Large Country in America. 177 

were lent by his Command into New-Mexico •, fincc 
which time there have been- of them beyond the Fer- 
milian-Sea. The moll remarkable Epoque of the 
Streights of Anian^ commences from the time of that 
moft excellent Reltglom of our Order, Martin de Va^ 
lencia^ who was the Firft Bifliop of the great City of 
Mexico. We have fpoke of him elfewhere. 

In procels of time 'twas believ'd that the faid 
Streights were only imaginary : Many Perfons noted 
for great Learning , are of this Opinion j and to 
evince the Truth of it, 1 will here fubjoin one evi- 
dent Proof, to thofe which are already produc'd by 
them: and it is this. During my ftay among the 
Iffati and NddoHJfians^ there arriv'd four Savages in Em- 
baffie to thefe People. They had come above five 
hundred Leagues from the Weft ^ and told us by the 
Interpreters of the Ijfati, that they were four Moons 
upon the Way ; for fo it is they call their Months. 
They added, that their Country was to the Weft, 
and that we lay to the Eall in refped of them ^ that 
.they had march'd the whole time without refting, 
except to fleep , or ,kill Game for their Subfiftence. 
They aflur'd us there was no fuch thing as the 
Streights of Anian ^ and that in their whole Journey 
they had neither met with, nor palTed over any 
Great Lake j by which Phrafe they always mean the 
Sea, nor any Arm of it. 

. They farther informed us. That the Nation of the 
Ajfeni'pulaes^ whofe Lake is down in the Map, and 
who lie North-Eaft of the Ijfati^ v/as not above Hx 
or ik.YQTi Days Journey from us : ■ That none of the 
Nations within their Knowledge , who lie to the 
Weft and North-Weft of them, had any great Lake 
about their Countries, which were very large, but 
only Rivers, which coming from the North, run 
crofs the Countries of their Neighbouring Nations, 
which border on their Confines on the lide of the 
Great Lake, which in the Language of the Savages 
■N is 

178 A New D if celery of 

is the fame as Sea: That Spirits, and Pu^mies, or 
Men of little Stature, did inhabit there, as they had 
been inform'd by the People that liv'd farther up 
than themfelves \ and that all the Nations which lie 
beyond their Country, and thofe which are next to 
them, do dwell in Meadows and large Fields, where 
are many wild Bulls 'and Caitors, which are greyer 
than thofe of the North, and have their Coat more 
inclining to Blacky with many other wild Bealls, 
which yield very fine Fuits. 

The four Savages of the faid Embalfy affur'd us 
farther, that there were very few Forells in the Coun- 
tries through which they pafs'd in their way hither ^ 
infomuch that now and then they were fo put to it 
for Fuel, that they were forced to make Fires of 
Bull's Dung, to boil their Victuals with in Earthen- 
Pots, which they make ufe of, as neither having, nor 
knowing of any better. 

All thefe Circumllances which I have here infert- 
ed, make it appear, that there is no fuch thing as 
the S freights of ^wW , as we ufually fee them fet. 
down in Maps. To aiTert the Truth of what I fay, 
1 here frankly offer my felf to return into thefe 
Parts, with fuch Ships as His Britmnkk Majefiy^ or 
their High and Aiightinejfes^ the States General^ Ihall 
think fit to fend thither, m order to a full Difcovery j 
in which 1 have no other Aim but the Glory of God, 
the Propagation of the Golpel , Inftrudion of thofe 
blind and ignorant People, who have been neglect- 
ed for fo many Ages, Improvement of Trade, 
which, the bettei- 'tis underftood, the more will it 
daily encreafe between the Subjeds of the King of 
Spain my Mafter, and thofe of Kis Br'uannkk Majefiy 
mid States General: And laftly. That Correfponde nee 
and Union fo necellary to be maintained among 
them, that they may live and labour together for the 
Common Good. I declare, I have no other Delign; 
that my -Intentions are fmccre and upright, and that 


a Large Country in America. 1 79 

my Defire is to be ferviceable to all Europe ^ Refped 
being firft had, as I am in Duty bound, to my Na- 
tural Prince, the King of EngU-nd^ and the States ^ 
to whom I am lingularly engaged, for the good Pve- 
ception they were pleafed to honour me with. Others 
perhaps would have ufed me ill, in return of all my 
Services, and the many dangerous. Voyages I have 
made, with no other Defign, but to contribute what 
in me lay , to the Glory of God, the Salvation of 
Souls, and the Good of all Chriflendom. I know 
well what I fay. But to return : Whatever Efforts 
have been made for many Years pall, by the EnaUJli 
and Diitch^ the two Nations of the World, who^are 
the greatell Navigators, to find out a PafTage to Chi- 
Tia, and Ja^m^ thro' the Fro2en-Sea, they have not 
as yet been able to. effeft it. But by the help of my 
Difcovery, and the Affiltance of God, I doubt not 
to let all Enrobe fee that a Paflage may Hill be found 
thither , and that an eafie one too. • For Example \ 
One may be tranfported into the Pacifick-Se.t by Ri-- 
•vers, which are large, and capable of carrying great 
Veflels, and from thence 'tis eafie to go to China and 
Ja^an^ without croIFing the Equinodial Line, Thofe 
that read my Relation, and will aever fo little exa- 
mine the Map which are annext to it, will foon ac- 
knowledge the Truth of what i^^f. '' * 


The IlTati ajfemhle to hunt the IVild- Bull. Refiifd of the 
two Canow-AIen to take the Author into their CanoWj 
in order to go down the River of St. Francis. 

AFter three Months or thereabouts, fycm very ill 
among the Jjfati and Nadoitejfians^ thtfe Nations 
alfenibl'd to hunt the Wild-Bull j and their Captains 
baving affigu'd them their Stations, that they might 
N 2 not 

1 8o A New Dif cover y of 

rot fall in with one another, they feparated themfelves 
into many Bands. 

Aqiit^a^uetin^ the Chief, that had adopted me for 
his Son, wou'd have carry 'd me to the Weft with a- 
bout 200 Families. But remembring the Pveproaches 
which the great Captain Ouaficonde had made him, 
upon the Score of our ill ufage, I was apprehenfive 
left he ihould lay hold of this Opportunity to avenge 
himfelf on me. I told him therefore, I expeded 
fome Spirits, which in their Language is as much as 
to lay Europeam^ at the River Ouifconfm^ which dif- 
charges it felf into the River -Mefchafifi ^ that ac- 
cording to the Promife made me by the Sieur de la 
Salle^ they would meet me there with Iron, and 0- 
ther Commodities, which as yet they were unac- 
quainted with ^ and that if he would think of turn- 
ing his Expedition that way, I fhould be'* very glad 
to accompany him. He heard my Propofal, and was 
willing to embrace it ^ but thofe of his Band would 
not let him. 

In the beginning of >//y, 1680. we began to delcend 
towards the South, with the great Captain 'Ouafwodey 
and about, 80 Cabins, containing 130 Families and 
250 Warriors. The Savages who had nothing but 
old Canou's, could not make me room •, fo that they 
went four Days Journey lower, to get fome Birchen- 
Bark, to make more new ones. I made a hole in the 
-Ground, in which I hid my gilt Chalice, with my 
Books and Papers, till we fhoui'd return from hunt- 
ing ^ and took nothing with me but my Breviary, 
that 1 might not cumber my felf. 

I Placed my felf upon the Brink of the Lake which 
forms the River of St, Francps^ where I held out my 
Hands to the Canou Men, as they paft very fwiftly 
by, to dciire them to take me in. Our two Enropcans 
were in a Canou , which had been given them by 
the Savages. However, I could not prevail with 
them to receive me. Michael Ah told me very 


a Large Country in America. 1 8 1 

briitifhly^ he had^carry'd me long enough. This 
rough and unhandiome Anfwer made me very me- 
lancholy, when I faw my felf forfaken ■ by thofe of 
my own Country and Religion, whom I had always 
endeavoured to oblige, as themfelves had often ac- 
knowledged before Perfons of the firft Quality, where 
I was us'd to be received with all the Marks of Di- 
ftindion, while themelves, were fuffer'd to Hand and 
cool their Heels at the Door. 

But God , who of his Mercy never forlbok me 
throughout all my Adventures, infpiredtwo of the Sa- 
vages with fo much Compaflion, as to take me with 
them into their Canon, tho' it were lefs than that of 
the Europeans. Here I was continually employed m 
laving out Water, which foaked in again as faft as 
'twas thrown out, through abundance of little Chinks. 
This Work was uneaiie enough ^ be fides that, I could 
not keep my felf from being throughly wet. How- 
ever, 'twas net^eflary to have Patience, It might have 
httR properly faid of this little Veilel, that when a 
Man was in it, he was in his Coffin; fo crazy was it, 
and ready to break. This fort of Cano's feldom weigh 
above 50 Pounds, and the leaft Motion of the Body 
overfets them, at leaft if you have not been long ac-. 
quainted with this fort of Navigation. 

At Evening when we landed, Pkard began to ex- 
cufe himfelf, pretending their Canow was a very 
rotten one, that it would certainly have burft, had we 
been all three ir| it, and that we mull needs have been 
left by the way. Notwithftanding thefe Excufes, I 
told them, tliat being Chriilians, they had not done 
well to ufe me as they did, efpeciaily conlidering a- 
mong whom we were: That they had forfaken me 
very unfeafonably, having left me all alone at above 
800 Leagues diftance from Canada^ allowing for "the 
Reaches, we were to make, before we could get thi- 
ther: That if they had received any good Ufagefroni 
the Savages, 'twas owing to my Ingenuity more than- 
N 3 their 

i82 A Neiv Dlfcovery of 

their own, having been capable of letting feveral of 
them Blood, and otherwife affifting 'em in their Sick- 
nefs by my Orvietan, and fome other Medicines which 
I carefully kept by me. 

To this I added, that by the fame means I had cur'd 
others of them that had been bitten by Rattle-Snakes, 
of which I fhall fpeak in my Second Foliime^, That \ 
Ihav'd the Crowns of their Children's Heads, (on 
which they wear the Hair till eighteen or twenty) 
which was no fmall matter, confidering they could not 
do it themfelves, without putting them to great Pain, 
by burning OiT the Hair with flat Stones, which they 
heat red-hot in the Fire : That hitherto indeed, I had 
made but little advance in order to their Salvation, 
by reafon of their natural Stupidity^ but that the belt 
way to take the Soul was to begin with the Body : 
That, in fhort, I had gain'd their Friendfhip by my 
Services, and that they would have certainly kili'd us 
at the time they ufed us fb ill, but tliat they knew I had 
certain Remedies about me proper to reltore Health 
to the Sick ; vs^hich they thought was a Treafure never 
to be valued as it ought. 

None was with me during this Harangue, but Pk 
card du Gay^ _ who, as he was going to his Cabin, de- 
jir'd me to pardon him. But the great Captain Oitcifi- 
coude having heard of this barbarous Adion of the 
two Canow-Men, ordered them to appear before the 
Council, and told them, that for the future he would 
take care to remove me out of the reach, not only 
of AqmfaaMetin^ who had fo often attempted my Life 
and yet adopted me for his Son, but likwife from 
their Company, who, like two Villains, as they were, 
had fo bafely deferted me. Had I not luckily be- 
thought my felfr to break three Arrows in the pre- 
fence of this brave Chief, the Canow-Men being yet 
by, he had infallibly cans'd them to have been put to 
death that very Minute. I Ihail never forget the 
Hiimanky of this great Captain, who treated me fo 


aLargeComtry in Am&nc2L. i%^ 

favourably on all Occafions. . The two Canow-nieu 
were furpriz'd at what had happen'd/and promis'd 
me an entire Obedience for the future. 


The Savages halt above the Fall of St. Anthony of 
?Sidii\z.^ They are fireighterPd for Provifions. The 
Author^ with Picard, returns- to the River Ouifconfm. 
The Adventures of the Voyage. 

F(3ur Days after our Departure to hunt the wild 
Bulls, the Barbarians made a I^lt fome eight 
Leagues above the Fall of St, Anthony o^P^diia^ upon 
an Eminence, over againfl the River of St. Francis, 
The Savage Women prepared little Docks to build 
the new Canon's in, againfl the return of thofe who 
were gone for Bark. The Youth in the mean tune 
went out to hunt the Stag, the wild Goat and the 
Caftor^ but with fo little Succefs, that the Prey 
they brought home was fo difproportionable to the 
Number that were to feed on it, that we had hardly 
every one a Mouthful. Happy the Man that once in 
twenty four Hours could get fo much as a Sup of 
Broath. ' .. . ^ 

This put Picard and my felf upon hunting alter 
Goofeberries, and other wild Fruits, which often did 
us more harm than good. And i am confident, that 
had it not been for my Orvietan-Powder, which m 
a great meafure correded-the bad Nutriment which 
we took in, our Lives had been in great Danger. 
This extream Want, made us take a Refolution, up- 
on Michael Ako's reiuiing to accompany us, to ven- 
ture our feives in a little forry Canou as far as the 
River Odfconfin, which was at no lefs diftance from 
us than 130 Leagues, to fee if the Sieiir de Salle had 
kept his Word with us : For he had promifed uspo- 
^^^ N4 iitively 

184 . -^ N^^'^ Difcovery of 

fitively to fend Men with Powder, and Lead, and 
other Merchandizes, to the place which I have already 
mentioned : And of this he aflured me more than once, 
before his departure from the Illinois. 

The Savages would never have fuffered us to have 
made this Voyage, without one of the three being 
left with them : And my felf was the Man they 
pitched upon to ftay, by the Advice of the great Cap- 
tain Ouafico'ddey whilfl: the two Ganou-Men were at 
liberty to proceed on. their Voyage. But Michael 
uikoyViho was apprehenfive of the many Hardfhipshe 
was like to meet with in this Expedition, could never 
be prevail'd upon to confent to it : So that feeing he 
began to relifhjihe Barbarians way of living, I delir'd 
their Chief, ^hat I might have leave to accompany 
Tieard in his llead^ who accordingly granted my 

Our whole Equipage confilled of fifteen or twenty 
Charges of Powder, a Fufil, a little forry ,Earthen 
Pot, which the Barbarians gave us, a Knife between 
us both, and a Garment of Caftor. Thus were we 
equipt for a Voyage of 250 Leagues j but ourgreateffc 
Trull was in Providence. As we were carrying our 
little Canou to^ the Fall of St. .Amho^iy of Fadm^ we 
perceived five or fix Savages, who were got there be- 
fore us. One of them was was got up into an Oak over 
againft the great Fall of Water, where he was weep- 
ing molt, bitterly, having faflened to one of the Bran- 
ches of the Tree, a Robe of Cafi:or, which was white 
within-fide, and garnilhed with Porcupine. 

The poor Wretch had offered it in Sacrifice to the 
Fall^ which, indeed, of it felf is terrible, and hath 
Ibmething in it' very aftonilhing: However, it doth 
not come near that of Niagara. I could hear him 
fay, as he wis. addreifing himf:lf to the Cafcade, 
with Tears in his Eyes^ Thou art a Spirit grant 
that Thofe of my Nation may fafs here without any Dl- 
f after •, That -we may meet with a great many wild Bulls :, 


a Large Couhtry in America. 185 

mA that we may he fo hapfy a^ to vanqmjh our Enemy ^ 
and take a great many Slaves^ whom, when we have made 
them fiiffer according to their Merits, we will bring hither^ 
andjlay in thy Prefence. The MelTenacks ('cis fo they 
call the Nation of the Omtonagimis) have Jlain fame 
of our Kindred : Grant we* may be able to revenge our 
felves ufon 'em for that Affront. 

The laft part of his Requeft hapned to be fulfilled 
fooner, I believe, than he expefted : For as they re- 
turned from hunting the wild Bulls, they attacked 
their Enemy , killed a good many of them, and car- 
ried ofTfeveral Slaves, whom they put to death be- 
fore the Fall, after the molt barbarous and inhumane 
manner in the World , as we Ihall fee in the SeconcL 
Vohtme. Now if after fiich a barbarous Ceremony as 
i have been defcribing, it happen but once that the 
Succefs anfwers the Requeft, 'tis fufficientto render 
them obftinate in their fuperftitious Guftom, though 
it mifcarry a hundred times for once that it hits. 
As for the Caftor-Robe, which was thus offered as a 
Ibrt of Sacrifice , one of our Eiiropam made bold 
with it at his return, and would have been glad 0f 
having more frequent Opportunities of profiting by 
their Devotions. 

When we had got about a League below the I^all, 
Vicard mifs'd his Powder-Horn, and remembring he, 
had left it there, was forced to go back and fetch it. 
At his return I fhewed him a huge Serpent, as big as 
a Man's Leg, and 'k^tvi or eight Foot long. She was 
working her felf infenfibly up a fteep craggy Rock, 
to get at the Swallows Nells which are there in 
great Numbers : And at the Bottom of the Moun- 
tain we faw the Feathers of thofe ihe had already 
devoured. We pelted her fb long with Stones,- till at 
length Ihe fell into the River. Her Tongue which 
was in form of a Lance , was of an extraordinary 
length. Her Hifs might be heard a great way, and 
the Noife of it feized us with Horror. Poor Picard 


J 86 A New Difcauery of 

dreamt of her at Night, and was in a great Agony 
all the while. He told me, I had dome him a fenli- 
ble Kindnefs in waking him -^ for though he was a 
Man intrepid enough, yet he was all in a fweat with 
the fright of his Dream.^ I have likewife my felf 
been often difturbed in my Sleep with the Image of 
her ^ fo great an ImprelTion did the light of this Mon- 
ger make upon our Spirits. 

As we were falling down the River Mefchafi^i with 
extraordinary Swiftnefs, becaufe the Current is very 
rapid in this place, by reafon 'tisfo near the Fall, we 
found fome of the Savages of our Band, in the Illands 
of the River, where they had fet up their Cabins, 
and were well provided with Bulls Flefh. They of- 
fered us very freely of what they had. But about two 
Hours after our landing, we thought we Ihould have 
been all murdered : Fifteen or lixteen Savages came 
into the middle of the Place where we were, with 
their great Clubs in their Hands. The firft^thing they 
did was to over-fet the Cabin of thofe that had invi- 
ted us. Then thev took away all their Viftuals, and 
what Bears-Oil they could find in their Bladders, or 
elfewhere, with which they rubbed themfelves all over 
from Head to Foot. ^ . t,- » 

\Vq took them at firft for Enemies ^ and Ficard 
was very near itickiiis; the firlT: that came in with his 
Sword. At the firlf furprize, I began to lay hold of 
the two Pocket-Pillols that dn Gay had left me ^ but 
bygoodluckl contained my felf, orotherwife, with- 
out doubt, there had been an end of us ;, for their 
Companions would not have failed to have revenged 
upon us the Death of thofe we had kill'd. 

We knew not what thefe Savages were at firit ^ 
but it appear 'd they were fome of thofe that we 
liad left above at the Fall of St. Antlmty. One ot 
them, who called himfelf my Uncle, told me, that 
thofe who had given us Visuals , had done bale- 
iy to g;o and foiTlfal the others in the Chafe ^ and 

a Large Country in America. i'S7 

that according to the Laws and Cufloms of their 
Country , 'twas lav\rfiil for them to plunder them, 
fince they had been the caufe chat the Bulls were all 
run away , before the Nation could get together, 
which was a great Injury to the Publick : For when 
they are all met, they make a great Slaughter among 
the Bulls •, for they furround them fb on every lidr, 
that 'tis impoflible for them to efcape. 


the Hunting of the Tortoife, The Author's Cmou is car^ 
ry^d off by a Jaddcn bUft of Wind^ which was like 
to have reduced him and his Companion to great 

IN about threefcore Leagues rowing, we had kill'd 
but one wild-Goat, which we did as ihe was 
crofTmg the River, The Heats were now grown lb 
exceflive , that our Provifions would be fpoiPd in 
twenty four Hours. This put us upon Hunting the 
Tortoife •, but 'twas with much difficulty that wc 
could take any ; for being very quick of hearing , 
they would throw themfelves into the Water upon 
the leafl noife. However, we took one at lalt, which 
was much larger than any we had feen : His Shell 
was thin, and the Flelh very fat. Whilft I was con- 
triving to cut ofFhis Head , he had like to have been 
before-liand with me, by fnapping of my Finger with 
his Teeth, which are very fliarp. 

Vv^hilll we were managing this Affair, we had haU 
led our Canou a-fhoar ^ bnt it feems a fudden and 
violent BlafI; of Wind had carried her off again in- 
to the middle of the River. Vicard was gone into 
the Meadows , to fee if he could kill a wild Bull ^ 
fo that I was left alone with the Canou. This o- 
bliged me to throw my Habit as faft as I could over the 


i88 A New Difcovery of 

Tortoife, which I had turn'd, for fear he Ihould get 
away. I likewife laid feveral Stones upon my Clothes, 
the better to fecure him. When I had done, I fell 
a fwimming after our Canou, which went very fait 
down the River, being carried by a very quick Stream, 
becaufe 'twas jult at the turning of a Point. After 
I had recovered it with a great deal of difficulty, I 
durlt not get into it, for fear of being overfet, and 
wetting thd Woollen Coverlet that was in it, which 
I us'd to fleep on, and the reft of our little Equi- 
page : For which reafon I was forc'd to pufliit fome- 
times before me, and fometimes tug it after me, tilj 
by little and little I gain'd the Shoar, a fmall half 
quarter of a League below the Plact where I had left 
the Tortoife. 

Tkard returning from the Chace, where he had 
kill'd nothing •, and finding only my Habit upon the 
Tortoife , but no Canou, had reafon to think that 
fbme Savage or other having found me alone , had 
kill'd me. In great fufpence , h^ return'd into the 
Meadows , to look about if he could fee any Body. 
In the mean time, I had made what halle I could 
up the River with my Canou ; and had no fooner 
taken up my Clothes, but I Tpy'd a Drove of lixty 
Bulls aTid Cows , with their Calves, croffing the Ri- 
ver, towards the Land on the South-lide. I purfued 
them in my Canou , and fet up as great a Cry as 1 
could, to give Pkard notice of it. He made up to 
the Noife , and had time enough to get into the Ca- 
nou, whilft a Dog which we had with us, by his 
Barking, had drove them to a Bay in the Ifles of the 
River. When we were prepared, the Dog drove 
them from thence j and as they pafs'd by us, Pkard. 
kill'd one of them with his Fufil, having lodg'd die 
Bullet in his Head. Having dragg'd it to the fide 
of the River, it prov'd to be a Cow , that weigh*d 
about five or fix hundred weight. The Bulls have 
more Flelh , and weigh heavier ', but becaufe we 


a Large Country in America . 189 

could not get it quit^ to Land, we contented our 
felves with cutting the befl Pieces, and left the reft in 
the Water. 

*Twas almoft now eight and forty hours fince we 
eat laft \ fo that we fell a kindling a Fire as faft as we 
could, which we made of the Wood the River had 
thrown upon the Sands ^ and as faft as Vicar d skinnd 
it, I put the Pieces of Flelh into our little earthed 
Pot to boil. We eat of it with that great greedinefs, 
that both of us were fick j fo that we were oblig'd 
to hide our felves in an Ifland, where we refted two 
Days for the recovery of our Health by the help of 
my Orvietan^ which was a great Benefit to us during 
the whole Voyage. Whilft I was fetching the Pieces 
of Fle/h which Pkard gave me, I went backward and 
forward very often clofe by a Rattle-Snake, feveri or 
eight Foot long, without perceiving him, as he lay- 
wrapt afleep in the Sun.. I told Pkard oi it, who 
came and kill'd hirir with our Oar, and afterwards 
threw him into the River. 

To be fhort, we could not charge our felves with 
.much Proviiions , becaufe of the fmalnefs of our Ca- 
nou j belides that, the- exccffive Heat tainted it pre- 
fently, fo that it would fwarm with Worms in an in- 
ilant. For thefe Reafbns we were foon in the lame 
condition ^ and wheil we embarked in the Morning, 
we knew not whether we Ihouldhave any thing to eat 
at Night. Never had we more reafon to admire the 
Goodnefs of Providence , than during this Voyage. 
It was not every Day we met with any Game, nor 
when we did, were we fure to kill it. 

The Eagles , which are to be feen in abundance in 
thefe vaft Countries , will fometimes drop a Breme, 
a large Carp , or fome other Filh, as they are car- 
rying them to their Nefts in their Talons, to feed 
their young. One day we efpied an Otter, which 
was feeding on a great Fi(h upon the Bank of the 
River j which Filh had upon its Head a fort of Beak 


1 90 A New Difcovery of 

about five Inches broad , and a Foot and a half long* 
As loon as Pkard 'Ipy'd it , he cried out he faw the- 
Devil between the Claws of the Otter. This Sur- 
prize was not fo great, but that vve made bold to feed 
heartily upon it. The Flefh of it was good j and we 
nam'd it the Sturgeon with the long Beak. 


We co?2tinue our Conrfe in fear ch of the River Ouiiconlln. 
Aquipaguetin^iw^i ?«, and gets thither before m. We 
fithfisi meerly by Providence. 

NOtwithflanding we had rowed fo many Leagues, 
yet could we not find the River of Onifconfm : 
This made us believe that it was ftill at a great di- 
flance from us; when behold Aquifagiietin^ whom 
we believed to be above 200 Leagues ofl^ appeared 
all on a fudden , v^ith ten Warriors with him, to- 
wards the middle of Jdy i6%o. We thought at firlt 
he came to kill us, becaufe we had quitted him, 
though 'twere by the confent of the other Savages : 
But he- gave us Ibme wild Oats, with a Piece of good 
Bull's Flefh ; and asked us if we had found the Europe- 
ans who were to meet us with their Merchandife ?' 
Our Anfwer not fatisfying him, he was relblved to go 
to Omfconfm himfelf ^ but when he came there, found 
no Body. He returned at the end of three Days, as 
we were ftill purfuing our Voyage, being relblved to 
acquit our felves fully of the Promife which we had 
made the Sieur de Salk^ to come thither and meet thofe 
that he lliould fend. • 

When Aqni^agnetin firft appeared at his return ,_^ 
Ticdrd was gone to Hunt in the Meads, and my fe'lf 
remained alone in a little Cabin, which we hadfet up 
under our Coverlet, which ohe of the Savages had 
returned me, to fliade us from the Sun-beams, which 


&. Large Country in America. 191 

were very Icorching at this Seafon. AqnlfagHetln 
feeing me alone , came up to me with his Club m 
his Hand : I immediately laid hold of my two Pocket- 
Piftols and a Knife , which ?icard had recovered out 
of the Hands of the Barbarians. I had no mind to 
kill the Man that had adopted me, but only frighten 
him, and keep him from murdering me , in cafe that 
were his intent. 

Aqiufaguetin began to reprimand me for expofing 
my felf in the manner I did to the Infults of their Ene- 
mies ^ and that at leaft I ought to have kept the other 
iide of the River. He would have carried me with 
him, telling me, That he had 300 Hunters with him, 
who kill'd more Game than thofe that I was engaged 
with. And probably it had been more advifeable 
for me to have followed his Advice , than to profe- 
cute my Voyage any farther. However, our Refb- 
lution then was, to continue our Courfe towards the 
River Onifconfm j where when we came , we found 
none of the Men the Sieur ile la Salle had promJfed to 
fend us. Pkard and my felf had like to have periihed 
on a thoufand different Occallons, as we came dowa 
the River: -And now we found our felves obliged to 
go up it again, which could not be done without re- 
peating the fame Hazards, and other Difficulties not 
to be imagined. 


The great Str eights "which the Aiuhor and his Companion are 
rediicd to in their Voyage. They at lash meet again With 
the Savares at their return from Huntinfr. 

PICARD^ who had been very ill ufed by the 
Savages, had rather venture all than go up the 
River with Acjui^agnetin. Six Charges of Powder 
was all that we had left, which obliged us to husband 


192 j4 New Difcovery of 

it as well as could ; wherefore we divided it iato 
twenty, to ftioot only for the future at Turtles or 
wild Pigeons. When thefe alio were Ipent, we had 
recourfe to three Hooks, which we baited with fome 
ftkking Barbel that an Eagle hapned to drop. We 
took nothing the two firft Days, and were dellitute 
<jf ?.^1 means of Subfifterice. This made us, you mult 
think, Detake our felvcs to Prayers with greater Fer- 
vency than ever. And yet Pkard^ amidlt of -all our 
Misfonunes , could not forbear telling me. That he 
fhonld pray to God with a much better Heart if his 
Belly were full. 

I comforted both him and my felf as well as I 
could , and defired him to row with all the force he 
had left, to fee if we could catch a Tortoife. The 
next Morning, having rowed, the bell part of the 
Night, we found a Tortoife, which was no bigger 
than an ordinary Plate. We went to boiling him 
the fame Minute on the Fire that we had kindled. 
We devoured it fo haftily, that Idid not obferve that 
I cut the Gall, which made* my Mouth as bitter as it 
felf 5 but I ran immediately and gargled my Throat, 
and fo fell to't again, with the fame eagernefs as 

Notwithllanding our familhed Condition, we got 
at laft to the Rher of BhUs : Here we call: our Hooks, 
which we baited with a white Filli that an Eagle had 
let fall. God, who never abandons thofe that trult in 
him, fuccoured us very vifibly on this occalion •, for 
we had icarce finiflied our Prayers towai'ds ten at 
Night, when Pkard^ who heard the Noife , quitted 
his Devotion, and ran to the Hooks, where he found 
two Barbels hung , which were fb large, that I was 
forced to help him to get them out of the Water. 
We did not ftand to ftudy what Sauce we fhould 
make for thefe monllrous Fifh, which weighed above 
twenty five pound both j but having cut them to 
pieces, broiled them on the Goals. Boil them we 


a, L^rge Country in America. 195 
could not, our little Earthen Pot being unhappily- 
broke £bme time before. 

When we had fatisfied our Appetite, and returned 
our Thanks to Him, whofe Providence had fo fea- 
ibuably reliev'd us , we heard a noife about two in 
the Morning, upon the Bank of the River of Bulls^ 
where we then were. After'the Who-goes-there f we~ 
heard the Anfwer was, Tepatom Nika^ and the Word 
Nikanagl -^ which is as much as to lay, Friends^ all is 
well, I told Vicar d^ that by the Language I belie v'd 
them to be Illinois^ ox Oitt'ouagamis. who are Enemies 
of the Iffati^ or Nadouejfans. But the Moon Ihining 
very bright , and the Day beginning to appeal", I 
perceiv'd 'twas the Savage Mamemifi^ whofe Infant- 
Daughter I Baptiz'd , when Ticard aififted as God- 
father, or Witnefs. He knew us again prefently ; 
and being jull come fromllunting, where they had 
had plenty of Game , he gave us what Viduals we 
pleas'd ^ and informed us , that all thofe of his Na- 
tion were, coming down the River of Bulls ^ which 
difcharges it ftlf into the Mefchafp^ having their 
Wives and Children with them. 

What he faid was true •, for the Savages, with 
whom Michael Ako had ftaid behind , were all de- 
.Icending t\iQ' River of Bulls v>^ith their Fleet of Ca- 
non's well Itored with Proviflons. Aqiiifagitetln by 
the way had acquainted thofe of his Nation , how 
Ticard and my felf had expos'd our felves in our Voy- 
age to Oufconfm^ and what great Hazards we had ran. 
The Chiefs of the Savages gave us to underitand, 
that they were very well fatisfied with what we had 
done : But all of them reproach'd Michael Ah for a 
bafe Fellow , who had refiis'd to accompany us for 
fear of being famifii'd by the way. -Flcard too, but 
that I did what I could to hinder it, would have us'd 
him ill before a 11. the Company, fo incens'd was he 
agninU hun, for his want of Courage and Affedlion. 


1 94 A Nerv Dlfcoverj of 


Thi Savage Women hide theirProvlftom H^-and-down in pri- 
vate Holes. They go down the River again ajecondtime. 
Addrefs of the Savages^ Bravery of one of the Savages. 

TH E Savage Women being come to the Mouth 
of the River of Biills^ hid their Provilions up- 
and-down the little Iflands that are there, and in hol- 
low Places under-ground. Thefe People have a way 
to preferve their Meat thus , without Salt, as we 
Ihall fee hereafter. We fell down the River a fecond 
time, in company of a multitude of Canou's, of which 
I have already fpoke, Hunting all the way as we went, 
and were got a matter of fourfcore Leagues. The 
Savages from time to time hid their Canous in the 
little Ifland , or in the Reeds upon the Bank of the 
River, and went feven or eight Leagues up the Coun- 
try into the Meadows beyond the Mountains, where 
at feveral times they kill'd between an hundred and 
fixfcore Cows and Bulls. Whilft they are at the Chafe, 
they always leave fbme Old Men on the top of the 
Mountains, to fee if they can difcover the Enemy. 

All this while 1 had a Savage under my Cure , 
who ufually calFd me Brother: He had run a Thorn 
very deep into his Foot , and 1 was then putting a 
Plaifler on it, when on a fuddcn the Alarm was taken 
in our Camp. Two hundred Archers immediately 
ran to fee what was the Matter ; and the generous 
Savage, whofe Foot I had laid open, in order to get 
out the Thorn , which was very deep, Iprung like- 
wife from me on a Hidden, and ran as fall as the belt, 
that he might not lofe his Share in the Adion. But 
inftead of the Enemy, they could fee nothing but 
about an hundred Stags, which were running away as 
fall as they could. My poor Patient had much ado to 
recover the Camp. All the wliilw- the Alarm lafted, 


a Large Country in America. 195 

the Women and Maids kept finging in. a very fad and 
melancholy Tone. 

Pkard being gone to his Hod , I was left alone 
with one Otthimhi J but after the fecond Hunting, I 
was forc'd to carry an Old Woman with me in my 
Canon, who was above fourfcore : For all that, fhe 
help'd me to row, and with her Oar would now-and- 
then pat two or three little Children, that lay and 
difturb'd us in the middle of our Ganou. The Men 
were very kind to me ; but for all that, 'twas necef- 
lary to make a Court to the Women ^ for the Viduals 
were all in their Cuftody, who delivered every one his 
Mefs. This I did by (having now-and-then the 
Crowns of their Children's Heads, who wear their 
Hair fhorn not unlike our Monks. They let it grow 
till they are fifteen, Hxteen , or eighteen Years old, 
as well on the top of the Head, as elfewliere ; but at 
that Age, their Parents take it off^ by burning in 
wieh fiat Stones made red-hot in the Fire : So that 
the Women thought themfelves mightily beholding 
to me for ihaving their Children, becaufe I took off 
the Hair without pain. 

We had again anoth^ Alarm in our Camp : 
The Old Men, who had their Station on the top of 
the Mountains, fent to give notice that they had de- 
fcry'd Ibme Warriors from afar. The Archers ran as 
hard as i;hey could drive , towards the Place where 
the Enemy was laid to appear j every one endeavour- 
ing tOkbe firft in the Adion. But after all this Noife, 
they brought nothing back with them but two Wo- 
men of their own Nation , who were Come to ac- 
quaint them that one of their Parties being gone a 
Hunting, towards the end of the Upper Lake , had 
light upon, five Spirits, by which Name it is they 
Cdll the Enropeans. They added, That thefe, Spirits 
had talk'dto 'emy by means of fome of their Nation 
who had ieen us, and had been Slaves amongfi: the 
Outma^amis and hocptoejej whofe Language they un- 
O 2 derilood- 

196 ^ J New Difcovery of 

derftood : That they had alfo dedr'd them to ccn- 
diift them to the Place where we were, becaufe they 
fhould be very glad to know whether we were Eng- 
Ljl) , Dmch , Spaniards^ or Canadians : And farther. 
That they could not imagine how we had been able 
to penetrate fo far up into the Country among thefe 

I mult obferve hereupon. That there are certain 
Perfons at Canada , who have got the Management 
of all Affairs there into their hands, as I have elfe- 
where faid. Thefe People being very angry, that we 
had b^en aforehand with them in our Difcoveries, 
had fent Men after us to fhare in the Glory of the 
Adion : For they hoped by our Means to get a 
Knowledge of the Nations which we hadfeen, in or- 
der to Trade thither, as foon as they fhould have a 
Pretence of fending us back to Europe. 


Arrival of the Sienr Du l.Uth in our Camp. He de^ 
fires m to returrt with l^m and his Followers to the 
'CoMntry of the Iflati and Nadoueifians. The Author 
cast my Coverlet over a dead Man. The Savages are 
pleased at it. 

TPE 28th ofjuly^ 1 580. we began to afcendthe 
kiver Mefchajipi the third time. The Savages, 
who had made a grant Hunt with good Succefs, were 
refolv'd to retuni home to, their own Villages, and 
prefs'd us to g(5 with them ^ promiiing to conduft us 
as far as the Nations that inhabited at the End of the 
Upper-Lake. They faid they had a defign to make 
an Alliance with thofe People through our Means. 
TheSiear<^;f Luth was arriv'd there from Canada^ ac- 
company'd with five Men, whofe Equipage was half 
Soldier, half Merchant. 


a. Large Country in A merica . j 9 7 

, They came up to us in company wich the two 
Savage- Women an hundred and twenty Leagues , 
or thereabouts, from the Country of the Barbarians^ 
that had taken us. They delir'd us, becaufe we had 
ibme -knowledge of the Language of the Ijfatl^ to ac- 
company them back to the Villages of thofe Peo- 
ple. I readily agreed to their Requeft, efpecially 
when I underllood that they had not received the 
Sacraments in the whole two Years and a half that 
they had been out upon their Voyage. The Sienr 
dii Lmh , \Vho pafs'd for their Captain, was over- 
joy'd to fee me, and told me as a Secret, That thofe 
who had fent him , would mifs of their Aim, as he 
would let me know more at leifure. And obferv- 
ing how I Ihav'd the Crowns of the Young Sava- 
ges , he order'd them to be told I was his eldell 
Brother. ^ , 

. All this made the Savages treat me better thai^ ever, 
and furnifh me very plentifully with Provifions. I 
/apply'd my felf alfo more than ever to the means of 
their Salvation ^ and 'tis true they hearkened to me 
attentively enough. But then, to make any progrefs, 
one mult live whole Years among them, they are I9 
ignorant, and grounded in Superltitution. 

The Sieur dn Liith was charm'd at the fight of the 
Fall of St. Anthony of Padua., which was the Name we 
had given it, and in all appearance will remain with 
it. I alio Ihew'd him the craggy Rock, where the 
monflrous* Serpent v/as climbing up to devour the 
.young Swallows in their Nefls j and recounted 
;to him the Horror that feiz'd Pkard^ at the hnage 
,his Fancy fram'd of that terrible Animal in his 
Dream. , 

I niull here obferve, that feeing my felf at Liberty 
■to .fay my Office after the Arri 7al of the Sieur ^// /./#/?, 
to .be more exad in the Service , I thought I would 
ask him the Day of the Month: He told me as 
freely, he could not fatisfy me ia that Point, for he 
, ' O 3 had 

198 A New Difcovery of 

had no Ndtion of it left. Upon this I recounted to him 
the ill ufage which we received at the Hands of the 
Barbarians , at their firft taking ;us, which proceeded 
many times fo far as to threaten our Lives •, that there- 
fore he ought not to be furpriz'd, if through the Ter- 
rors and Apprehenfions which I had lain fo long under, 
I had forgot even the Day of the Week. 

We arrived at the Villages of the Ijfatl on the 14th 
of AngHJly i(58o. where I found my Chalice very 
fafe, with the Books and Papers which I had hid 
imder-ground , in prefence of the Savages them- 
felves. Thefe Wretches had never had fo much as 
a thought to meddle v\^ith them, being fearful and 
iiiperftitious in relation to Spirits , and believing 
there is WitchcTaft in every thing they cannot ap- 
prehend. The Tobacco which I planted before our 
Departure, was half choak'd with Grafs. But the 
Cabbage, and other things which I had fbwn, were 
of a prodigious growth. The Stalks of the Purflain 
were as big as Reeds : But the SaVageS were afraid 
fb much as to tafle them. 

A little after our return, the Savages invited us 
to a great Feaft after their own faihon. There 
were above an hundred and twenty Men at it na- 
ked. Oiuificoade^ the firft Captain of the Nation, 
and Kinfman of the Deceas'd , w^hofe dead Body I 
covered, when they brought him back to the Vil- 
lage in a Canou, brought me ^ fome dry'd Flefh and 
wild Oats in a difii of Bark, which he fet before me 
upon a Bull's Hide, whitened, and garnifhed with 
Porcupine Skins- on the one lide, and curi'd Wool! 
on the other. 

After f had eat, tlus")Ghief put the fame Robe 
on m.y Head, and cohered my Face with it, iliying 
with a loud Voice before all that were prefent, He 
whofe dead Body thou didfi cova-y covers thine while alive. 
He has carrfd the Ty dings of it to the Comitry ofSoids^ (for 
thefe People believe tne Tranfmigratioa of Souls :) 


A Large Country in America. 199 

What thou, didfi in refieB- of the Dead, is highly to be 
ffieemed: All the Nation a^^lauds and thanks thee for it. 

After this he gently reproached the Sieur dii Lnth, 
that he did not cover the Dead, as I had done. To 
which the Sieur defired me to anfwer, That he never 
covered the Bodies of any but fuch Captains as himfelf. 
To which the Savage anfwered, Father Louis (for fo he 
heard the Europeans call me) is a greater Captain than 
thou : His Robe (fpeakingof my Brocard Chafuble,which 
they had taken from me, and was afterwards fent as 
a Prefent toqur Allies, wlao lived three Moons diftance 
from this Country) was finer than what thou wearefi. 

When thefe Savages fpeak of a Journey of three 
or more iMoons, they mean Months. They march 
well , and will travel fifteen Leagues a Day. By 
which the Reader may judge what an extent of 
Ground they can go in three Months. 


The Author takes his leave of the Savages to return to 
Canada. A Savage is jlain by his Chiefs for advi- 
fing to kill us. Vifpute between the Sieur du Luth 
and the Author, 'about the Sacrifice of Barbarians. 

Towards the end of September^ feeing we had 
no Tools proper to build a Houfe to dwell in 
during the Winter, among thefe People ^ and con- 
lidering that we were dellitute of Provifions necef- 
fary to fublilt there , as o\ir Deiign was at firit to 
have done, we refolved to kt them uuderlland, that 
to procure them Iron ,^ and other Merchandizes , 
which were ufeful for them, Jtwas convenient that 
we fhould return to Canada, and that at a certain 
time which we (hould agree upon between us, they 
ihould come hal^the v/ay with their Fun's, and we 
the other half with our European Goijimodities : 
p 4 That 

200 yi ^erv Dlfcovery of 

That they might let two of their Warriors go with 
us, whom we would carry into our Country, and 
iikewife bring back again the next Year to the place 
appointed for meeting, from whence they might 
proceed to acquaint them of our return , in order 
to their meeting us with their Effeds. 

Upon this they held a great Council, to confider 
whether they Ihoiild fend fome of their Nation with 
us or no. Two there were who were for it, and 
ofFer'd themfelves to be the Men,: But they alter'd 
tlieir Opinion the Day of our Departure, alledging 
for a Reafon, That we were obliged to pafs through 
mmy Nations who were their fworn Enemies, and 
would be fure to feize their Men , and take them 
out of our Hands, either to burn them, or put them 
otherwife to Death by exquilite Torments, and that 
without our being able to hinder it, being fo fev/ 
iii Number as we were. 

I anfwer'd, That all thofe People, whom they were 
afraid of, were our Friends and Allies, and that in 
confideration of us, they would forbear to injure any 
of their Nation that were with us. Thefe Barbarians 
want no Wit ^ on the contrary, their Natural Parts 
are extraordinary. They told us in return, that fince 
we were to pafs through thefe People, who were 
theii- fworn Enemies, we fhould do wxll to dellroy 
thein, at whole Hands they had receiv'd fo many In- 
juries ^ that then their Men fhould go and return 
with us. to fetch them Iron, and other Commodities 
which they wanted, and would ghdly treat with 
us alxjut. From wjience' we may gather, that thefe 
Barbarians are full of Rcfentraent , and Thoughts 
of Revenge, Difpofiiions n^ altogether i'o well pre- 
pared , to iTceive yie meek Dodrin of the Go- 

■ In fine, Onaficoadc their -Chief Captain , having 
confented to our Return, ia a firil Council , gave 
us fome Biiihels of Wild-Oats , for our Subfiftence 


a Large Country in America. 20s 

by the way, having firlt regal'd us in the bell man- 
ner he could, after their /aihion. We have already 
obferv'd, that thefe Oats are better and more whol- 
Ibme than Rice. After this', with a Pencil, he 
mark'd down on a Sheet of Paper, which I had 
left, the Courfe that we were to keep for fonr hun- 
dred Leagues together. In Ihort, this natural Geo- 
grapher defcrib'd our Way lb exadly, that this Chart 
ferred us as well as my Gompafs could have done. 
For by obferving it pundually, we arrived at the 
Place which we deligned, without lofing our way ia 
the lealt. 

AH things being ready, we difpofed our felves to 
depart, being eight Europeans of us in all. We put 
our felves into two Canons, and took Qur leaves of 
our Friends, with aVolly of our Men's Fufils, which 
put them into a terrible Fright. We fell down the 
River of St. Francis^ and then that of the Aiefchafifi. 
Two of our Men, without faying any thing, had taken 
down two Robes of Caftor, from before the Fall of 
St. Anthony of Padaa^ where the Barbarians had hung 
them upon a Tree as a fort of Sacrifice. Hereupoa 
arofe a Dilpute between the Sieur dn Luth and my 
felf. I commended what they had done , faying. 
The Barbarians might judge by it^ that we difapproved 
""their Snperfiition. On the contrary, the Sieur dii Luth 
maintained. That they ought to have let the things 
alone in that place where they were, for, that the Sa-^ 
vages would not fail to revenge the Affront which we 
had put upon th6m by this Adion, and that it was 
to be feared lefl they Ihould purfue and infiilt us by 
the Way. 

I own he had Ibme Grounds for what he faid,~ 
and that he argu'd according to the Rules 'of Ha- 
mane Prudence. But the *two Men anfvver'd him 
bluntly, that the things fitted them, and therefore 
they Ihould not trouble their Heads about the Sa- 
vage's, not their Superilitioas. The Sieur dn Luth 


202 .A Neiv Difcovery of 

fell into fb violent a Paffion at thefe Words, that he 
had like to have ftruck the Fellow that fpake them j 
t)ut I got between, and reconciled the Matter : For 
Ticard and Michael jiko began to lide with thofe 
that had taken away the things in queftion, which 
might have prov'd of ill confequence. I alTured the 
Sieur dn Lmh , that the Savages durlt not hurt us, 
for that 1 was perfuaded their Grand Captain Ona- 
jkoude would always make our Caufe his own , and 
that we might rely on his Word, and the great 
Credit he had among thofe of his Nation. Thus 
the Bufinefs was peaceably made up, and we failed 
down the River together as good Friends as ever, 
hunting the Wild-Beafts as we went. 

When we were got almofl: as far as the River 
Omfconfw^ we made a flop, to fmoak after the man- 
ner of the Country, the Flefh of the Bulls which we 
had kiird by the Way. During our ftay here, for 
the Reafbn aforefaid, three Savages of the lame Na- 
tion, which we had lately left, came up to us in 
their Canou, to acquaint us that their Grand Cap- 
tain Onaficoude having learnt that another Chief of 
-the iame Nation had a Defign to purfue and mur- 
der us , he came into the Cabin where the laid 
Captain and his Allbciates were confulting about 
it, and gave him a Blow on the Head with ib much 
Fury, that his Brains flew out upon thofe that were 
prefent at the Gonliilt, refolving by this means ef- 
iedually to prevent the Execution ot his pernicious 
Defign. We regard the three Savages for their 
good News very nobly, having plenty of Provifions 
at that time. 

The Sieur dn Lnth^ as foon as the Savages were 
gone , fell into as great a PafTion as before , and 
leem'd very apprehenllve left they fliould ff ill purfue 
and let upon us in our Voyage. He would have car- 
ried Matters farther, but that he found our Men 
would not bate him an Ace, and were not in ah Hu- 

alLarge Country in America. 20} 

mour to be bullied. I took upon me to moderate the 
Matter once more, and pacified them in the End, by 
aSiiring them that God would not leave us in Diftrefs, 
provided we put our Truft in him, and that he was 
able to deliver us from all our Enemies. 


71?^ Skur du Luth is in a great Cenfiemation at the Af- 
■pearance of a Fleet of the Savages y who furpizj^d m 
before we were got into the River Ouilconfiq. 

TH E Sieur du Lmh had realbn to beKeve that 
the three Savages but now i)ientioned were 
really Spies fent to obferve our Adions ; for indeed 
they knew that we had taken awciy the Robes of 
Caftor from before the Fall of $t. Anthony. He 
could not forego his Fears, but told me, we Ihould 
ferve the Fellow that did it but right, if we Ihould 
force him to carry them back, and leave them in the 
place where he found them. I forefaw bifcord would 
be our Deltrudtion, and ^o made my felf Mediator of 
the Peace once more. I appeas'd the Fray, by re- 
monftrating, That God, who had preferved us hi- 
therto in the greateft Dangers, would have a more 
peculiar Care of us on this Occaiion, becaufe the 
Man's Adion was good in it felf. 

Two Days after, all our Provifions being drefs'd, 
and fit to keep, we prepared to depart: But the Sieur 
dn Luth was mightily furpriz'd when he perceived a 
Fleet of an hundred and forty Canons , carrying 
about an hundred and fifty Men, bearing down di- 
redly upon us. Our Mens Confternation was no 
lefs than the Sieur's : But when they law me take 
out from among our Equipage, a Calumet of 
Peace which the IJfm bad given us as a Pledge of 


204 A New Difcovery of 

their Friendlhip and Proteftion, they took Heart, 
and told me they would aft as I fhould dired. 

I order'd two of them to embark with me in a 
Canow, to meet the Savages : But the Sieur delir'd 
me to take a third to row, that by Handing in the 
middle of the Canow, I might the better fhow the Pipe 
of Peace, which I carry'd in my hand, to appeafe the 
Barbarians, whofe Language I underftood indifferent- 
ly well. The other four of our Men I left with the Sieur 
dn Liith^ and told them, in cafe any of the young War- 
riors Ihould Land, and come up "to them, they Ihou'd 
by no means difcourfe or be familiar with them j but 
that they fhould keep their Polls with their Arms rea- 
dy fixt. Having given thefe Orders, I went into my 
Canow, to the Barbarians who were a coming down 
the River in theirs. 

Seeing no Chief artiongft them, I called out as 
loud as I could.j Omficoude^ OnaficoHde, repeating his 
Name feveral times. At laft I perceived him rowing 
up towards me : All this while none of his Peoj^le 
■ had affronted us, which I look'd upon as a good 
Omen. I concealed my Reed of Peace, the better 
to let them fee how much I rely'd upon their Word. ^ 
Soon after we landed, and entred the Cabin where 
the Sieur d^ Lmhwas, v/ho would have embrac'd their 
Captain. Here we mwft obferve, that 'tis not the 
Cullom .of the Savages to embrace after the manner 
of the French. 1 told the Sieur du Lmb that he need 
only prefent him with a piece, of the beft boyPd 
Meat that he had, aad that in bfe he eat of it, we 
were fafe. 

It hapned according to our Wifh ^ all. the refl of 
the Captains of this little Army came to viiit us. 
It cofl our Folks nothing but a few Pipes ofAianinico- 
Tobacco, which thefe People are paffionately fond 
of, though their own be flronger, more agreeable, 
and of a much better Scent. Thus the Barbarians 
were very civil to us^ without ever mentioning the 


a Large Country in America. 20 5 

Robes of Coftor. The Chief Omfico^ide advis'd me 
to prefent fome Pieces of Mminko Tobacco to th*e 
Chief j^ijul^a^Hetm , who had adopted me for his 
Son. This Civility had ftrange efFeds upon the Bar- 
barians, who went off fhouting,^ and repeating the 
Word Louis, which as we faid, fignifies the Sm : So 
that I miiil fay without Vanity, my Name will be 
as it were immortal amonglt^ thefe People, by rea- 
fon of its jumping fo accidentally with that of the 


The Amhor^s Voyage from the Month of the River Ouif- 
confin, to the great Bay of the Puans. 

THE Savages having left us to go and War up- 
on the Mejforites, Mahoras, Jlltmis, and Other 
Nations, which inhabit towards the lower part of 
the River Mefchafipi, and are irreconcilable Enemies 
to the People of the North; the Sieur MtLmh, who 
upon many Occafions approv'd himfelf to be much 
my Friend, could not forbear telling our People, 
that I had all the reafon in the World to believe 
that the Viceroy of Canada would give me a very 
kind Reception, in cafe we could arrive there be- 
fore Winter ^ and that he wilh'd with all his heart 
he had been among fb many different Nations as 
my felf. 

As we went up the River Oitlfconfm, we found it 
was as large as that- of the Illinois, which is naviga- 
ble for' large VelTels above an hundred Leagues. We 
eould not fufiiciently admire the Extent of thofe 
valt Countries, and the Charming Lands throui^h 
which we pafs'd, which X\t all untill'd. The cruel 
Wars which thefe Nations have one with another, 
are the caufe that they have not People enough to 


2o6 A Nerv Difeovery of 

cultivate them. And the more bloody Wars which 
haVe rag'd ib long in all parts of Europe^ have hinr 
der'd the fending Ghriftian Colonies to fettle- there. 
However, I mulh needs fay, that the poorer fort of 
our Countrymen would do well to think of it, and go 
and plant themfelves in this fine Country, where for a 
little Pains in tilling the Earth, they would live hap- 
pier, and fubfilt much better than they do here. I have 
feen Lands there, which would yield three Crops in a 
Year : And the Air is incomparably more fweet and 
temperate than hi Holland. 

After we had rowed about fe venty Leagues upon the 
Khtr Omfconfm^ we came to a Place where we were 
forc'd to carry our Canow for half a League, which 
Ouaficonde had fet down in his Chart. We lay at this 
place all night, and left Marks of our having been there, 
by the Crofles which we cut on the Barks of the Trees. 
Next Day, having.carried our Canows and the reft of 
our little Equipage over this piece of Land, weentred 
into a River, which makes almoft as many Meanders 
as that of the Illinois doth at its Rife : For after lix 
Hours rowing, which we did very faft, we found our 
felves, notwithftanding all the Pains we hnd been at, 
over againft the Place where we Embark'd. One of 
our Men muft needs Ihoot at a Bird flying, which o- 
verfet his Canow j but by good luck he was within 
his depth. 

We were forc'd to break feveral Sluces which the 
Caftors had made for our Canows to pafs j other- 
wife we could not have continued our Way, or car- 
ried our things^ to embark them again above thele 

Thefe Creatures make them with fo much Art, 
that Man cannot equal it. We Ihall fpeak of them 
in our Second VoUtmc. We found feveral of thefe 
Ponds, or Stops of Water, which thefe Creatures 
make with Pieces of Wood, like a Caufey. 

After this we pafs'd over four Lakes, which are 


a Large Country in America. 207 

all made by this River. Here formerly dwelt the 
Miamisj but now the Mashmens^ Kikapoits^ aiid 
Ontoagamis^ who low their Indian Wheat here, oa 
which they chiefly fublilt. We made Ibme Broath 
of the Water of a certain Fall, which they call Ka- 
kalin ^ becaufe the Savages come often hither to eafe 
themfelves, and lie on their Backs, with their Faces 
expos'd to the Sun. 

Thus having made more than Four hundred Leagues 
by Water linceour departure from the Country of tTie 
ijfati and NaHdoHeJfms^ we arriv'd at laft at the great 
Bay of the. Puans^ which makes part of the Lake of 
the Illinois. 


The Author and his Company fiay fome time among jl- the 
Puans. The Original of the Name. They celebrated 
Ma[s herej and wintered at Miflilimakinak. 

WE found many Canadians in this Bay of the 
Puans. The Nation that inhabits here, is fo 
caird, becaufe formerly they dwelt in certain Marlhy 
Places, full of Hinking Waters, lituate on the Sonth- 
Sea. But being' drove out thence oj ^^^ii" Enemy, 
they came and fettled in this Bay, which is to the 
Eall of the Illinois. The Canadians were come hither 
to Trade with the People of this Bay, contrary to 
an Order of the Viceroy. They had fcill a little of 
the Wine left, which they brought with them, and 
kept in a Pewter Flagon. I made ufe of it for 
Mafs. Till now, I had nothing but a Chalice, and 
a Marble Altar, which was pretty light, and 'Very 
handfomly engrav'd : But here by good Fortune I 
met with the Sacerdotal Robes too. Some Illinois 
who had happily efcap'd their Enemies the hoquefe^ 
who had attacked and almolt deHrovM them fince 


20 S :A New Difc<yvery of 

my Voyage, and the time that I had been a Slave 
amongft the Barbarians, had brought with them the 
Ornaments of the Chapel of Father Zenohius A4am- 
bre.y whom we had left airfong the Illinois. Some of 
thefe, I ^ijj w^'^o were efcap'd to the Place where we 
were, delivered me up ail the Ornaments of the Cha- 
pel, except the Chalice. They promifed to get me 
that too for a little Tobacco, which I was to give 
them-, and were as gqod as the" Word, for they 
brought it me fome few Days after. 

'Twas more than nine Months fince I had cele- 
brated the Sacrament of the Mafs,for want of Wine. 
We might indeed have done it in our Voyage, had 
we bad Veflels proper to keep Wine ih: But we 
could not charge our Canow with fuch, being very 
unfit to carry things of Burden. 'Tis true, we met 
with Grapes in many Places through which we 
pafs'd, and had made fome Wine too, which we 
put into Gourds-, but it faiPd us whilft we were 
among the TiUnoisy as I have elfewhere obferv'd. As 
for the reft, I had Itill fome Wafers by me, which 
were as good as ever, having been kept in a Steel- 
Box fhut very clofe. 

We ftay'd two Days at the Bay of_ the Pua^?s:, 
where we fung Te Denm, and my felf faid Mafs iind 
Preach'd. Our Men prepar'd themfelves for the Holy 
Sacrament, whith we receiv'd, in order to render 
our Thanks to God, who had preferved us amidit 
the many Dangers we had run, the Difficulties we 
had furmounted, and Monfters we had overcome. 

One of our Canow-Men truck'd a Fufd with a 
Savage for a Canow larger than our own, in which, 
after an hundred Leagues rowing, having coafted 
all along the great Bay of the Pmm, we arrived at 
Miffdmakinak, in the Lake oi Huron, where we were 
forc'd to Winter : For our Way lying ftill North,^ 
we Ihould intallibly have peiiih'd amongft the Ics 
and Snow, had we proceeded any furtlier, 


4 Large Country in America. 209 

By the Courfe we were oblig'd to take, we were 
ftill about four hundred Leagues from Canada. 
Amongft thele People, 1 met, to my no little Satif- 
fadion, Father Tierfon^ a Jefuit, who is a Son of the 
-King's Receiver for the Town of Aeth in Hainaiilt. 
He was come hither to learn their Language, and 
i})oke it then paflably well. This Religions^ who re- 
taind jftill the free and open Humour of his Coun- 
try-Men, had made himfelf belov'd by his obliging 
Behaviour, and feem'd to be an utter Enemy of -Ca- 
balling and Intrigues, having a candid Spirit, gene- 
rous and Uncere. In a word. He appear'd to me to 
be fuch as every good Chriftian ought to be. The 
Reader may judge how agreeably I pafs'd the Winter 
in fuch good Company, after the Miferies and Fatigues 
I had undergone in the Courfe of (jur Difcoveries. 

To make the bell ufe of my time that I could, I 
Preach'd all the Holy-days and Sundays in Advent 
and Lent^ for the Edification of our Men, and other 
Canadians^ who were come four or five Leagues out 
of their Country, to Trade for Furs amongft thefe 
Savages: From. whence we may obferve, that there 
are fome,^ whom I fhall forbear to name, who not- 
withftanding all their pretended Aufterities, are yet 
no lefs covetous of the Things of this World, than 
the moft Secular Ferfon in it. The Oitttaouaths and 
the Hurons would often affift at our Ceremonies in 
a Church cover'd with Rufhes and a few Boards, 
which the Canadians had built here : But they came 
more out of Curiofity than any Defign to conform 
themfelves to the Rules of our Holy Religion. 

The latter of thefe Savages would tell us, Ipeak- 
ing of our Difcoveries, That themfelves v/ere but 
Men^ but for us Eur of can s^ we mult needs be Spi- 
rits : That if they had gone fo far up amongft ftrange 
Nations as we had done, they fhould have been 
fure to have been kill'd by them without Mercy ^ 
whereas we pafs'd every where without danger, and 
p knew 

21 o ^ ^^^ bifiaverj of 

knew how to procure the Friendfhip of all we met* 

During the Winter, we broke Holes in the Ice 
of the Lake H^royi^ and by means of feveral large 
Stones, funk our Nets fometimes twenty, fometimes 
twenty five fathom under Water to catch Fifh, which 
we did in great abundance. We took Salmon- 
Trouts, which often weighed from forty to fifty 
pounds. Thefe made our J^nMan Wheat go dowA 
the better, which was ou^dinary Diet. Our Be- 
verage was nothing but Broth made of. Whiteings, 
which we drank hot^ becaufe as it cools it turns to 
Jelly, as if it had been made of Veal. 

During our flay here. Father Pierfon and I would, 
often divert our felves oh the Ice, where we skated 
on the Lake as they do in Holland. I had learn'd 
this Slight when I was at Ghent^ from whence to 
Br^ijfds one may run in three Hours with abundance 
of. Pieafure when the Canal is frozen. 'Tis the 
ufu4 Diverfion with which the Inhabitants of thefe 
two' Cities entertain themfelves during the Winter, 
by favour of the Ice. 

It muft be allow'd, without refieding on any 
other Order, Tliat thofe of 5f. Fr^mV are very pro- 
per for the fetling of Colonies. They make a Una: 
Vow of Poverty, and have a Property in nothmg as 
their own : They enjoy only a fmiple life of Things 
iieceiTary to Life. Thofe that give us any Move- 
ables, continue ftill to be the owners of them, and 
may take them again at Pieafure. 'Tis this Poverty i 
which is recommended to us by many Popes ^ but i 
above ail by our Rule, which is the only one I find 
incerted in the Canon-Law. 

What pafs'd at Mijfilimakinak during this Winter, 
is a Proof of what 1 fay. Two and forty Canadi- 
ans^ who were come hither upon the account of the 
Trade which they drive here witli the Savages, de- 
iir'd me to preient them with the Cord of St. Francis* 
I compli'd with their Requell j and each time I de- 
liver a. 

a Large Country in Amtnc^, 211 

liver'd a Cord, made a fmall Harangue by way of 
Exhortation to the Perfon receiving it, and^then 
aflbciated him to the Pra^yers of the Order. They 
would havei kept me with them, and made me a 
Settlement, where from time to time they might 
have refort to me. They promifed me moreover, 
Jince I would accept of no Furs, that they would 
jorevail with the Savages to furnifh out my Subfiflence 
i^n the belt manner which could be expeded for the 
Country. But becaufe the greateft part ^f them 
that made me this Offer, Traded into thefe Parts 
without permiffion, I gave them to underft^tpd. 
That the Common Good of our Dilcoveries, ought 
to be preferred before their private Advantages j fo 
defir'd them to excufe me, and permit me to return 
to Canada for a more Publick Good. 


The Author's Departure from Miffilimakanak. He pajfes 
two great Lakes. The taking of a Great Bear. Some 
Particulars relating to the Flejh of that Beafi. 

WE parted from MijfiUmaklnak in Eafier-Wcek^ 
1(58 1, and for twelve or thirteen Leagues 
together, were oblig'd to draw our Proviiions and 
Canow's after us over the Ice, up the Lake Huronj 
the fides of which continu'd ftill froze five or fix 
Leagues broad. The Ice being broke, we embark'd^ 
after the Solemnity of the QHafimodoy which we had 
an opportunity to celebrate, having by good Fortune 
Inet with a little Wine, which a Canadian had 
brought with him, and ferv'd us all the reft of our 
Voyage. After we had rowed an hundred Leagues 
all along the ftdes of the Lake Huron^ we pafs'd the 
Streights, which are thirty Leagues through, and the 
Lske of St. Cl^iirCi which is in the middle : Thence 
P i we 

212 -^ New Difcovery of 

we an-iv'd at the Lake £n>, oi^ of the Cat^ where 
we ftai'd ibme time to kill Sturgeon, which come 
here in great numbers, to caft their Spawn on the 
fide of the Lake. We took nothing ^t the Belly 
^of the Fifh, which is the molt delicious part, and 
threw away the reft. 

This Place afforded alfo plenty of Venifbn and 
Fowl. As we were Itariding in the Lake, upon a 
large Point of Land which runs it felf very far'int^Mj 
the W|ter, we perceiv'd a Bear in it as far as we^ 
could &t. We could not Imagine how this Crea- 
tur,e got there ^ 'twas very improbable that he fhould 
fwim from one fide to t'other, that was thirty or 
forty Leagues over. It hapned to be very calmj 
and fo two of our Men leaving us on the Point, 
put off to attack the Bear, that was near a quarter 
of a League out in the Lake. They made two Shot 
at him one after another, otherwife the Bealt had 
certainly funk them. As foon as they had fir'd, 
they were forc'd to Iheer off as faft as they could to 
charge again ^ which when they had done, they re- 
turn'd to the Attack. The Bear was forc'd to Itand 
it \ and it coft them no lefs than feven Shot before 
they could compafs him. 

As they were endeavouring to get him aboard, 
they were like to have bten over-fet ^ which if they 
had, they mult have been infallibly lolt : All they 
could do was to fafl;en him to the Bar that is in the 
middle of the Canow, and fo drag him on Shoar; 
which they did at laft with much- ado, and great 
hazard of their Lives. We had all the leifure that 
was requifite for the dreffing and ordering him, fo 
as to make him keep j and in the mean time took 
out his Intrails, and having cleans'd and boil'd 
them , eat heartily of them. Thefe are as good a 
Difh as thofe of our Sucking-Pigs in Europe. His 
Flelh ferv'd us the reft of our Voyage, which we 
ufually eat with lean Goats-flelh, becaufe it is too 
' _ , ■ fat 

A Large Country in America. 2 1 j 

fat to eat by it felf : So that we liv'd for an hun- 
dred Leagues upon the Game that we kill'd in this 


The Meeting of hhe Anthor and a certain Cap am of the 
^ Outtaouads, nam^d Talon hy the Intendant of that 
Name^ Hpon the Lake of Erie j who recpunts to him 
many Adventures of his Family and Nation. Fur- 
ther Ohfervations upon the Great Fall or CatraUs of 

THere was a certain Captain of the Onttaom^Sy 
to whom the Intendant Talon gave his own 
Name, whileft he was at Quebec. He us'd to come 
often to that City with thofe of his Nation, who 
brought Furs thither : We were ftrangely furpriz'd 
at the fight of this Man, whom we found almolt fa- 
mifhed, and more like a Skeleton than a living Man. 
He told us the Name of Talon would be loon extind 
in this Country, fince he refolved not to furvive the 
Lofs of fix of his Family who had been llarved to 
Death. He added, That the Filhery and Chace had 
both fail'd this Year, which was the occafion of this 

He told u^ moreover, That though the Iroqucfe were 
not in War with his Nation, yet had they taken 
and carried into Slavery an entire Family of Twelve 
Souls. He begg'd very earnellly of me, that I would , 
ufe my utmoft Endeavours to have them released, if 
they were yet alive ^ and gave me two Necklaces of 
Black and White Porcelain, that I migk be fure not 
to negled a Bufinefs which he laid fo much to heart. 
/ can rely upon thee^ Bare-foot, ( for fo they always 
Caird us) and am confident that the Iroquefe mil hay'hit 
to thy Reafons fooner than any ones. Thon dijl often ad- 
P 3 'uif^ 

214 A New Difcovery of 

vife them at their Conncils^ which were held then at the 
JForf 0/ Katarockoui, where thou, hafi caused a great G?- 
hin to he huiit. Had I he en at my Village when thou cam^fi 
through it^ I would have done all that J could to hove kept 
theey infiead of the Black Coat ( fo they call the Jefu- 
ites ) which was there. When the poor Captain had 
done fpeaking, I folemnly proniis'd him to ufe my 
utniofl Interell; with the Iroquefe, for the releafement 
of his Friends. 

After we had row'd above an hundred and forty 
Leagues upon the Lake Erie, by reafbn of the many 
Windings of the Bays and Creeks which we were 
forc'd to coaft, we pafs'd by the Great Fall of Nia- 
gara^ and fpent half a Day in conlidering the Won- 
ders of that prodigious Cafcade. 

I could not conceive how it came to pafs, that 
four great Lakes, the leafl of which is 400 Leagues 
in compafs, Ihould empty themfelves one into ano- 
ther, and then all centre and difcharge themfelves at 
this Great Fall, and yet not drown good part of ^- 
merica. What is yet more furprizing, the Ground 
from the Mouth of the Lake Erie, down to ihe Great 
Fall, appears almofl level and tiat. 'Tis fcarce dif- 
cernable that there is the leaft Rife or Fall for fix 
Leagues together : The more than ordinary fwiftnefs 
of the Stream, is the only thing that makes it be ob- 
ferved. And that which makes it yet the ftranger is, 
That for two Leagues together below the Ball, to- 
wards the Lake Ontario, ox Front en ac, the Lands are 
as level as they are above it towards the Lake of Erie. 

Our Surprife was ftill greater, when we obferv'd 
there were no Mountains within two good Leagues 
of this Cafcade^ and yet the vail quantity of Water 
which is dilcharg'd by thefe four frelli Seas, Hops or 
centers here, and fo falls above fix hundred Foot 
do^n into a Gulph, which one cannot look upon 
without Horror. Two other great Out-lets, or Falls of 
Water , which are on the tv/o fides of a finall Hoping 
' . Iflanc^ 

d Large Country in America. z\ 5 
Ifland, which is in the midft , fall gently and with- 
out noife , and fo glide away quietly enough : But 
when this prodigious quantity of Water, of which 
I Q)eak, comes to fall, there is fuch a din, and fuch 
a noife ^ that is more deafning than the loudefb 

The rebounding of thefe Waters is fo great, that 
a fort of Cloud arifesfrom the Foam of it, which 
are feen hanging over this Abyfs even at Noon-day, 
when the Sun is at its heighth. In the midft of Sum- 
jner, when the Weather is hotteft , they arife above 
the talleft Firrs, and other great Trees, which grow 
in the flooping Ifland which make the two Falls of 
Waters that I fpoke of. 

I wiih'd an hundred times that fomebody had been 
with us , who could have defcry'd the Wonders of 
this prodigious frightful Fall, fo as to give the Rea- 
der a jufl and natural Idea of it, fuch as might fatisfy 
him, and create in him an Admiration of this Prodigy 
of Nature as great as it deferves. In the mean time, 
accept the following Draught, fuch as it is ^ in which 
however I have endeavour'd to give the curious Rea- 
dier as juft an Image of it as I could. ♦ , 

We muft call to mind what I obferved of it m 
the beginning of my Voyage , which is to be feen 
in fhe Sevem:h Chapter of this Book. From the 
Mouth of the Lake Brk to the Great Fall , are 
reckon'd lix Leagues, as I have faid, which is the 
continuation of the Great River of St. Lawrence^ 
which arifes out of the four Lakes above-mention'd. 
The River, you mull needs think , is very rapid for 
thefe fix Leagues, becaufe of the vail: Difcharge of 
Waters which fall into it out of the faid Lake?. The 
Lands, which lie on both fides of it to the Eall and 
Weft, are all level from the Lake Erie to the Great 
Fall. Its Banks are not Iteep ^ on the contrary, the 
Water is almoft always level with the Land. 'Tis 
certain. That the Ground towards the Fall is lower, 
P 4 by 

^i6 A New Difcovery of 

by the more than ordinary fwiftnefs of the Stream j 

and yet 'tis not perceivable to the Eye for the fix 

Leagues abovefaid. 

After it has run thus violently for fix Leagues, it 
meets with a fmall (loping Ifland, about half a quar- 
ter of a League long, and near three hundred Foot 
broad, as well as one can guefs by the Eye ^ for it is 
impollible to come at it in a Canou of Bark,, the Wa- 
ters run with that force. The Ifle is full of Cedar 
and Firr ^ but the Land of it lies no higher than that 
on the Banks of the River. It feems to be all level, 
even as far as the two great Cafcades that make the 
main Fall. 

The two fides of .the Channels, which are made by 
the Ifle, and run on both fides of it, overflow almoft 
the very Surface of the Earth of the laid Ifle, as well 
as the Land that lies on the Banks of the River to 
the Eafl: and Wefl:, as it runs South and North. But 
we mufi; obferve. That at the end of the Ifle, on the 
fide of the two great Falls, there is a flooping Rock 
which reaches as far as the Great Gulph, into which 
the^ faid Waters fall ^ and yet the Rock is not at all 
wetted by the two Cafcades which fall on both fides, 
becanfe the two Torrents which are made by the 
Ifle, throw themfelves with a prodigious force, one 
towards the Eaft , and the other towards the Weft, 
from off the end of the Ifle, where the Great Fall of 
all is. 

After then thefe two ToiTents have thus run by 
the two fides of the Ifle, they caft their Waters all of 
a fudden down into the Gulph by two great Falls ^ 
which Waters are pufli'd fo .violently on by their own 
Weight, and fo fullain'd by th^ fwiftnefs of the mo- 
tion,"^ that they don't wet the Rock in the leaft. And 
here it is that they tumble down into an Abyfs above 
^oo Foot in depth. 

The Waters that flow on the fide of the Eaft , 
do not throw themfelves with that violence as thoie 


4 Large Country in America. 217 

that fall on the Weft, ^he Rcafon is , becaufe the 
Rock at the end of the Ifland, rifes fomething more 
on this fide, than it does on the Well; and fb the 
Waters being fupported by it fbmewhat longer than 
they are on the other* lide, are carry'd the fraoother 
off: But on the Weft the Rock Hooping more , the 
Waters, for want of a Support, become the fooner 
broke, and fall with the greater precipitation. Ano- 
ther Realbn is , the Lands that lie on the Weft are 
lower than thole that lie on the Eaft. We alfo ob- 
ferv'd, that the Waters of the Fall, that is to the 
Weft', made a fort of a fquare Figure as they fell, 
which made a third Cafcade, lefs than the other two, 
which fell betwixt the South and North. 

And becaufe there is a riling Ground which lies 
before thofe two Cafcades to the North, the Gulph 
is much larger there than to the Eaft. Moreover, wc 
muft obferve , that froM the rifing Ground that lies 
over againft the two laftFalls which are on the Weft 
jof the main Fall, one may go down as far as the bot- 
tom of this terrible Gulph. The Author of this 
Difcovery was down there, the more narrowly to ob- 
ferve the Fall of thefe prodigious Cafcades. From 
hence we could difcover a Spot of Ground, which lay 
under the Fall of Water which is to the Eaft , big 
enough for four Coaches to drive a-breaft without 
being wet \ but becaufe the Ground, which is to the 
Eaft of the Hoping Rock, where the firft Fall empties 
it felf into the Gulph, is very fteep, and almoft per- 
pendicular, 'tis impoffible for a Man to get down on 
that fide, into the Place where the four Coaches may 
go a-breaft, or to make his way through fuch a quan- 
tity of Water as f^ls towards the Gulph : So that 'tis 
very probable, that to this dry Place it is that the Rat- 
tle-Snakes retire, by certain Paflages which they find 
under Ground. 

From the end then of this Ifland it is, that thefe 
two Gr^at Falls of Waters, as alfo. the third but now 


51 8 A New Difeovery of 

mentioned, throw themfelves , after a moftfurpriz- 
ing manner, down into a dreadful Gulph fix hun- 
dred Foot and more in depth. I have already faid. 
That the Waters which Difcharge themfelves at the 
Cafcade to the Eaft, fall with lefler forces whereas 
thofe to the Welt tumble all at once , makmg two 
Calcades j one moderate, the other very violent and 
ftrong , which at laft make a kind of Crochet, or 
fquare Figure, falling from South to North, and Weft 
to Eaft. After this, they rejoin the Waters of the 
other Cafcade that falls to the Eaft , ^ and fo tumble 
down altogether, though unequally, into the Gulph, 
with all the violence that can be imagin'd, from a 
Fall of fix hundred Foot, which makes the molt Beau^ 
tiful, and at the fame time.moft frightful Cafcade in 
the World. ^.^, ,, , 

After thefe Waters have thus difcharg'd them- 
felves into this dreadful Gulfh, they begin to refume 
their Courfe , and continue the great River of 
St. Laurence for two Leagues , as tar as the three 
Mountains which are on the Eaft of the River, and 
the great Rock which is on the Weft , and lifts it 
felf three Fathoms above the Waters, or thereabouts. 
The Gulph into which thefe Waters are difcharg'd, 
continues it felf thus two Leagues together, between 
a Chain of Rocks, flowing with a prodigious Tor- 
rent, which is bridled and kept in by the Rocks that 
lie on each fide of the River. 

Into this Gulph it is, that thefe feveral Cafcades. 
empty themfelves , • with a violence equal to the 
height from whence they fall, and the quantity ot 
Waters which they difcharge. Hence arife tnofe 
deafning Sounds , that dreadful ifoaring and bellow- 
ing of the Waters which drown the loudelt Thun- 
der, as alfo the perpetual Mifts that hang over the 
Gulph, and rife above the talleft Pines that are in the 
little Ifle fo often mention'd. After a Channel is 
again made at the bottom of this dreadful Fall by 

• 1 

4 Large Country in America, gi^ 

the Chain of Rocks , and fill'd by that prodigious 
quantity of Waters which are continually falling , 
the River of St. Laurence refumes its Courfe : But 
With that violence, and his Waters beat againft the 
Rocks with fa prodigious a force, tjat 'tis impoffibie 
to pafs even in a Canou of Bark, though in one of 
them a Man may venture fafe enough upon the molt 
rapid Streams, by keeping clofe to the Shoar. 

Thefe Rocks, as alfo the prodigious Tofrent, lalt 
for two Leagues V that is, from the great Fall, to the 
three Mountains and great Rock ; But then it begins 
infeniibly to abate , and the Land to be again almoft 
on a level with the Water ^ and fb it continues as far 
as the Lake Ontario^ or Frome-nac. 

When one ftands near the Fall, and looks dowa 
into this moft dreadful Gulph, one is leized with 
Horror , and the Head turns round , fo that one 
pannot look long or fledfaftly upon it. But this valt 
Deluge ^beginning infeniibly to abate , and even to 
fall to nothing about the three Mountains, the Wa- 
ters of the River St. Laurence begin to glide more 
gently along, and to be almoit upon a level with the 
Lands ^ fb that it becomes navigable again, as far as 
the Lake Fromenac^ over which we pafs to come to the 
New Canal, which is made by the difcharge of its 
Waters. Then we enter again upon the River 
St. Laurence , which not long after makes that which 
they call the Long Fall, an hundred Leagues from 

I have often heard talk of the Catarafts of the: 
Nile , which make the People deaf that live near 
them. I know not whether the Iroquefe^ who for- 
merly inhabited near this Fall, and liv'd upon the 
Bealis which from time to time are born down by 
the violonce of its Torrent, withdrew themfelves 
from its Neighbourhood , left they fhould likewifc 
become deaf ^ or out of the continual fear they 
were in of Rattle-Snakes, which are very common 
<' ia 

220 A_ New Difcovery of 9! 

in this Plac€ during the great Heats, and lodge in 
Holes all along the Rocks as far as the Mountains, 
which lie two Leagues lower. 

Be it as it will, thefe dangerou^^ Creatures are to 
be met with as^as the Lake Fromenac^ on the South- 
iide ; but becaule they are never to be feen but in the 
midlt of Summer, and then only when the Heats are 
excellive, they are not fo afraid of them here as elfe- 
where. •However, 'tis reafonable to prefujne, that 
the horrid noife of the Fall, and the fear of thefe poi- 
fbnous Serpents, might oblige the Savages to feek 
out a more commodious Habitation. 

Having carry'd our Canow from the Great Fall of 
Niagara y as far as the three Mountains, which are 
two Leagues below, in all which Way we perceived 
never a Snake ^ we proceeded in our Voyage, and 
arriv'd at the Lake of Omario, or Frontenac. 



. "The Author fets out from the Fort which is at the Mom., 
of the River Niagara, and obliges the Iroquefe ajfemhCd 
in Council.^ to deliver kp the Slaves they had made of 
the Outtaouads. 

WE met none of the Savages in the little Village 
of the Iroquefe^ which is near the Mouth of the 
River Niagara j for they fow there but very littk 
Indian Corn ^ and inhabit the Village but in Harveft- 
time, or in theSeafon they go a filhing for Sturgeons, 
or Whiteings which are there in great plenty. We 
thought alio we Ihould find ibme Canadians at the 
Fort of the River which we had begun to build, at 
the beginning of our Difcovery : But thefe Forts were] 
only built for a Show, to cover the fecret Trade oi 
Furrs, and countenance the great Hopes M. de la Salk 
iiad given to the Fremh Court. 



A Large Country in America. 221 

It mufl be granted, that fuchDifcoveries are beyond 
any private Mens Power , ancLthey mufl: be counte- 
nanc'd by a Sovereign Authority, to be fiiccefsfuL 
Therefore M. de U Salle had got the French Court's Pro- 
fedion j but inftead of making a good «fe of it for the 
publick Good, he did chiefly aim at his own private In- 
tereft, and for that reafon negleded a great many 
things neceflary to carry on his Enterprize. The Fort 
of the River of Niagara was become a deferted Place, 
and might have ferved to countenance his Defign. We 
came along the Southern Coafts of the Lake Ontario^ 
or Frontenac \ and after having failed thirty Leagues, 
we arrived about Whitfomide in the Year 168 1. at the 
great Village' of the Tfonnontouans Iraqnefe. 

The Savages came to meet us, repeating often this 
Word Otchitagon^ meaning by it, that the Bare-foot 
was returned irom the great Voyage he had u^ider- 
took, tovilit-the Nations that are beyond the River 
Hohto and Mefchafifp , and though our Faces were 
burnt by the Sun, and my Clothes patch'd up with 
wild Bull-Skins, yet they knew me, and earned me 
with my two Men into one of their Officer's Cottages. 

They did call their Council, which met to the num- 
ber of Thirty, or thereabouts, wearing their Gowns 
In a ftately manner, made up with all forts of Skins, 
: twilled about their Arms, with the Calumet in their 
: Hands. They gave order that we fhould be enter- 
tained according to their own Fafnon, vv^hile they did 
fmoak without eating. 

After we had done eating, I told them by a Cana- 
i dian that was my Interpreter, that their Warriors 
I had brought 12 OuttaouaUs as Slaves, though they 
were their Confederates and Omntloh Friends, ('tis 
I the Name they give to the Viceroy of Canada) 
breaking thereby the Peace, and proclaiming War 
! againft Canada : And the better to oblige them to 
I deliver up to us the Omtaona^Sj who by good For- 
l tune were Hill alive, we flung in the middle of the 


g^« A New Dffeovery of 

AfTembly two Collars of Porcelain, that Captaiil 
Talon had given us ^ This is the only way among 
them, to enter upon any Affair. 

The next day the Council met, and the Iroquefe 
anfwer'dme with fome other Collars of Porcelain 5 
and told mCj That thofe who had made thefe Men 
Slaves , were yoiing Warriors without Confiderati- 
pn f That we might aflure Ommlo, (who was then 
Count Frontenac) that their Nation would always 
refped him in all things ; That they fhould live with 
him as true Children with their Father, and-that they 
would deliver up the Men who had been taken. 

Teganeot^ one of the chiefelt, who Ipoke for the 
whole Nation in the Council , prefented me with 
ibme Skins of Otter, Martin, and Bever, to the va- 
lue of thirty Crowns. 1 took his P'refent with one 
Hand, and deliver'd it with the other to his Son, 
whom he lov'd tenderly. I told him, That I made 
him that Prefent , that he might Exchange it with 
fome Merchandizes of Europe ; and that the Bare- 
feet will accept of no Prefent at all, not out of Con- 
tempt, but becaufe we are difinterelled in all thiiigs ; , 
afluring him, I would acquaint the Governor with i 
his Friendlhip. 

. The Irofufe was furprized that I did not accept of 
his Prefent ; and feeing belldes, that I gave a little 
Looking-Glafs to his Soji, he faid to thofe of his Na- 
tion, that the other Cariadians were not of that Tem- 
per : And they fent us ibveral Fowls, as an acknow- 
ledgment of their Gratitude for the care we toot * 
to teach their Children fome Prayers in their ^wi 
Tongue. After the Promifes the Savages gave usi ' 
iiv^ in good correfpondency with us , we took ou^ 
leave of them, and got our felves ready, in order 
continue our Voyage.' 

C H A P^» 

a Large CoufJtry w AmmOil , iasj 


the Authdr fits out from the Tfonnontduans Iroqueic,' 
and comes m Fort Frontenac. 

IM uft confeft it is a great Pleafure for one to conie 
out of Slavery, or the Hands of Savages, and to 
refleftupon paft Miferies;, efpecially when he returns 
among Friends, to reft himfelf after fb many Hard- 
Jhips and Troubles. 

We had ftill about Fourlcore Leagues to go upon 
the Lake Ontario^ before we could arrive at Fort C?- 
tarokoiii^ Or Frontenac *, but we were all the Way very- 
merry. I hs.^\\^\^^^PicarddH Gay and Michael Ako^ 
my Fellow-Travellers , with fome Skins, to make 
amends for the Hardfhip and Pains they fuffer'd in 
that Voyage. We had much ado to row off our 
Canow, it being much bigger than that we made 
life of when we fet out from the Jjfati and Nadouef- 
fians ^ but neverthelefs we came in four Days to the 
Fort, and kill'd in our way fome Buftards and TealSi 
We wanted then neither Powder nor Shot, and there- 
fore we fhot at random all that we met, either fmall 
Birds, or Turtles, and Wood-Pigeons, which were 
then coming from Foreign Countries in jR) great Num- 
bers, that they did appear in the Air like Clouds. 

I obferved upon this Occafion , and many other 
times dijring our Voyage , a thing worthy of Ad- 
miration : The Birds that were flying at the Head 
of the others, keep often back, to eafe and help 
thofe among them that are tir'd ^ which may be a 
Leffon to Men to help one another in time of need, 
leather Luke Bmjfet^ and Sergeant la Flenr^ who had 
the Command in the Fort in the Abfence of M. la 
Salle^ received us in the Houfe of our Order, that 
we had built together, 


524 -^ ^^^ Difcovery of 

They were much furpriz'd to fee us, having been 
told that the Savages had hanged me with St. Fran- 
ciis Rope two Years ago. All the Inhabitants of 
Canada^ and the Savages that we had encouraged to 
live near Fort Frontenac^ to Till the Ground, made 
me an extraordinary Reception , aud fhew'd much 
Joy to fee me again. The Savages put their Hand 
upon their Mouth , and repeated often this Word, 
Otkon^ meaning, That the Bare-foot muft be a Spirit, 
having travelFd fo far, through fb many Nations 
that would have kill'd them, if they had been there. 
Tho' we were kindly us'd in this Fort, yet my Men 
had a great Mind to return into Canada j and hav- 
ing elcap'd io many Dangers together, I was wil- 
ling to make an End of the Voyage with them ; 
therefore we took leave of Father Liike Bmjfet , and 
of all our Friends that liv'd in that Fort, and went 
for Quebec, 


The Author fets ont from Fort FrOntenac, and gaffes over 
the rapid Stream , which is calCd^ The Long Fall. 
He is kindly receivd at Montreal by Count Frontenac. 

WE fet out from the Fort fooner than I thought, 
not being able to keep any longer my Men, 
and in our Way took a more exad View of the 
Mouth of the Lake Ontario^ or Frontenac. Tliis Place 
is caird Thoufand Iflands^ becaufe there are fo many 
of them, that 'tis impoffible to tell them. The Stream 
is here very rapid ^ but its Swiftnefs is prodigioully 
increas'd, by the great Qiiantity of Waters that 
come from the other Lakes above-mention'd, and a 
great many Rivers that run into this, in the Place call'd 
The Long Fall^ which makes it as dreadful as the great 
Fall of Niagara, 


A Ldrge Country in Amznc2i, 225 
But befides this great Qiiantity of Waters, and th^ 
declivity of the Channel, which makes the Current fb 
rapid, there are alfb on the JBanks, arid-ia the middle 
of the River of St. Laurence^ about Eight or Ten 
Leagues below the faid Lake, great Rocks, which ap- 
pear above Water, which flopping the Stream of the 
River, makes as great a Noife as the great Fall oi Nla^ 

This dreadful Encounter of Water that beats fo 
furiouily againft thefe Rocks , continues about two 
Leagues, the Waters fpurt up ten or twelve Yards 
high, and appear like huge Snow-Balls, Hail, and 
Rain, with dreadful Thunder^ and a Noife like 
Hiffing and Howling of Fierce Beafls : And I do 
Certainly believe, that if a Man continued there a 
eonliderable time, he would become Deaf, without 
any Hope of Cure. 

My Men refufing to carry by Land the Canou, and 
the Skins they had got, I was forc''d to adventure 
with them ^ which I did willingly, having formerly 
pafs'd thefe Streams in a Canou: I trufled my felf 
again to the fame GOD who had dcliver'd me from 
fo many great Dangers. The Stream is fo rapid, 
that we . could not fell the Trees that were on the 
Bank, and yet there was hardly room for our Canou 
to pafs between the Rocks. We \Vere carried away 
by thefe horrid Currents above two, great Leagues in 
a very fhort time^ and in two Days we came from 
Front enac to Montreal^ which are about Thieefcore 
Leagues diitant one from another. Before our land- 
ing at Montreal^ my Men defir'd me to leave them " 
with the Skins in a neighbouring liland, to fave fome 
j Duties, or rather to keep off from M. U Salle's Cre^ 
iditors, who would have feized the Commodities they 
jhad got in their long Voyage vv^ith me in our great 

I Count Frcmenac^ who was at jVlomred looking out 
©fa Window, faw me alons ta a Canou, and took me 
I Q. for • 

2 2 6 A New Difcovery of 

for Father Luh Fi/latre , one of our RecoIieBs^ who 
ferved him as Chaplain. But one of his Guards, 
knowing me again, went to him, and acquainted him 
with my coming ^ he was fo kind as to come to meet 
me, and made me the beft Reception that a MifTio- 
nary might exped from a Perfon of that Pvank and 
Quality. He thought I had been murthered by the 
Savages two Years ago. He was at firll fufprized, 
thinking I was ibme other Recollect that came from 
Virginia : But at lall he knew me, and gave m.e a ve- 
ry kind Entertainment. 

This Lord did wonder to fee me fo much altered, 
being lean, tired, and tanned, having loft my Cloaic 
that the Ijfati had ftoien from me, being then cloath'd 
in an old Habit, patched up with pieces of wild Bulls- 
Skins. He carried me to his own Houfe, where I con- 
tinued for twelve Days to refrefli my felf. He for- 
bad all his Servants to give me any thing to eat, with- 
out his exprefs Order, becaufe he was afraid I fhould 
fall fick if I was left to my own Difcretion, to eat as 
much as I would after fo long Hardfhips ^ and he gave 
'me himfelf what he thought was beft. 

He Was much pleafed to hear me talk of all the 
Hazards I had run in fo long a. Voyage among fo 
many different Nations. I reprefented to him what 
great Advantages might be got by our Difcovery : 
But having obferved that he was always repeating 
the fame Queftions he asked me the firft Day I was 
with him, I told him I had acquainted him with 
what I knew ^ and that I did not queftion but M. U 
Salle^ who was to go to the Court of Franee about 
his Affairs, had acquainted him with all the Particu- 
lars of our Voyage, having been in our Company 
till he was forced to leave us to return into Canada. 

i knew that M. la Salle was a Man that would m 
ver forgive me, if I had told all that I knew of oi 
Voyage •, therefore I kept fecrct the whole Difcovei 
we had made of the River Mefchafni. My Men wei 

d Large Country in AmtVKZ, tij 

I *as much concerned as I, in concealing our Voyage j 
for they had been certainly puniihed for having nn^ 
dertaken it againft Orders ; and the Skins they had 
got in their return from the Jpitl with M. dit Lmh, 
who did ftay for that realbn among the OuttaemSts^ 
had likewife been confifcated. 

Count FroPitenac ihewed me in private a Letter 
M. du Liith had fent him by a Hiiron, v\/ho lived in 
the Neighbourhood of the OuttaomEts, by which he 
acquainted him, he could never learn any thing 
about our Voyage, neither from me, nor from tho 
Men who attended me. I could not forbear tfaen to 
tell him, that M. da Luth was not fo much devoted 
to his Service as he thought ; and that I might alfure 
him that fome Men that were his Opponents, had 
ftopped M. du Luthh Mouthy and that I was fully 
perfuaded he had been feet by them with a fecret 
Order, to pump me •, but I was bound By my Cha- 
rader, and in Charity, to fpare thofe Men, tlio' on 
many Occalions they had not dealt fo jnftly with 
me j. but I was vvilling to leave all to God, who will 
render to every one according to his Worh. 

Francis de Laval^ the firii Lord Biihop of Quebec^ 
came along the River St. Laurence^ to make his Viii- 
tation, while I- was coming to Qmhsck with the L<)rd 
Frontenac. We met him near Fort Cioamplein, which 
had been fortified, to put a Stop to die Inroads of 
the Iroquefe : The Lord Frontcncx asked rnCv if! had 
got an Ague^ and then looking upon tlwfc that at- 
tended hWi, be faid, that the feeling of tiiePulfe 
increaied the Fever ^ infmuafling tome thereby ^ that 
•there was a Defign laid againft sie, t-o getiOiisE.CUfl- 
lRingly what I kept fecret in my Heart. ■ . ; 
[ AfteraihortConverfation wiEhtheBiiliop, lask'd 
jhis Epiil-opal ElelTing, -tho' I did not think fit to re- 
tal to him all that I knew of our Difcoveries. We 
Were going to difcGurfe more largely upon, tbis^^ Sub- 
bed, when the Lord Frontenac jc^ms, in, so. invite th?; 
0^2 - Eilhop 

228 A New Difcovety of 

Bifliop to Dine with him, and thereby to give me an* 
opportunity to put an end to our Converlation. 

I was much puzzled in the Company of thefe two 
Great Men, the Bifhop was the Chief of the Com- 
pany^ but I was yet to pay a great Refpecf to the 
Lord Frontenac. I did avoid talking of Matters that 
might be troublefbme to me *, and I told the Bifhop, 
that the Lord Frontenac had prefcribed me a Courfe of 
Dietj left 1 Ihould fall Tick, after all the HardfhipsI 
had endured, and the bad Food I fed upon among 
the Savages ^ therefore I delired him to give me leave 
to return' to Quebec^ that I might live there in private ^ 
for I was not able then to Catechife the Children, 
nor to" perform any Functions of a Miffionary in his 
Vilitation ^ and that I wanted fome Reft, that I might 
work more vigoroufly afterwards. By thefe Means 
I avoided a Converfation with the Bifhop, that would 
have proved very troublefome to me ^ for he gave 
me leave to retire to our Monaftery , to reft there 
after alLmy Fatigues. 


)A great Defeat of the Illinois, that were attacked and 
feir^riz^ed by the IroquQre. 

WHile I was refting after my great Labours, the 
Lord Frontenac did receive Letters from Vz- 
therZenobe Mambre^ whom I left among the Illinois. 
He fent him Word, that the Iroquefe had drawn the 
Miimik into their Party ^ and that being joined toge- 
ther, they had formed a great Arm^y, and were faU'n 
on a fiidden upon the Illinois^ to deftroy that Nation j ; 
and tliat they were got together to the number o?i 
Nine hundred, all Fufdiers ^ thefe two Nations being 
well provided with Guns, and all fort of Ammunitions- 
of War^hy the Commerce they have with the Enro^eans, 
: , ' The 

a Large Country in America. 229 

, The Iroquefe were projeding this Enterprize about 
the 1 2th of September, 1680. while I was about the 
Difcovery of the River Mefcha/ipi. The IHmols did not . 
miftruft them ^ for they had conchided a Treaty of 
Peace with thefe two Nations j and M. la ^alle had al- 
ftr'd them, that he would do his utmoft Endeavour? 
to oblige them to obferve the Treaty ^ therefore the 
Jllinols were eafiiy fiirprized, having fent moft part 
of their Youth to make War in another Country. 

.A Chaomnon, Confederate to the JlU'doisy return- 
ing from their Country home,, came back again, to 
give them notice that he had difcovered an Army of 
Jroquefe and Miamis^ who Were already entered into 
their Country on purpofe to furprize them. 

This News frighted the Illinois ^ yet the next Day 
they appeared in the Field, and marched diredly to 
the Enemy •, and as foon as they were in fight, they 
charged them. The Fight was very fharp-y and a 
great many Men were killed on both fides. 

M. Tomi^ whom M. la Salle had left in the Fort of 
Crevecoenr^ to command there in his Abfcence, hearing 
gf this Irruption, was in fear for the Illinois'?, fake j 
fcr though their Army was more numerous than that 
pf their Enemy, yet they had no Guns •, therefore 
he ofTer'd himfelf to go Askenon , that is Mediator^ 
carrying the Calumet of Peace in his Hand, in order 
to bring them to an Agreement. 

The Iroquefe finding more refiltance than they 
thought at firft, and feeing that the Illinois were re- 
fplved to continue the War, confented to a Treaty 
of Peace, accepting M.Tom?s Mediation , and hear- 
kened to the Proporals he made them from the lUmoi^y 
who had chofen him for Mediator. 

M. To-nti reprefeuted to them, that the Illinois were 
Qnontio's ('tis the Name they give to the Viceroy of 
Canada) Children and Confederates as v/ell as them- 
felves ^ and that it would be very unpieafant to him, 
who loved them all, to hear that they had begun th?. 
Q. 3 War j, 

4^6 A New Difcovery of 

War \ therefore he earnellly intreated them to re- 
turn home, and trouble the IlUno^s no further, feeing 
they had religioully obferved the Treaty of Peace. 

Thefe Propofals did not pleafe fome of the young 
Jroqiiefe^ who had a great mind to Fight, and there- 
fore charged on a fudden M. Tottti and his Men 
with feveral Shots ^ and a deliberate young Fellow 
of the Country of Onnoma^^e , gave him a Wound 
with a Knife, near the Heart •, but by chance a ~-Rib 
warded off the Stroke : Several others did fall upon 
him , and would take him away ^ but one taking 
notice of his Hat, and that his Ears were not bored, 
knew thereby that he was not an Illinois^ and for that 
reafon an old Man cried out. That they fhould fpare 
him ^ and flung to him a Collar of Porcelain, mean- 
ing thereby to make him Satisfadion for the Blood 
he had loft-, and the Wound he had received. 

A young Man of the Irocjaefe^s Grew, took M. Tomih 
Hat, and hung it on his Gun, to fright the Illinois 
therewith^ v/ho thinking by that Signal that Tomi^ 
Father Zenohcy and all the Europeans that were in his 
Company, had been kilFd by the Iroquefe^ were fo 
much furprized and difquie|:ed with that horrid At- 
tempt, that they fancied themfelves delivered up into 
the Hands of their Enemies, and were upon running 
away : Yet the Iroqitefe having made a Signal to Fa- 
ther Zemhe to draw near, that they might confer with 
him about the means to prevent both Armies to 
come to fight, they received the 'Cahmet of Peace, and 
made a Motion as if they had a mind to withdraw : 
But the Illinois were hardly come to their Village, be- 
fore that they faw the Iroquefe\ Army appearing 
upon fome Hills, which were over-againft; them. 

This Motion obliged 'Father Zer/obcj at the Ilirriois^ 
Requeft^ to go to tliein to know the reafon of a 
Proceeding fo contrary to what they had done in ac- 
cepting of the G2/.'i/.-!2ff of Peace. But that Embaffy 
did not pleafe thofe Barl>arians, who wo-uld not lofe. 

a Large Country in America. 2 j i 

fo fair an Opportunity. Father Zemhe did run the 
hazard of being murthered by thefe unmerciful Men' 
yet the fame God who had prefe'rved many of our 
Fellow-Miflionaries in the like Encounters, and my 
felfinthis Difcovery, kept him from the ^and of 
thefe furious Men. He was a M^ of a Ihort Sta* 
ture, but very couragious, and went boldly among 
the IroqHefe^ who received him very civilly. 

They told him, that the Want they were reduced 
to, had forced them to this new Step, having no Pro- 
vifions for their Army, and their great Number ha- 
ving driven away the Wild-Bulls from that Country. 
Father Zenobe brought their Anfwer to the Illinois^ 
who prefently fent them fome Indlm Corn, and all 
things necelTary for their Subiiftence, and proposed to 
them a Treaty of Commerce, having in that Country 
a great plenty of Beaver's Skins, and other Furrs. 

ThQ Trocpeje accepted of thefe Propofals^ they did 
exchange Holtages , and Father Zefiobe went into 
their Camp, and did lie there, to lofe no time to 
bring all Matters to an Agreement, and conclude a 
Treaty between them. But the Irofiefe repairing in 
great Numbers into the Qiiarters of the Illinois^ who 
fufpecled no ill Deiign, they advanced as far as their 
Village, where they v,'aiT:ed .the v^^k/z/o/^/^m that they 
ufed to raife to their Dead, which are commonly fe- 
ven or eigiit Foot high : They fpoil'd the Indlm Corn • 
that was Town ^ and having deceived the Illinois^ un- 
der a falfe pretence of Peace, fortified themfelves in 
their Village. 

In this Confulion the Iroqnefc joined with the Mia-. 
mi<^ carried away eight hundred Iilio/!ois Women a^id 
Children^ and their Fury v^entfo far, that thefe ^?7- 
tropo^haaes did eat fo me Oid Men of that Nation, and 
burnt fome others who were not able to follow them^ 
and fo returned with the Slaves they had made, to their 
own Habitations, which were four hundred Leagues 
off the Couatry they had fo cruelly plundered. 

a 4 '^^poA 

2J2 A New Difcovery of 

Upon the firft News of the Approach of the Iro^ 
^Hefe, the Illinois had fent mofl part of their Families 
to the other fide o^a little Hill, to feciire them from 
their Fury, and that they might get over the River 
Mefchajipi j and tke others that were fit for War, did 
flock together on the Tops of the Hills that were near 
their Habitations, and then went to the other fide 
of the River, to look after their Families, and pro- 
vide for their Subfiftence. 

After this perfidious Expedition, thefe Barbarians 
would fain alledge fome Pretences to excufe their 
Treachery, and would perfuade our Fathers to retire 
from the Illinois^ Country, fince they were all fled 
away, and that there was no likelihood they ftiould 
want them for the future to teach them their Pray- 
ers, as the Jtjientatjij or the Blaek-Gowns do in their 
Countries, meaning the Jefuits, whom they call by 
that Name. They told Fathers Gabriel and Zenobe^ 
that they Ihould do better to return into Canada^^ and 
that they v/ould attempt nothing againlt the Life of 
the Children of Ommio , Governor of Cmada^ defi- 
ring to have a Letter under their Hand , to (liew it 
as a Teltimony of their honell proceeding in this 
occafion, and aflhring them that they would no 
more Hand by their Enemies. 

Our two Fathers being fo foiTaken by their Hofts, 
'and finding themfelves expofed to the Fury of a 
Cruel and Victorious Enemy , refolved to return 
home, according to the Iroquefe Advice^ ^nd being 
fuppli'd by them with a Canow, they embarked for 


A Large Country In America. 2 3 j 


The Sifvages Kikapoux murther Father Gabriel de la 
Ribourde, a RecolUEt Mljfionary. 

GOD has given me the Grace to be infenfible 
of the Wrong I have fuffer'd from my Ene- 
mies, and to be thankful for the KindneiTes I have 
receiv'd from my Friends. But if ever 1 had rea- 
fon to be thankful to thofe that have taken care of 
my Inftruclion, "certainly I mult confefs it was to 
this good Father Gabriel^ who was my Mailer du- 
ring my Novitiate in the Monaflery of our Order 
at Beihme , in the Province of Artoi^ ^ therefore I 
think, that I am bound in Duty to mention fo Ho- 
nelt a Man in this Relation of my Dilcovery, elpe- 
pally having, had fo fad a Share therein, as to be 
murder'd by the Savages KihafoHx^ as I will relate 

It mult be obferv'd, That M. Tonti could itay no 
longer at Fort Crevecoem- , after the Illinois Defeat 5 
therefore he delir'd Fathers Gabriel and Zenobe to get, 
with two young Boys that were left there , into a 
Canou, and return into Canada. All the relt* of 
the Inhabitants had deferted that Country lince that 
unfortunate Accident , by the Suggellion of fome 
Men of Canada , who were the Predominant Genlm 
of the Country, v/ho had fiatter'd them with great 
Hopes, to oblige them to forfake M. de la Salle's 

Our laid Fathers being fo forc'd to leave that Coun- 
try after fuch a Defeat, embark'd the 1 8th of Septem- 
ber following, wanting all forts of Provifions, except 
what they could kill with their Guns ^ but being ar- 
riv'd about eight Leagues from the Illinois^ their Ca- 
pon touching upon a Rock, let in Water , and fo 
were forc'd to land about Noon to mend it. 
^ ^ ^ : While. 

2^4 -^ ^^^ D if cover y of 

While they were about careening the fame, Father 
Gabriel y charm'd with the fine Meadows, the little 
Hills, and the plealant Groves in that Country, which 
are difpers'd at fuch diltances, that they look as if 
they had been planted on purpofe to adorn the 
Country, went fo tar into thofe Woods, that he loft 
his Way. At Night Father Zembe went to look af- 
ter him , as all the reft of the Company j for he 
was generally lov'd by all that knew him. But 
M. Tomi was fuddenly feiz'd with, pa nick Fears, 
thinking that every moment the Jrocfuefe would fall 
upon him : So that he fentJor Father Zembe ^ and 
forc'd all his Men to retire into the Canou , and 
fo got over the River on the Mlmis-iidQ , and left 
the Old Father expos'd to the Barbarians Infalts , 
without any refped to his Age, or to his Ferfoual 

'Tis true , that in the Evening one of the Young 
Men that were in the Canou with Father Zembe^ fir'd 
a Gun by M. Tonti\ Order, and lighted a great Fire :^ 
but all was in vain. 

The next Day , M. Tontl feeing he had behav'd 
himlelf cowardly on this occafion, went back again 
by break of Day to the Place where we had left the 
Day before Father Gabriel^ and continu'd there till 
Noon looking after the poor Chriftian. But though 
ibme of his Men enter'd into the Groves, where they 
few the frefh Steps of a Man, which were alfo print- 
ed in the Meadows along the Bank of -the River , 
they could never hear of him. M. Tonti faid lince, 
to excufe himfelf for haying fo bafely forfaken Father 
Gabriel^ That he thought the Jroqucfe had laid an Am- 
bufcade to furprize him •, for they had feen him frying 
away, and they might fancy he had deciar'd himfelf 
for the Ill'moM. 

Fut M. Tomi might have remembcr'd he had gi- 
ven his Letters for Cafiada to thcfe Irocjuefe j and 
that if they had formed any Deiign upon his Life, 


a Large Country in America. «35 

they would have executed it when he was among 
them : But they were fo far from it, that when he 
was wounded , they prefented him with a Collar of 
Porcelain, which they never do but when fbme 
unlucky Accidents happen. The Savages don't ufc" 
fo much circumfpedion ^ and therefore this Excuie 
is groundlefs and frivolous. Father Zenohe has left 
us in Writing , That he would ftay for Father 
Gabriel : But M. Tonti forc'd him to embark at 
Three a Clock in the Afternoon ^ faying. That cer- 
tainly he had been kilFd by the Enemies , or elfe he 
was gone a-foot alojig the Banks of the River; 
and that they would fee him in tiieir way. How- 
ever, they could hear nothing of him ^ and the far- 
ther they went , the greater Father Zenobis Affli- 
dions grew. They were then in flich a want of 
Provifions , that they had nothing to feed upon but 
Potatoes, Wild Garlick, and fome fmall Roots they 
had fcratch'd out of the Ground with their own 

We have heard fince, that Father Gabriel had been 
kill'd a little while after his landing. The Nation 
of the Kikafotix , who, as one may fee in our Map, 
inhabit to the Weftward of the Bay of Puans , had 
fent their' Youth to make War againft the Jraqnefi ; 
but hearing that thefe Barbarians were got into the 
Country of the Illinois^ they went feeking about to 
furprize them. Three Kikaponx^ makiag the Van- 
guard, met with Father Gabriel, and came up to him 
as near as they could, hiding themfelves among the 
Grafs, which is very high in that Country t, and tho* 
they knew he v/as not an Iroqmfe^ yet they knock'd 
him down with their Clubs, call'd Head-breakers^ 
which are made of a very hard Wood. They left 
his Body on the fpot, and carried away his Breviary 
and Journal , which iince came to the Hands of a 
Jefuite , whom I will mefition in my other Volume, 
wherein I deCga to fpeak of the Firil Introdudion 


2^6» A New Difiovery of 

of the Faith into Canada. Thefe Barbarians took off 
the Skin of his Head , and carried it in triumph to 
their Village, giving out that it was the Hair of an 
Jroquefe^ whom they had kiU'd. 

Thus di'd the Good Old Man ^ to whom we may- 
apply what the Scripture fays of thofe whom Herad 
m his Fury caus'd to be Slain •, Non erat qm fepellret y 
There was no Body to Bury him. This Worthy 
Man was wont in the LeiTons he made us in our 
Novitiate , to prepare us againlt the like Accidents 
by Mortifications : And it feems that he had fome 
forefight of what befel him. So Good a Man deferv'd 
a Better Fate, if a Better might be wifh'd for , than 
to die in the Fundions of an Apoflolical MilTion, by 
the Hands of thofe fame Nations, to whom the Divine 
Providence had fent him to convert them. 

Father Gabriel was about 65 Years old. He had 
not only liv'd an examplary Life, fuch as our Good 
Fathers do, but had alfo perform'd all the Duties 
of the Employments he had in that Order, either 
when he was at home Guardian, Superior, Inferior, 
and Mailer of the Novices ^ or abroad when he was 
in Canada.^ where he continued from the Year 1^70, 
iintil his Death. I underllood feveral times by. his 
Dilcourfes , that he was much oblig'd to the Fle- 
mlngsy who had maintain'd him a long time : He often 
talk'd to us about it, to infpire us , by his Example, 
v/ith fome Sentiments of Gratitude towards our 
benefactors. I have feen him mov'd with Grief, 
confidering that fo many Nations liv'd in the Igno- 
rance of the Way to Salvation ^ and he was willing 
to lofe his Life, to deliver them out of their Stu- 

The Iroqnefe faid of him , That he had been 
brought to Bed, becaufe his Great Belly was become 
fjat by his frequent Faftings ^ and the Aullcrity of 
his Life. 

M. Toml 

aLarge Country in Amtv\c2i. 2^7 

M. Tonti can never clear himfelf of his Bafenefs, 
for forfaking Father Gabriel^ under pretence of being 
afraid of the Iroquefe : For though they are a Wild 
Nation , yet they iov'^that Good Old Man , who 
had been often among them : But M. Tomi might 
bear him fome feaxt Grudge •, becaufe Father Ga- 
briel^ after the Illwoi^s Defeat , feeing that M: Tontl 
had over-laden the Canon with Beavers-Skins ^ fo 
that there was no room for him, he did throw many 
of thefe Skins to the Jroqnefe , to Ihew them that he 
was not come into that Country to get Skins or other 

Father Zemhe had neither Credit nor Courage 
enough to perfuade M. Tonti to ftay a while for that 
Good Father, who was thus facrific'd to fecure fome 
Beavers-Skins. I do not doubt but the Death of that 
njmerMe Old Man was very precious in the fight of 
God, and I hope it will produce one time or other its 
Efleds, when it Ihallpleafe God to fet forth his Mercy 
towards thefe Wild Nations ^ and I do wifli it might 
pleafe him to make ufe of a feeble Means, as I am, to 
finilh what I have, through His Grace, and with La- 
bour, fo happily begun. 


The Author's Return from his Difcovery^ to Quebec ^ and 
what ha^ned at his Arrival at the Convent of Our 
Lady of Angels near that Town. 

COunt Frontenac , Viceroy of Canada , gave me 
two of his Guards , who underflood very well 
to manage a Canou, to carry me to Quebec. We fet 
out from Cham^lelns Fort, mentioned above ^ and 
being near the Town , I landed , and went a-foot 
through the Lands newly grubb'd up, to our Monallery, 
bidding the Guards to carry the Canou along with them. 

I wouli 

23S A New Difcovery of 

\ would not land at Quebec^ becaufe the Bifhop 
Iiad given order to his Vicar-General to receive me 
in his Epifcopal Palace, that he might have more 
time to enquire about our %reat Difcovery: But 
Count Fromenac had exprefly order'd his Major that 
Was in the Town, to prevent that Meeting, and to 
take care that I might firft be brought to our Mo- 
Baflery, to confer with Father Vdent'm de Roux^ a 
Man of great underltanding^ and Provincial-Commif. 
fary of the Recollefts in Canada. 

There was then in our Monaflery of our Lady 
of Angels^ but Three MilFionaries with the faid Com- 
inillary ^ all the reft were diipers'd up and down in 
feveral Millions above a hundred Leagues from 
Quebec. One may eafiiy imagine that I was wel- 
come to our Monaflery, Father Hilarlon Jeunet 
lecm'd liirpriz'd, and told him with a fmiling Coun- 
tenance, Lanare veni foras. Whereupon I ask'd him 
why he did apply to me what had been laid of 
Laz,ams ? To which he'anfwer'd, that two Years 
ago a Mafs of Requiem 'had been fung for me in the 
Monaflery, becaufe jbme Savages had given out 
for certain, to a Black Gown, i. e. a Jefuite, That 
the Nation whom the Iroqmfe call Homom^aha, had 
hung me to a Tree with St. Francises Rope; and 
that two Men who accompani'd me, had been alio 
in a very cruel manner put to Death by the fame 

Here I muft confefs. That all Men have their 
Friends and their Enemies. There are ibme Men 
who, like the Fire that blackens the Wood it cannot 
burn, mult needs raife Stories againft their Neigh- 
bours; and thei-efore fome having not been able 
t» get me into their Party, fpread abroad this Ru- 
mour of my Death, to llain my Reputation ; and 
that Noife had given occafion to feveral Difcourfes 
in Canada to my prejudice. However, ( for I will, 
if it pleafe God, declare my Mind ferther ^pon this 


a Large Country in A merlca. 259 

matter in another Volume ) I ought to acknowledge 
that God has preferv'd me by a fort of Miracle, 
in this great and dangerous Voyage, of which you 
have an Account in this Volume. And when I 
think oa it with attention, I am perfuaded that 
Providence has kept me for publiiTiing to the World 
the Great Difcoveries I have made in Eleven Years 
time, or thereabouts, that I have liv'd in the Wejt- 

It muH be obferv'd, That a great many Mea 
meddle with Buimefs that don't belong to them, 
and will conceive a Jealoufy againftthofe that won't 
conform to their Humour. The Provincial-Com- 
mifTary, of whom I have fpoken before, was very 
urgent to have a Copy of the Journal of the Difco- 
very I had made in a Voyage of almoft four Years, 
telling me he would keep it fecret. I took his V/ord 5 
for I thought, and I think flill, he was a Man of 
■Honour and Probity. Belides, I did confider that 
he could iiiilrua the Bifhop of Qjiebec, and Count 
Front e?2ac^ with what they had rinind to know of 
this Difcovery, and fatisfy them both without ex- 
po Img my felf 

■ For this purpofe were intended all the Care he 
took of me;- and all the extraordinary Civilities -he 
did fhew me, in entertaining me with all he could 
get then, and calling me often the Rals'd again. 
He defir'd me to return into Eitrofe^ to acquaint the 
Publick with the great Difcoveries I had made, and 
tliat by this way I Ihould avoid the Jealoufy of thefe 
two Men ^ that it was very diffiailt to pleafe two 
Mailers, whofe Employment and Interelts were lb 

He had then, before my Return into Europe, al! 
the time that was necclFary to Copy out my whole 
Voyage on the River A^cfikafyi , which I had un- 
dertook agamft M. de la Sallis Opinion, who has 
made fince a Voyage from the niionis to the Guiph 

* ^ of 

24® ^ -^^'^ Difcovery of 

<ii Mexico^ in the Year 1582. and two Years after 
me. He had had fome fufpicion I had made that 
Voyage^ yet he could not know the Truth of it at 
my Return to Fort Frontenac^ becaufe he had then 
undertook: a Voyage to the Onttagamisj not know- 
ing whether the Savages had murther'd me, as it had 
been given out. 

I foUow'd our Commiflary's Advice, and the Re- 
folution to return into Europe ^ but before I fet out, 
I fhew'd him that it was abfolutely neceflary for 
the Settlement of Colonies in our Difcoveries, and 
make fome progrefs towards the eltablifhing of the 
Goipel, to keep all thefe feveral Nations in peace, 
even the moft remote, and afiill them againft the 
Iroqmfe^ v^ho are their Common Enemies: That 
thefe Barbarians' never m.ake a True Peace with thofe 
that they have once beaten, or they hope to over- 
come, in fpreading Divilions among them ^ that the 
common Maxim of the froquefe had always been fuch, 
and by this means they had dellroyM above Two 
Millions of Souls* 

. The Provincial-Commiliary agreed with me up- 
on all this, and told me that for the future he fhould 
give me all the neceflary Inftrudions for that piir- 

I will give an Account, if it pleafe God, in my 
Second Volume^ of the Ways and Meafures that 
are to be taken for the eftablilhing of the Faith 
among the many Nations of fo different Languages \ 
and how good Colonies might be fetled in thofe 
great Countries, which might be call'd the Delights 
of jimerica, and become one of the greatell Empires 
in the World. 





New Difcovery 

O F A 

FaH Country in America, 

Exteiiding'above Four Thonfand Miles, 

Nev/ France and New Mexico ; 

Giving an 

A ceo UN T 


Attempts of the Sieur De la SALLE upon the 
Mines of St. Barbe, &c. The Taking of 
Qj^ebec by the Englijli ; With the Advantaged 
oTa Shorter Cut to Chwa and Japan. 

By L. Hennepin^ now Refidcnt in Holland. 

To which are added, Several N.'Ti? Dlfcoveries^ in North 
America, not pubhih'd in the French Edition. 

LONDON: Printed for H. BonmcJ^ , at the 
P^d Lyon in St. Paul's Church-yard. 1 699. 

To His Majefty 

William III. 

By the Grace of God 

King of Great Britain^ 

s I R, 

HIS Catholick Majefty, His Ekaoral 
Highnefs of Bavaria^ and the Superiors 
of my Order having given me leave to come 
into thefe happy Provinces, according to Your 
Majefty's direction, to publifh the Difcoveries 
I have made in America \ and Your Majefty 
having been gracioufly pleafed to accept my 
Firft Volume, I make bold to offer You alfo 
this Second Part ; wherein I infert the Travels 
of a Gentleman whom I have accompanied fe- 
verai Years, and whofe violent Death, by the 
,R 2 Hands 

The Dedication, 

Hands of his own Men, difappointed the great 
Defigns he had formed upon the Mines of 
St. Barbe m New Mexico. TheObfervationsI 
make upon his Voyage will fhew unto Pofte- 
rity, That a Man muft never be ungrateful to 
his Friends, nor revenge himfelf of his Enemies, 
but as much as it concerns the Publick Good, 
which ought always to prevail upon the pri- 
vate Intereffc. 

This is a Charader peculiar to the Illuftrious 
Hoiife of N JS S JV , who has formerly 
fiird the Roman Imperial Throne, and who is 
now cloathed in Your Majefty's Perfon with a 
Royal Power over Three Great Kingdoms, 
and other large Dominions which form the, 
Britijfj Empire. 

All the World agrees. That Nature and 
Grace have happily confpir'd to unite in Your 
Sacred Perfon all the Chriftian, Political and Mi- 
litary Virtue of Your Renowned Anceftors. The 
great Elevation of Your Genim , w^hich has 
manifefted it felf by Your noble and generous 
Defigns ; Your Generofity and Liberality fo 
worthy of Your Illuftrious Birth ; Your noble 
Inclination to do Good to all Men, even to 
Your Enemies themfelves, and the unparallell'd 
Conftancy andGreatnefs of Soul which You have 
exprefs'd in the greateft Adverfities, the true 
Toucliftone of true Merit, are fo confpicuous, 
that every one is convinc'd of Your Majefty's 


7'he Dsdicationr 

Magnanimity, Valour, Juftice, Equity, Sln-^ 
cerity and Piety. 

Your Majefty fignaliz'd the Love You had 
for Your own Country, when You took the 
Command of the Armies of the States General 
againlt ^ a powerful • and vidorious Conqueror, 
whom Your Majefty forced to abandon almoft 
in one Day the Conqueft he had made in the 
United Provinces. All the World admirM 
Your Valour, and more ftill Your unparalleU'd 
Prudence, which no Body expeded in fuch a 
degree from a Prince of Three and twenty 
years of Age. 

Never Prince was more Mafter of that nice 
Art of foftening the different Tempers of Na- 
tions, managing their different Intereft, giving 
Life to their Refolutions , and therefore no 
Prince had been able hitherto to form and ce- 
ment fuch an Alliance as we fee at this Day for 
the Safety of Europe, Thofe great Qiialities 
and incomparable Virtues make Your Majefty 
the Darling of Your People, and the Terror of 
Your Enemies, and keep Rebels and Faftious 
IVIen in Awe, when Your Majeify's abfence 
out of Your own Kingdoms feem to give them 
a fair Opportunity to diilurb the Tranquility 
o^ Great Brit am ; As You afcended the Throne 
without any effufion of Blood , God , whofe 
Glory has been always Your chiefeft Care , 
having been pleafed to crown with a glorious 
R 3 and 

The Dedication. 

^nd uncxpe8:cd Succefs , the Equity of Your 
Intentions, fo Mercy and Clemency have been 
ever fince the Bafis of it, notwithftanding the 
many repeated Provocations of ill-difpofed 
Perfons, whofe Obftinacy defervM to be pu- 

The Confederate Princes having chofen Your 
Majefty for their GeneralijJimOy and given proof 
in their Choice both of the Refped and Truft 
they have in Your Majefty, nothing feems 
wanting to compleat Your Glory but to procure 
to Europe a folid and lafting Peace , which we 
hope is near at hand , and which will Ihew 
Your Majefty's incomparable Prudence and 
Wifdom, as the management of the War has 
fhown Your Valour and Magnanimity. The 
fo much admir'd Prudence of O/^r, and the 
Valour of Alexander , come very fhort of what 
Your Majefty has already e^prefs'd, and all im- 
partial Men will agree, that Your Majefty has 
exceeded the moft famous Heroes mentioned 
in Hiftory ; but I muft leave off this Subjed for 
fear of offending Your Modefty ^ which is an 
infeparable Companion of all great Souls. 

I muft beg Your Majefty's Pardon for the 
Liberty I take to complain againft fome Inha- 
bitants of this City of Vtrecht^ who, though 
of the fame Religion as I am, endeavour to 
render me odious, becaufe, being a Framifcm, 
I have dedicated to Your Majefty two Vo- 

The Dedication. 

lumes of the Difcovery I have made in America. 
They ought to know that I have done nothing 
but by Your Majefty's Permiflion and that of 
the States , and therefore they have not a due 
refpeQ: for Your Sacred Majefty and their High 
and MightinelTes. I hope thofe very^ Perfons 
will acknowledge one time or other their Mi- 
ftake, and the Sincerity of my Intentions, which 
are fuch, that I may confidently fay, I propofe 
nothing to my felf but the Glory of God, and 
to find out, under Your Majefty's Protedion, 
a Paffage into China, and "ja^An without croffing 
twice the Line, which the Engltfh and Dutch 
have fo often vainly attempted , through the 
Frozen Sea: I hope, Sir, through the Affift- 
anceofGod, and the Favour of Your Majeily, 
to fucceed in my Defign, and difcover it before 
the end of this Age. 

By thefe means a great many Barbarous Na- 
tions will be brought to the knowledge of the 
true God and their Redeemer Jefus Chrlft , 
which I am fure is a fufficient Motive for 
Your Majefty to give all Incouragement for 
this Undertaking ; for being convinced of Your 
Majefty's Piety, I, need not ufe for an Argument 
the Temporal Advantages , that will accrue 
thereby to Your Kingdoms. 

That God be pleafed to blefs Your Majefty 

with all forts of Profperities, Your Undertake 

ings with a glorious Succefs ^ and Your Sub- 

R 4 teds 

The Dedication, 

jefts with an everlafting Felicity, is and wifl 
always be the Prayer of, 

S I R^ 

Tour Majefifs moH Humble 
and moH Obedient Servant^ 

F. Lewis Hennepin^ 

MiSionary Recolk^i and Notary Apofiolkk. 




I Need not make a long Preface to this Book^ the Suh- 
jeU Matter thereof is able to recommend it felf t9 
the ferufal of all Inqmjitive Readers. The World., 
tho^ Hnjitfi in mofl cafes^ do however Jajlice to Travellers, 
and the Accounts of their Voyages mcet^ generally ffeaking, 
"with a more favourable Reception than any other Perfor^ 
mances. This is a kind of Revoard to Travellers for the 
Hnfpeakable Fatignes they have fuff'er^d. Not with flanding 
J have not travelled through Polite Nations^ nor feen any 
wonderfull Edifices in the Countries J have difcovered^ I 
have met with that Reward-^ the Defcriptions of the Cabins 
of Reeds and Rafhes^ which are the Habitations of above 
200 Nations unknown before me^ have been as acceptable 
to Ingenious Readers as the Defcription of their noble Pa- 
laces and Temples of China in fome other Authors. My 
Defcription of Loiiifiania was printed fever al times ^ and 
the late Volume J publifhed has met with fuch a Reception, 
that J. may prefume this will have the jame fate. And re- 
ally the Difcovery of 200 different Nations unknown hlr, 
therto to the Europeans is^ one would think-y a ft Subje^ 
to excite any one's Curiofuy. 

I would therefore break off my Preface in this place, 
were I not obliged to anfwer fome falfe Accufations 
my Enemies have raifed againfl me^ and becaufe I am in. 
a Religious Order^ I think ft to begin with inferting two 
Attefiations or Certificates of Fathers of my own Order, 
which will prevent Jome further Calumnies on that Points 


IUnderwriten certifie to have read and examin-? 
ed a Book Entituled,' A Defcripion of Loui- 
fiana^ newly difcovered to the Sonth-wefi of New- 
France^ with an Account of the Manners of the Sava- 
ges of that Country, written by Father Hennepn a 
Recoiled Preacher, and Apoftolick Miffionary, and 
to have found nothing therein contrary to Faith or 
good Manners, but that on the contrary, the faid 
Book contains many Refledions and Remarks, which 
may be of great ufe for the Converlion of the Savages, 
and the Advantages of the Kingdom. Given at our 
Covent of Recolleds in'P^m, December 13. 1582. 

F. Cefaree Harveau LeUorin Dhi^ 
nity. Father Frovincial and Cnflos 
of the Recollects of the Frovincf 
of St. Denys in France. 

Ihave read a Book entituled, A Defcripion of 
Lonfiana , newly difcovered to the Somh-weft of 
New France^ with an Account of the Manners of the 
Savages of that Country, in which I have found nothing 
but what is conformable to the Faith of the Catholick, 
Apoftolick and Roman Church, the Laws of the King- 
dom, and good Manners ^ and it may be very ufeful 
towards eftablifhing the Faith of Jefus Clirift in that 
new World, and extending the Empire of our Mo- 
narch in that fertile and delicious Country. Given at 
St. Germain en Laye m our Covent of Recolleds, De- 
hr, 14, 1682. 

F. Innocent Micault Definitor of 
the RecolleBs of the Province of 
St. Denys in France, and Gene- 
ral Commiffioner in the Province 
ofRecolle^s of St. Anthony in 




Ha'ving premifed thefe ti^o Certificates^ I cone mv6 t9 
anfiwer the Objections my Bmmies urge againfi me. 

I . How^ fay they, can a Francifcan, and confeqnently 
a Trie ft of the Church of Rome, follicit a Froteftant Prince 
to fend him to Preach the Gofpel unto the Ignorant Na^ 
tions he has difcovered ? For is it ?iot more reafonable t9 
thi?ikj that that Monarch will rather convert that People 
to his own Religipn, than fujfer Catholick Afijfionaries t» 
convert them to the Church of Rome ? I'Vhat Opinion then, 
might Men to have of the Religion of Father Hennepin ? 
'This is the chief Argument injifted on by my Enemies 
to make me odious to thofe of my Religion^ or rather to 
the ignorant part of it , but I may eafily confute that fil- 
ly Cahtmny : For in the fir ft place. His MajeBy ofGrSat 
Britain has not exacted nor demanded any Promife of 
me, when He was pleafed to admit rne into His Service^ 
that may be direElly or indireBly contrary to my Religion. 
Thefe Btgots ought by the fame reafon to cenfure the Em- 
peror, the King of Spain, the EleBors of the Empire, and 
Bifhops of Liege, Munfter, &c. who are entred into fa 
ftriB an Alliance with His Majefty o/Great Britain, and 
conclude from thence, that thofe Catholick Princes have 
formed fome Defign againft the Catholick Religion. But 
fiippofing that the Engiifh convert thofe numerous Nati- 
ons to their Religion, and that I contribute fomethlng to 
it, am 1 for all that to he blamed^ I hope no body will 
fay fo, unlefs it be thefe morofe Bigots, who think that: 
the ignorant Americans who worfinp the Devil, or any 
other Creature, are nearer to the Kingdom of God than 
Proteftants who worfhip the fame God as we, hope in the 
fame Reedeemer, and arefeparated from us only upon fome 
Points ', which Opinion I look upon as a Frenzy worthy of 
my Companion, and not of a Reply. But who told them 
that the Catholick Faith cannot he preached under the Pro- 
tetlion of King William, or the States General ? Thofs 
who cenfure me , enjoy their Religion under that very Pro- 
te^lion, and the Reader will find at the latter end of this 
Volume, what ojfers the Ea§li(h made to our RecolleBs in 



America. But let them fay what they fleafe^ I have the 
jipprobation of His CathoUck Majefy^ the EleBor of Ba- 
varia, and the Fermijfion of the Superiors of my Order. 

2. Some others think that I impofe upon them in the Ac-r 
count I give of the conrfe of the Mefchafipi, and that it 
is not fojfible I jhoidd have travelled in fo jhort a time 
from its Month to its Source. To thefe J reply ^ that they 
are not acquainted with Canous made af Bark of Trees, 
which are Jo light that one may travel 20, 25, and in cafe 
ofneedi^o Leagues in aDay again f the Stream of a River^ 
whereas by my Account it does not come to Ten in a Day. 
But if one follows the Stream, as we did from the River of 
the Illinois to. the Mouth of the Mefchalipi, the fwiftnefs 
is fo great, that I am fure we fpent twice more than was 

3. Whm wicked and malicious Per fans confpire the Ruin 
tf aMan they hate, or elfe who gives them fome umbrage, 
they make life of all Artifces ; therefore my Enemies being 
efraid, that the publijhing of my Difcoveries may prejudice 
their Inter efi, they have done their utmofi to dijfrvade the 
Bookfellers of this City of Utrecht from printing my Books ', 
injinuating, that this was but a Repetition of my Defcrifti- 
on o/Louifiana publijhed many Tears ago, and tranjlated, 
as they fay, into Dutch ^ butreallythisis very impertinent ; 
for my Louiliana contains not 20 Sheets, and how is it 
fojfible that the AbJiraB of it jhoidd contain 50. ''Tis true, 
I repeat fome few things I fublijJjed then, becaufe otherwife 

I had been unintelligible, but mofi commonly I refer the- j 
Reader to that Bookj which certainly I would not have done^i 
if this laf were nothing but the Repetition of the former] 
Bnt I would ask thefe Gentlemen, whether they have found 
in the Difcription of Louiliana, any Account of the Courfi 
of the Mefchafpi from the River of the Illinois into^ the, 
Gulph 0/ Mexico ; nor the Account of M. de la Salle's un^ 
fqrtunate Travels, ivith my Additions, and many other 
things : And as there is no body fo impudent to fay they 
have, they confute themfelves, and mufi own, that theft 
two Books I have dedicated to His M^ijcjly were not print- 


sd hifore. I have however the Comfort that they dont 
accufe me to have robbed others \ the Louifiana was my 
own Work-, and I think I may he as free to borrow fome^ 
thing from it in cafe of need^ as others have done. 

4. A Learned Man has obferved in d very civil man- 
ner^ that I have faid that I have fpent about 1 1 Years 
in my Dilcovery, and yet it does not appear by my Ac^ 
€ount of it that I have h^n fo long \ bm he mufi obferve^ 
that when I fay Eleven Tears., 1 reckon from the time 
that I fet out from Flanders, which was jufi after the 
Battel o/Seneff^ Tvhere I was in great danger of my life^ 
tothefecond Edition of my Defcription of Lomiiana., which 
was in 1(588 ^ and therefore J might have faid Fonrteen. 
, Tears infiead of Eleven-^ for 1 have been all that while 
about it., either in Europe or America. 

5. Some other peevijh Critic ks urge., that when I fay 
that the Savages o/Iflati call the Sun Louis, I defigned 
to flatter the King of France j but this is a foolijh Sug" 
geftion., and a far fetch'' d Flattery., the name of Louis bet- 
ing common to the King and the meanefi of^his Subjects , 
therefore J repeat., how that having lived a confiderable 
time in r^f f^w//y o/Aquipaguetin, one of the chief of the 
Illati, and learned their Language., . I was ajfured., that 
they call the Sun by no other name than Louis, and the 
Moon Louis Bafetche, that is the Sun of the Night. 

6. Others having no Objc^ion to make., tells us., "That 
J relate nothing extraordinary ^ but in the name of Won- 
der., what will this People have ? For if the Defcription 
of /\. or <, Lakes., or rather Frejlj-vjater Seas., fome of 
which are in circuit 4, 5 and 700 Leagues., upon which 
we failed with a Ship of 60 Tuns for 500 Leagues toge- 
ther., to the great amai^ement of the ^Savages., who bad 
never fe en the like-, nor heard the noife of Cannon : If the 
Defcription of the fall of Nigara, which is one of the mojlr 
furpriz,ing things in the World., the Water falling from 
above 700 Foot high: If the Dlfcovery 0/200 different 
Nations unknown before^ and of whom no Traveller had 
made mention j if all thefe things^ I fay., with the Dc 



fcrlptioft of that delicious Comtry , does not feem extra-> 
ordinary^ I don't know what willfesm ftch to thofe Gentle- 
men. I relate what I have feen^ and really I lie under no 
temptation to forge any furprizjng Difcovery to recom" 
mend my Booli^ the real things I have ohferved being wor- 
thy of the Conjideration of all ingenious Men. 

7. Such "who have not travelled., nor read many Ac- 
counts of Voyages., are very a^t to blame what they don't 
under fl: and j and therefore langh when one tells them of a 
new difcovered Country larger [than Europe, for they 
fancy there can be no Jnch thing ^ and when they talk of 
Canada, they talk of it as if it were no larger than a Vrin- 
hi^ality in Germany ^ hut Men of Tarts and Reading are 
of another Opinion : I have demonfirated that Canada is 
about 700 Leagues long., and that the Coafi of the River 
St. Laurence, which I have furvey^d from its Mouth to 
the great Lake from which it firings is near 800 Leagues 
long. I fay the fame thing of the incomf arable River Mef- 
Chalipi, which is larger and bigger than the former ^ and 
to Jhew the probability of the thing., I have fet down in 
the general Map of my Difcovery., the Coitrfe of the River 
of the Amazons, in the Southern America , which is 
efieemed much the fame., though in my Opinion 'the Mef^ 
chalipi and the River St. Laurence have a longer Courfe. 
From the Courfe of thefe Rivers., and the Extent of the 
LakeSy I conclude that the Continent I have difcovered is 
larger than Europe, which might in time form one of the 
greatefi Empires in the World. 

I intend to defcribe in this Volume thofe Countries^ to 
treat of the Nature of their Soil., and of the Cufio?72Sy 
Manner Sy and Genius of the Inhabitants :, and what fort 
of Trades may be fettled in thofe Parts ^ therefore I 
thought fit to add an AbftraEt of the Voyage Mr. dc la 
Salle made thither after me. The whole is divided into 
Chapters^ according to the Method I followed in the Firft 

I defign the Utter end of my Booh to treat of the ferjf 
Converfions our Mijfionari&s have wrought in Canada, 


mtvoithfianding their 2^eal and indefatigable Labour Sy 
which ought to make us thankful towards God^ who out of 
his infinite Kindnefs has been pleafed to blefs us with his 
Knowledge^ whilfi fo many thoufands of our fellew Crea" 
tures are rvhoUy left to themfelvesy without any Knowledge 
of God. I am^ however^ fully convinced^ that the Sava" 
ges inhabiting the Banks of the Melchafipi will be more 
fitccevtible and capable of embracing our Holy Religion^ be' 
caufe they are not fo fierce^ than the Savages of the North, 
who are commonly Cruel and Obfiinate. 

To make this Volume more ufeful^ I have made fame 
Reflexions on M. de la Sailed lafi Voyage^ becaufe I was 
better acquainted with thofe vafl Countries than Fathet 
Chriflian le Ciercqz, Definitor of our RecolleShs of the 
province of Artois, who has publfjh^d an Account of it, 
J have a great efieemfor that Father^ and was always his 
Friend^ and mufi own^ that he has given a good Account 
of Canada and Gaipefia j but at the fame time I mufl fay^ 
that the Account he gives of the Inhabitants of Louiflani 
and about the Mefchalipi, is not to be relfd upon^ for he 
never was within 1 2CO Leagues of that Country, Gaf- 
pee in Accadia, and Quebec, the nearefi places where h^e 
has been^ being above that diftance. 'Tis true, the Diary 
of my Difcovery^ of which I gave a Copy to Father Va- 
lentin ie Roux, as I have ohferved in my firfl Volume., 
was communicated unto him^ as alfo fome Memoirs ofFa-^ 
ther Zenobe Mambre, who remained among the Illinois, 
while I was fent to difcover the Courfe of the Melchafipi j 
and fo far Father le Clercqz, is right but his Additions 
are not of the fame Coyn. I do not wonder that he Jljould 
commend fo much Father Mambre, who was his ownCoU' 
fin^ and a very good Man he fides. We travelled together 
as far as Fort Crevecoeur mentioned in my firft Volume, 
where I left him among the Illinois, and have been always 
good Friends. After his return from America he came 
te fee me in our Covent of Chateau Cambrelis, and told 
me^ he was going again into America with Air, de la 
Sslkj and that he expe^ed he ^jodd have an Oppon unity 



t& make moire exa^ Ohjervations on the Mefchalipi than 
ihofe I had done in the Tear i(58o, hecaufe Mr. de la 
Salle de finned to undertake that Voyage with fuch a num- 
her of Men as to fear nothing from the Infults of the Sa' 
vages. But if I do not blame Father le Glercqz for the 
honourable mention he makes 9f his Relation^ I think every 
body will condemn him for his concealing the name of the 
Author he has tranfcrib^dj and thereby attributing to 
himfelf the Glory of my perilous Voyage* This pece of 

, Injujtice is common enough in this -Age. 

Mr. de la Salle undertook to go down the Melchafipi 
from the River of the Illinois in the Tear i582, that is, 
two Tears after me^ which was th^ Source and Caufe of 
his Animofity againft me, and of the rigorous Orders they 
obtained from the Court 0/ France, to command me to de- 
fart the Dominions of the French King, upon pretence that 
I was a Subject of the King of Spain, as I have men- 
tioned in my Preface to my firfi Volume. This Order, as 
i may pre fume to fay fo, was as contrary to the Rule of 
Juftice, as of Politicks, for they might very well forefee 
that I Jhould acquaint fome Perfon or other with 'my Dif- 
eoveries, and crofs thereby their Defigns. 

From thefe Obfervations it is plain, that as I was the 
frfi European who dlfcovered the Courfe of the Melcha- 
iipi, and the delicious Country about it ^ fo all others have 
feen nothing but rvhat I had feen before, and have related 
nothing material, but what they have abfiraBed out of the 
Copy of the Journal of my Voyage which I gave to Father 
Valentin le Roux, and was by him communicated byFa- 
ther Hyacinth le Fevre. 

Mr. de la Salle had begun a, Settlement in the Ifland 
«/ Montreal and Canada, which is 25 Leagues about^ 
and this fmall Colony is fo much improved as to be now a 

great and populous Village. They call it China, hecaufe 
while Air. de la Salle lived there, and began the Settle- 
ment, he fpoke very often of the Mines of St. Barbe, and, 

faid, that as foon as he had taken thofe Mines^ he would, 

go into China and Japan without crojfmg the Line-, and 



tg that end^ find a Tajfage into the South Sea. This 
woi the chief SnbjeB of onr Converfatio}is^ and 04 the 
pifcoveries I have made cannot he far from the Pacifick 
Sea, / don''t qiiefiion bnt Mr. de la Salle, whofe great . 
Courage was -proof again^f all Dijfcidties and Misfortunes^ 
vpoidd have fucceeded in hi^^efign. 
• Thofe who are skilPd in Geography have long ago faf- 
pecled that -Japan is contiguous to the Lands of the 
Northern America 5 a-nd the Learned Grasvius, fo well 
hnown in the Commonwealth of Learni?ig^ having, care- 
fully examined our Difcovery , wa4 pleafsd to tell me very 
lately in a meeting o/Vertuofi, in this City of Utrecht, 
That he was of rny Opinion^ and did not think that Japan 
wa^ an Ifland^ as it is commo-dy faid-, but that it joins with 
the large Country I had difcoveredr 

. . I have made ufc of a p-oof in my lasl l^ohime , Chap- 
ter 37, which I crave leave to repeat in this place^ be- 
caufe it is a Matter of FaU : While I was among the 
Iflati and Nadouflans, there came an Embaffay of Sa- 
vages fio?n a very remote Nation to the Weft ward, t 
was in the Cabin when my Fofier Father Aqiiipagiietin 
(for he had adopted me bis Son) gave them Audience^ 
and having allied them fome Ouefticns by an Interpreter^ 
they told me that they came from a remote Country to the 
Wefiward, that they had marched three Moons (that is 
Months) without meeting with any Lafa , that is in their 
meanings the Seas ^ whi^ch certmraly could not be true , 
WO'S there any fiich a thing as the Stre*gbts of Agniany^t 
down in moFt of our Maps. 

The Eiiglifh and Dutch have in vain attempted to fnd 
out a Faffage to China and Japan through the Frozen- 
Sea, but'if they , are pleafed to fend me about it ^ I am con- 
fident that I jhall find fome great River running into the 
Pacifick-Sea, whereby^ and by me.rns of the MefchaCpi, 
it will be eafie . to Trade and have Ccmmimcation with 
ChiasL and Japan without crojjlng twice the Line-;, and - abundance of Men. 

% I am 


jf am fo fully convinced of what I fay^ that I am willing 
to return into America to Jhew the Way unto others j 
fome will blame me for this rajh Undertaking , bat why 
Jhoidd I have lefs Zeal for the Service of God than thofe 
Piom Recollects who ventured into the Kingdom of Voxu 
ill the Eaftern fart of Japan, and converted the King 
thereof to the Knowledge of Cod. That Prince wa4 fo 
Zealom for the true Religion^ that he bnrJit 800 Idols^ 
and fent an Ambajfador into Europe with a Retinue of 
100 Gentlemen. They embarked Odober 28, 1(^13, 
and arrived in Spain November 10, i(5i4, being con^ 
dn^ed by Father Lewis Sotello a Recoiled, who prefented 
the faid Ambajfador to his Catholick ^ajejly^ and after- 
wards to the pope , whom he ajftred.^ that the King his 
JUajier and moji of hts SubjeBs had renounced their Idola-^ 
try , and embraced the Chrifiian Religion. The Reader 
will forgive me if I relate two or three Things more for 
the Hojiour of my Order. The Francilcans were the 
fir§f who accompanied Chriftopher Columbus into his 
newly difcovered Country , and had the Honour to preach 
fir^ of all the Knowledge of God to the Indians. The 
Conquefl of the Spaniards arrived to the highefi pitch in 
the Tears 1540 and 1541, and yet no other ReligioHsOr- 
der had been employed to bring thofe loFt Sheep into the 
Flock of the Lord , and they alone had converted a great 
fart of the SubjeUs of the King of Japan unto the Chri- 
jHan Faith : So that hav!hg thoje great Models before me^ 
J may fay ^ that I long to make an end of my Difcovery. 

That port Paffage into China, wonld^ I thinkj prove 
as advantagiom to Europe , as any Difcovery that has 
been yet made ^ and this is another great Encouragement 
for me ; for what greater Saiisfa^ion can a rational Be- 
ing profofe to himjelf than to d,o Good to Mankind^ and 
find out fomething ufeful to his Country ? Having therefore 
all Power and Patents necejfary for my- Mijjion^ I am 
ready for that great Voyage^ and I hope., through the 
Grace of God to be able to go through that Difcovery^ and 
thereby convince the 'World of the Equity of my Intentions. 



The Reader may obferve^ That the Settlements that 
pall be made in that Country will abfolutely be managed 
by Laich , and that fiipfojing the Francifcans Jhould he 
employ'' d 500 Tears abont the Converfwn of the Natives^ 
theypmdd not have there an inch of Land to themfehes, 
it bei7ig again fi the Laws of their Order j rphereas in fome 
vther Coi,mtrieSj where another Order has got a footings 
they are Majlers now of the Temporal as well as the Spi- 
ritual^ the befi Lordfljips and Mannors belonging to them. 
How they have difcharged their Spiritual F^nBia^^^ I ' " 


hnoWy but fure I (in^^ they have taken , a great car ^, of the^ 
Temporal Inter ejtj as I intend to Jhew in a thiir<^Vchtm^^ 
which I'jhall pHblijli in this C/fy 0/ Utrecht, if it is thought 

I Jhould have a fair opportunity to avenge rny f elf in 
this Preface of certain Perfons of this very Toip^ri^ w^ 
have afperfed me with the ntmojl Malice.^ and kept f^r 
their own life the Mony I had received from HisMafefy 
0/ Great Britain, and which I adva-nc^d to them for 'my 
Siibfiflence. This is a very foul ABipn^ and wprthyfo he 
public kly taken notice of\ but my Religion teaching me to 
forgive my Enemies, I follow that Precept, anddo ule'drtily 
fsrgive them^ 


T H E 


r^ij^^ P. I.' A?i Account of M. de la Salle'i Vn^ 
I denakingto difcover the Riv£r Mefchafipi by the 

)Gd^h 0/ Mexico, and his efiablijlung a fmall Colony at 

)-th'e Bay of St.Ltwis. 

P HA P,-..U- An. Account of fever d Misfortunes thht 
' M.dt la Salle at the Bay of St. Lewis. 

CHAP. III. A Cont'muation of the Misfortunes oj 
M. de la Salle, with an Account of two Voyages he nn- 
dertook to find out the Country of the Illinois. 

CHAP. IV. A Continuation df_M. de la Sailed- Voy- 
age i^nd Difcovery^ and how he was received by the Sa- 
vages Cenis. 

CHAP. V. A flwrt Defeription of Fort Lcw'l^j of it 

■ advantageous Situation, and of the Fertility of the Conn' 

try about it. 

CHAP. VI. An Account ofM. de la Salle'j fecom 
Voyage from the Bay of St. Lewis to the Illinois. 

C H A P. 


•CHAP. VII. M. de la Salle and three more are tin- 
murthered by fome of their own Party. 

CHAP. VIII. The Author^s RcficBions ufon the Life 
and Death of M. de la Salle, ip^'^ Mimherers killed 
^07ie another, 

CHAP. IX. The Cenis prmit M. Gavelier the 
Frlefi , and Father Anaftafius, with their Company , 
to continue their Journey throitah feveral barSarom 
Nations, ^ 

CHAP. X. The Voyage of the Sieur Cavelier a Prisfl-^ 
and Father AnaftaliiiS a Recollect in a Py rogue to the" 
Illinois, and fez'eral Obfervations concerning their Re- 
turn. ^ 

G H A P. XI. ReJleBions of the Author on the Voyage 
to China \ on the Belief of moft of the Savaaes of North 
America concerning the Creation of the^iVorld^ and 
the Immortality of the Soul. 

CHAP. XII. Of the mofi proper means to convert the 
. Savages ^ who thofe are to whom the Miffionaries ought 
to reptfe or adminifer Ba^tifm. 

C H A P. XIII. The Barbarians of the Northern Ame- 
rica don't acknowledge a. God. Of the pretended Souls 
ofTerrefirial Animals. 

G H A P. XIV. Of thegreM difficulties in converting 
the Savages : of the Prayers they get by Rote, and tf 

C H A P. XV. The manner of Feafi-ing amona the Sa^ 



CHAP. XVI. Of the manner 'of adoping the Euro- 
peans among the Savages. 

C iB A P. XVII. Of the Marriages of the Savages in 
North America. 

CHAP. XVIII. Of the Remedies which the Savages 
adminlfier to the Sick : Tloey have Monmehanh among 
them J their Opinion of Infant- Baftifm when the Au- 
thor liv^d there. 

CHAP. XIX. Of the Confiitmon or Temper of the 

CHAP. XX. Defcription of the Savages that go nahed^ 
and thofe that do not. 

CHAP. XXI. Of the Games-, and Sports of the Sa- 

CHAP. XXII. The manner of making War among 
the Savag-es^ they are very much given to Revenge. 

CHAP. XXIII. Of the Cruelty of the Savages in gene- 
ral^ and particularly of the Iroquois. 

CHAP. XXIV. Of the Policy of the Savage Iro- 

C H A P. XXV. Of tht manner of the Savages hunt- 
ing of all forts of wild Beafis^ and of the admirable L:- 
dufiry of the Cafiors or Beavers. 

CHAP. XXVI. Ofthe^r manner offijhing. 

CHAP. XXVII. Of the Vtenjils of the Savages In 


their Cahbins, and of their extraordinary manner they 
firike Fire. 

CHAP. XXVIII. Of the manner of their interring 
their dead^ of the Fefiival of the dead^ with fome Rc' 
fictions concerning the Immortality of the Sod. 

CHAP. XXIX. Of the Superfiitions of the Savages, 
and of the ridiculous things they believe. 

tC HAP. XXX. Of the Obfiacles that are found in the 
Converfton of the Savages. 

C H A P. XXXI. Of the barbarous and uncivil Man- 
ners of Savages. 

CHAP. XXXII. Of the great Indlfferency of the hit- 
mours of the Savages. 

CHAP. XXXIII. Of the Beamy and Fertility of the 
Country of the Savages^ that fowerfull Colonies may be 
eafiy planted on the North and South. 

CHAP. XXXIV. Of the Method of the Savages in 
their Councils^ againfi their Enemies^ and thetr Cruel- 
ty againft »the Europeans, and how a fiop may be pit 
to them. 

CHAP. XXXV. Of the f roper Method to efiablijh 
good Colonies : Thoughts and Opinion of the Si^tvages 
concernina- Heaven and Earth. 


CHAP. XXX VI. The Hipry of the Irruption which 
the Englifii made into Canada in the year i6i% ^ the 
taking 0/ Qi.iebec the Metropolis 0/ Canada in 1629^ 

, the moj^ honourable Treatment they gave the Reco!- 



CHAP. XXXVII. Hoix) the Religious of St. Francis 
in their Mijfions through the habitable World have been 
before the Jefuits. 

CHAP. XXXVIII. The Sentiynents that a Mifio- 
•nary ought to have of the little Frogrefs they find in 
their Labours, 

OTZtLTLUiLtLVn- /W^- / 


Z So 

I Ti $ O 




Newly Diicover'd Country 

Larger than 


Situate between the 

i Fro^^en Sea and Nem Mexico. 


I4n Account of M, de la Salle'j VndertaUng to dlfcover 

'■''-' the River Mefchafipi by the Gulfh of Mexico, and. 

his eftabUJhinff ^ fmall Colony at the Bay <?/5/-<Lewis. 

REafon ought to rule Men in all cafes, and 
whenever they think themfelves wrong'4 
by others, they ought, as Gfiriilians, to 
impute it rather to their Pre-occupation 
or Prejudices, than to their Malice ^ and 
this Maxim I propofe to my feif as my Rule, as the Rea- 
ders will obferve in the following Narration. . 

I liv'd -near three Years together as Mifllonary with 
]\Ir. Robert Cavelier de la Salle ,at Fort Katarokouy or 
I'rontenac^ whereof he \vras Governour and Proprie- 
tor ^ and during that time, we read together the Voy- 
ages of John Vonthu de Leon^ Pan^hlllo Narvaez. 
Cmpphcr Coliindvis, Ferdinand Soto^ -^d feveral other 
♦ Tra- 

c'.-rz"u^tz,-n j-MT^ I . 





Newly Difcover'd Country 

Larger than 


■ ^ Situate between the 

r^Fro^en Sm and Nem Mexico. 


Jn Acconm of M. de ia ^A\e iVndertaking to discover 

■ the River UckMiJ^i by the Gdfh ./ Mexiqo, and 

his eftablijhing 4 finall Colony at the Bay of St\hQms. 

Eafon oii^ht to rule Men in all cafes, and 
whenever they think themfelves wrong cl 
by others, they ought, as (firiitians, to 
impute it rather to their Pre-^occupation 
or Prejudices, than to their Malice-, and 
this Maxim I propofe to my felf as my Rule, as the Rea-- 
ders will obferve in the following Narration. 

I iiv'd.near three Years together asMiffionary witti 
Mr. Robert Ca-velier de la Salle , Sit Fort Kataroh^ty or 
Frontenac, whereof he Vas Governour and ^^o^^'C- 
ror; and during that time, we read toj^ether the Voy- 
ages of John TontlPiS de Leon, PaMlio Narvaez^ 
drifiopher Colihnhus, Ferdinand Soto, ^d feveral o^her 


2 A VojAge into North America. 

Travellers, the better to fit and prepare oiir felves 
for the great Dilcovery we intended to make. M. de 
la Salle was a fit Man for the greateft Undertakings, 
and may be juftly rank'd amongfl the moft famous 
Travellers that ever were, as it will appear to whom- 
foever will confider that he fpent his own Eflate a- 
bout the greatell, molt importajat, and moll perillous 
Difcovery that has been yet made ^ which he under- 
took with a handful of Men, whom he preferv'd from 
the numerous Nations he difcover'd, amonglt whom 
all other Travellers, except Cokmbits^ perifhed with^ 
out reaping any advantage from ±eir Encerprizes, 
which however coft them above i coooo Men : lb that 
i]p6n the whole, 1 may boldly conclude, that no body, 
before M. de la Salle and I, undertook fo dangerous an 
Expedition with fo few Men. 

Our defign was to endeavour to find out, if pofli- 
ble, a PafTage from the Northern to the South Sea 
without croffing the Line, which a great many have 
hitlierto fought in vain. The River Aiefchaftfl doesa 
not indeed run .that way, but however la Salk\ 
v/as \n hopes to difcover by the means of the Mefchafipt, 
fome other River running into the South Sea, and 
knowing his great Courage and Ability, I don't que- 
ftion but he would have fucceeded, had God been 
pleafed to preferve his Life. As that unfortunate 
Gentleman was about it, he was murther'd ^ and if 
the divine Providence has fpar'd me, 'tis it feems, that 
I may acquaint the World with a fliort way to go 
to Chwa and Ja^an^ which I hope may be done by 
means of my Difcoveries : Therefore if his Majefty 
of Great Britain^ or the States General are willing to 
fend any body to find out that fo much talk'd of Faf- 
fage, and that I may accompany them, I am morally 
fure that by the Grace of God? we Ihall fucceed before 
the end of this Age. 

The Country of the Illinois^ and other neighbour- 
ing Nations, being the Center of our Difcovery, 

* let 

A Voyage into North America. ^ 

la Salle delign'd to fettle there a Colony ^ and there- 
fore any Prince or State, who will perfue fb generous 
a Defign, miift follow the fame Method, and build 
Forts from Place to Place, to have an uninterrupted 
Communication, and keep in awe the Inhabitants of 
thefe vail Countries. The firfl thing M. de la Salle did 
in order thereto, was to endeavour to find out by Sea 
the I\'Iouth of the Aiefcbajip^ which di£iiarges it felf 
into the Gulph of Mexico^ as it has been faid in my 
firll Volume, to fettle there a Colony, and build a 
good Fort to be as his Magazine, and ferve as a re- 
treat both by Sea and Land in cafe of any mifhap. 
He made his Propofals to the French King's Council ; 
which were perus'd and approv'd by Monlleur de 
^eigneUy SeCTetary and Minifter of State, and Inten- 
dent General of the Commerce and Navigation of 
France^ his Moil Chriflian Majelty approved likewifc 
his Defign, gave him all necellary Authority, a'nd 
fupply'd him with Ships, Men and Mony. 

M. de la Salle having obtain'd what he defir'd from 
the King, thought of chufing able MilTionaries to con- 
vert thofe barbarous and wild Nations, unto the Chri- 
ftian Religion, and refolv'd to ufe two different Or- 
ders-, but as this choice was a nice and difficult thing, 
he apply'd himfelf to xMoniieur Tronfon Superiour of 
the Semina;^ of St. Sidficlom at Tarls^ who appointed 
three Men of great Vertue, Zeal and Capacity to at- 
tend M. de la Sails as Miffionaries ; thefe were M. Cav.e-- 
/i<?>- Brother to M. de la Salle^ M.Chcfdeville a Relation 
of his, and M. Majulle^ Priefl-s in the faid Seminary. 

I had attended M. de la Salle, nQar twelve Years in 
the Difcovery of Loidfiana^ 'and Father Zenoji>e^ and 
Gabriel de la Ribourdc and my felf had likewife accom- 
panied him into the Country of the Illinois^ where 
Gabriel was niurthered by the Savages, therefore 
M. de la Salle refolved to have fbme Recolletls to endea- 
vour to eilablifh the Knowledge of God in thofe vaft 
Countries, and to that end applied himfelf to Father 


4 j4 Voyage into North America. 

Hyacinth le Fevre^ who was then for a fecond time 
Provincial Commijfiary of the Province of SL Denys iii 
France^ who granted him the Miflionaries he deman- 
ded, viz.. Father Zenohe Mamhre of Bafaitme as Supe-» 
riour. Father Afaxime ie CLerc of Lille in Flanders, y 
Anafiafe Donay of Qnefnoy in Hainanltj and i)f«yj: 
Morqmt of ^rr^f ^ all Recollects of the Province of 
St. Anthony in Artois. The firft, as I have faid, had 
been as far as the Illinois with M. de la Salle and I, to- 
ward the latter end of the Year 1(579. And the begin- 
ning of the following, and two Vears after, vi-z^. 168 2. 
he went with M. de la Salle to the Mouth of the Akf- 
chapp in thcGulph o^ Mexico^ about two Years after 
my Difcovery. The fecond Father had been five 
Years Miffionary in Canada^ and had performed the 
Fundions of his Minillry with great Diligence ■ and 
much Edification, efjoecially in the Miffion of the Seven 
Jjlands and Anticofii. Father Douay^ who is now Vi- 
car of the RecolleUrs of Camhray^ had never been in A- 
tnerica^ no more than Father Denys^ who fell fo fick 
three days after he went on board, that he was forced 
10 go a-fhore and return into his Province. 

The Provincial of the Order acquainted with this 
^lifllon the Congregation <^(? propaganda fide, to obtain 
the Power and Authority necellary for that Enter- 
/ prize,, who fent a Decree according to the ufual Form ^ 
and Pope Innocent XL added a Brief thereunto, con- 
taining feveral Powers and CommilTions in ^6 Ar- 
ricles, that are ufually granted to Miflionaries going 
into remote Countries, where they cannot refer cer- 
tain Cafe? to Bifhops. , The Bilhop of Quebec oppos'd 
it with all his Interell, 'but Cardinal d'Etrees ihew'd 
chat his Oppofition was unreafonable, feeing the Coun- 
try where thefe Miffionaries were to preach the Gof- 
pel, was 1000 Leagues diitant from Ouehec. 

The advantages they expeded in France from our 
Difcovery were fb great, that feveral young- Gentle- 
men offered themfelyes to accompany M. de la Salk 


A Voyage into North America. 5 

3S Volunteers, tho' they knew him only by the Cha- 
rader I had given of him in my Defcription of Lmi^ 
fana^ which I publifli'd after my return into France, 
This alfo gain'd him the efteem of Monfieur SeKrnelay^ 
which was very advantagious to him. That'^Mini- 
fter fent for me feveral times to difcourfe with him a- 
bout the circumltances of our Difcovery, which I told 
him fincerely, concealing only my Difcovery of the 
Courfe of the Mefchafipi from the River, of the Ulwois 
to the Gulph of Mexico, out of pure kindnefs for M. 
de la Salle, who thereby recommended himfelf to the 
favour of the late Prince of Contl and Monfieur Seig- 

• All Things being thus favourably difpofed, M.deU 
Salle chofe twelve Gentlemen, who appeared to him 
vigorous, and like to bear the Fatigues of that Voyage, 
and among them , he took two of his own Nephews, 
'Viz.. Mr. Moranaer and Mr. Caviller, tho' this laft was 
but fourteen Years of Age. One Alertin, Son to a 
rich Merchant of Rochel, went alfo with them. la 
the mean time , they fitted out in that Harbour his 
linall Fleet , which confilled of four Ships, vI:l. the 
Tohy, one of the King's Men of War ; the Handfem^ 
afmallFrigot^ a Fly-Boat, c^Wtd I' Aimabk , and a 
Ketch , called St. Francis. The Man of War was 
commanded by Monfieur de BeMtjean, a Gentleman of 
Normandy, with whom I have had feveral Conver- 
rations fince his return, at Dunkirk. This Officer is 
known by his great Services and long Experience, as 
well as his Lieutenant, the Chevalier de Here, who is 
now Captain of a Man of War. The Enfign was 
called de Hamel, a Gentleman of Bretalgny, of a llrong 
and vigorous Confiiitution. It were to'be wiihedthac 
the Crew of the Ships, as well as the Soldiers, had an- 
fwered the Character of the Officers ; but while M. 
de la Salle was at Court, thofe whom he employed to 
make his Levies, lilled about 1 50 poor Beggars, de- 
formed, lame, and uufic for the hard Services they 


6 J l^ojAge into North America^ 

were defigii'd for : He had alfo defir'd them to engage 
Men of feveral Profeffions, as Blackfmiths, Carpen- 
ters, Joyners, Mafons, and the like^ but when he 
came to try them, he found they were dull and ig- 
norant Creatures , fo that he was forced to find out 
new Soldiers and Workmen, which took up much of 
his time. About ten Families of the Neighbourhood 
of Rochet offer'd themfelves to^go with him to fettle a 
Colony, which he accepted, and advanc'd them 
Mony to buy what was thought moil necelTary for 
their Eftablifhment. 

His Preparations beiAg finifiied , the Fleet failed 
Jnly 24, 1(584. froi^^ Rochely but a violent Storm ob- 
liged them to come back , and they continued in the 
Road till u4!igHfr 5. that they fail'd for St. Dom'.ugo. 
They met with another Storm on the 1 4 of September, 
which feparated the Fleet ^ the Fly- boat rem.iin'd 
alone with the Frigat, and arriv'd together at Pent- 
Gnaves^ where they found the Toby , and heard that 
the St. Francis^ on board which were their Merchan- 
dizes, was an iv'd at Port de Paix. The bad Wea- 
ther being over, the Ketch failed for Petit-Gmves^ 
the Pvcndezvous of the Fleet, but was unhappily taken 
in her way by the Sp^amjh Cruifers. 

I remember that in our Converfations at Fort Fron^ 
tenac^M. de U Salle told me feveral times, that he would 
die fatisfied and contented, could he but make himfelf 
Mafl-erof the Mine of St. jg^rk mNevo Mexico ^ I gave 
him no anfwer at firft, but feeing that he repeated it 
too often, tho' I knew I was a Sin)je6; of the King of 
■Spain^ I could not forbear to exprefs my Afiedion 
for my lawful Sovereign, and told him, That tho' I 
was with him I had not forgot my Native Country, 
concluding my anfwer with thefe words, Fincit amor 
PatrU. This was perhaps the firft caufe of all the hard- 
fhips and injultices I havefulPer'd fincethat time, and 
which I might therefore have avoided, had I been ca- 
pable of diiiembling, as the Generality of Mankind do. 


J Voyage iftto North America. 7 

3rt to return to M. la Salles^ the lofs of the Ketch 
vas of a fatal confequence to him, not fo mnch for 
;he value of the Merchandizes, but becaufe the Shan't- 
irds had notice of his deligns againlt their Mines. 

M. la Sallef was hardly recovered of a dangerous 
Oiitemper, when thofe unhappy Tidings were brought 
:o him, and was like to relapfe upon that occalion j 
3Ut the reft of his Company being xiot as couragious 
as he, were quite dif-ljiirited, and negleded to keep 
the Soldiers under a fevere Difcipline, who giving 
ap themfelves to the Lewdnefs and Dillblutenefs, fo 
common in thofe Iflands, contracted fuch Dillempers 
that a great many died before they left Petit-GnaveSj 
and the other continued iickly all their Life. As foon 
as M. de la Salle was able to walk abroad, he made his 
Preparations for leaving the Illand, and by the aflift- 
ance of Monlieur de St. Laurence Governour-General 
of the French Iflands, and Monlieur Begon^ Intendent 
of the fame ^ he put his Fleet in a condition to fail 
frgm thence, November 25, 1684. having taken on 
board all forts of Refrefliments, a great quantity of 
Indian Con;, and of all forts of tame Beafts to flock 
the new Country they were going to inhabit. 
. They lail'd along the Iflands of Caimay;o^ and touch'd 
at the Illand oi Peace for frefli Water, and from thence 
fail'd to St. Antho-ny in the Ifland of Caha^ where they 
anchor'd. The Sv\^eetneFs and Situation of that Place 
invited them, to land , and they found a good Store 
[of Refrefliments , and even fome Wine which the 
Spaniards had left in that place , having nin away with 
;too great a Precipitation. They continued there two 
[days, and then faiPd, iteering towards the Gulph of 
j Mexico. 

I M. de la Salle ,;g^^as a very underftandiag Man, and 
Jiardly to be impos-d upon, yet he was deceived by 
ibme Men of St. Domingo^ and it was by their advice 
that he ffeerxl a wrong Courfe. They had told him 
[that the Northern Winds were very dangerous at 
f ■ V the 

8 A Fbjage tfito North America. 

the entrance of the Gulph, and this fear oblig'd hitn 
to return thence upon the Goaft of Cuba ^ but at laft 
he overcame all Difficulties, and got into th'e Gulph, 
Jamary I. 1585. '^^^ defcry'd a Fortnight after the 
Coall of Florida , where they were filjrpriz'd by a 
llrong Wind, which parted the Fleet, the Toby keep- 
ing off from the Coaft, and the Frigat and the Fly- 
boat as near die Land as polTible : They had told him 
alfb, that the Current of the Gulph runs with a great 
Rapidity towards the Channel of Bahama , but he 
found himfelfmiftaken, and loll thereby his Courfe, 
for thinking he was too far to the North, he fail'^ 
hj the way of S^lrito Sa?2tOj and overfhot the Mouth 
of the Mefchafifu They were undeceived by the 
Coail of the Gulph, " which bends in that place to the 
Southward, and having taken the Elevation of the Pole, 
they found they were within 50 Leagues of the Mefi 
chafifi. The three Ships joined again about the mid- 
dle of February in the Bay 'i/ Sprlto Santo^ where it 
Was agreed to alter their Courfe ; and about i o Leagues 
off they found a large Bay, which they called St. Lewis. 
The Provilions growing fcarce, the Soldiers were fent 
a-ihore, and M. de la Salle founded the Bay, which he 
found deep, and the bottpm a good Anchorage, 1^ 
that the Frigat got in happily on the 1 8th. The Cha: 
nel is very deep, hut fomewhat narrow, and there 
a Sand at the Motith of it: M. del a Salle took thzlBz 
for the right Arm of the Mefchajifi^ and indeed the 
was much likelihood of it. 

CHAP. 11. 

jin Account of fever al Aiisfortimes that befel M. de 
Salle ^f fk i?4)/ o/5/-. L^wis. 


La Salles had cxprefsly forbid theCaptainof the 
' Fly-boat to attempt to come into the Ba^ 

■ wich- 

T^he V,nfortunat£ ad^ 

8 A Pojage ifito North America. 

the entrance of the Gulph, aiid this fear oblig'd hiti 
to return thence upon the Coaft of Cuba \ but at la| 
he overcame all Difficulties, and got into the Gulp} 
Jamaryi. 1585. and defcry'd a Fortnight after tKS 
Coafl of Florida^ where they were %priz'd by 
Itrong Wind, which parted the Fleet, the Toby kee| 
ing off from the Coaft, and the Frigat and the Fly- 
boat as near the Land as poflible : . They had told him 
alfo, that the Current of the Gulph runs with a greaj: 
Rapidity towards the Channel of Bahama , but hp 
found himfelfmiltaken, and loft thereby his Courf^ 
for thinking he was too far to the North, he fail'l 
hj the way of Si^irito Safjto, and overfhot the Moutli 
of the Mefchafif. They were undeceived by the 
Coaft of the Gulph,' which bends in that place to the 
Southward, and having taken the Elevation of the Pole, 
they found they were within 50 Leagues of the Mefr 
chafip. The three Ships joined again about the mid- 
dle of February in the Bay dl Sfirito Santo^ where it 
Was agreed to alter their Courfe ^ and about i o Leagues 
off they found a large Bay, which they called St. Lewis. 
The Proviiions growing fcarce, the Soldiers were fent 
a-Hiore, and M. de la Salle founded the Bay, which he 
found deep, and the bottom a good Anchorage, fo 
that the Frigat got in happily on the i8th. The Chan- 
nel is very deep,, bait fomewhat narrow, and there is 
a Sand at the Mouth of it: M. ^^ L^ 5<«//f took that Bay 
for the right Arm of the Mefchajipi^ and indeed thei 
was much likelihood of it. 

CHAP. 11. 

^;z Account of fever al A£sfortu?!es that befel M. de 
Salle at the Bay of St. LBnis. 


La Salles had exprefsly forbid theCaptain of the 
' Fly -boat to attempt to come into the Bay: 

■ with^ 



Va?i^r~^ucAt -^^a/ 

The^rtunat^ ad2^enture<f of MffTU^ de /a Saile - 



J Voyage into North America. 9 

Without having on board the Pilot of th'e Frigat, who 
Was an experienc'd Man \ and for a greater fecurity 
he had commanded him to unlade his Guns into the 
Pinnace to make his Ship the lighter j yet that Brute 
negleded thofe Orders and Advice, and without ta- 
king any notice of the Marks or Poles they had pla- 
ced on the Sands to Ihew him the Channel , and the 
Advice of the Seamen, he fail'd his Ship at random, 
and ran her againft a Sand where Ihe remain'd : M. de 
la Sidle was a-ihore, and fearing the fate of his Ship, 
was going on board to fave her, but was prevented by 
about 1 20 Savages who came to attack him : _ He put 
his Men in a pofture^ of defence, but the noife alone 
of the Drums put the Savages to flight: M. dcU Salle 
followed them , and presented them the Cdiwut 
of Peace, which they accepted, and came along with 
him to his Camp , where he entertain'd them., and 
fent them back with fome Prefents \ they were {o 
pleas'd , that they brought fome Provilions the next 
day, and made Alliance with M. de U Salle, whereby 
they engag'd themfelves to fupply him with fome Py- 
rogues or wooden Canon's : That Alliance would 
likely have prov'd very advangious to M. de la Salle^ 
had not an unforefeen Accident broke that good In- 

As they were unlading the Fly-boat which had 
ftruck upon the Sand to endeavour to get her off, a 
Pack of Blankets fell into the Sea, which the Waves 
drove upon the Shore : The Savagers found it, and 
M. de la Salle having notice thereof,fent to demand it of 
thern in a very civil manner. They Ihe v/'dfom.e Re- 
ludancy, whereupon the Officer inftead of ading 
the prudent part, threatned to kill them, unlefs they 
reilor'd it immediately. They were lb frighted and 
incenfed againft them , that they refolved to be a- 
venged of that ArTront ^ and in order thereto,got toge- 
thei^in the Night-time between the 5 and 7 of i^^rc/?, 
and marched to furprize the French Camp. They ad- 
T vaiiced 

10 A Voyage into North America. 

vanced as near as they would, the Sentry being afleep, 
and made a difcharge of their Arrows which killed 4 
Gentlemen Officers and Volunteers, and wounded 
M' Mor anger and another Volunteer.- The French 
ran to their Arms, and fired upon the Savages, who 
run away tho' none was wounded j they found the 
next day two of M. de la Sailers Men, whom they mur- 
thered as they were llecping. 

In the mean time they unladed the Fly-boat, which 
was too far funk to be got off^ and faved molt of the 
Goods, and as they were endeavouring to lave the 
reft , fhe was dafhed in pieces by the violence of the 
Wind and Waves, and feveral Men were in great 
danger of being drowned, but by the Grace of God 
all efcap'd. 

Monlleur Beanjean feeing all the Goods and Mer- 
chandizes landed, and a Fort almoft finifhed, failed 
the 1 2th of March for France^ and M. de la Salle having 
fortified his Magazine or Fort, which they call Han- 
gar^ left 1 00 men under the Command of his Nephew 
M. Moranger^ for the defence of it j and with the reft, 
being 50, and 3 Miffionaries, viz.. M. Caveller., and 
/Eathtv Zenobe and Maximcj advanced into the Coun- 
try following the Bay, in hopes to find the Mefcha- 
fipi. The Captain of the Frigat was ordered to found 
at the fame time the Channel, and bring his Ship as 
high as he could with fafety , which he did , and 
brought his Ship to an Anchor at a place which was 
calFd Mirier, from the name of the Officer who was 
left at that place for the Security of that Port, which 
was abfolutely neceflary to maintain the Communi- 
cation between the f^rft Habitation, and another M. de 
fa Salle made on the 2d Gt'Jpril at the bottom of theBay 
upon the Banks of a fine River, which was called the 
River of the Cows^ becaufeof the vaft number of thofe 
Eeafts that were di£^over'd in thofe parts. The Savages 
came to attack our Men, but v/ere fo warmly recciv'd, 
that they retir'd without doing the Frcf:ch any harm.. . 


ji Voyage into North America. 1 1 

On the 2ift,being£^/fr-Eve, M. de la Salle rttmn^d 
to the firft Camp, and the next day was Ipeift in De- 
votions ^ but the 23d they began to^arry all the Ef- 
feds from the two Forts, to the Settlement M. de U^ 
Salle had made upon the River above-mention'd, and 
when they had made an end of it, they razed the faid 
Forts. They had fown fome Pulle and Corn , but 
either the Soil was not good, or elfe the Seed was 
Ipoii'd by Salt Water, for it did not rife at all. M. 
de la Salle might have jemembred what I had formerly 
told him m our Voyage to the Illinois^ that Corn and 
other Seeds v/hich we bring from Euro^e^ muft either 
be in their Ears or Hulls, for otherwife they iofe their 
Virtue at Sea , and cannot grow in a Soil that was 
never cultivated before. 

They built a Fort in a -very advantagious Poll, 
.^ith i J much diligence, that it was in a few days in a 
good Poftere of Defence, being defended by 12 Pieces 
of Cannon. Thjy made a great Magazine under ground 
to preferve their Goods and Provi lion from Fire. It 
is to be obferved that the Forts in America , I mean 
Tuch as I fpeak of now, require not fo much Art and 
Labour, as in Enro^e^ iince the Savages have no Ar- 
tillery to attack them. They are fo afraid of Fire- 
Arms, that none of thofe Nations ever durli: attack 
thefe mean Fortifications , except the Iroquois^ who ' 
attempted to force the French in their Intrerichments 
in the Ifland of Orleans^ now called St. Larvrence near 
Quebec. The Fre?ich had fortified themfelves with Pal- 
liTadoes, which the Irocjuefe fet on Fire, .and to cover 
■themfelves againll the Frenclo in their Approach,every 
one of them carry'd before him a tJiick Plank or Board 
Musket-proof, and thereby fo'rced the trench to leave 
their Entrenchments. They ufc alfo another Strate- 
gem agaiait our Forts, unlefs they are defended by 
lome Pieces of Canncii to keep them Q?i:^ they tie to 
their Arrows a lighted Match, and then (hoot them in 
■fnch niaiir.c.-j as to make them fall on the Top or 
T*2 Roof 

12 ^ Voyeige into North America. 

Roof of the Forts, which is made of Planks, and 
thereby "fet them on Fire. M. de U Saile, who knew all 
their Artifices , took alfo all imag^inable Precautions 
to difappoint them, which he did by covering the 
Roof with green Turf 

' In the mean time, his men grew fo fickly, that a - 
great many died in a few daySj notwithilanding they 
were carefully look'd after, and ^applied with proper 
Remedies, and befides this misfortune, he was forc'd 
to make an open War againft the Savages. On the 
pth of AnguB three of his men were gone a fhooting, 
there being abundance of Game in thofe Parts. The 
noife of their Guns gave notice of their Approach to 
the Savages, who immediately got together in great 
numbers and furrounded the three Europeans , who 
put themfelves in a readinefs to fight, and killed with 
the firfl fhot the General of the Savages. This fad 
Accident terrified them fo much, that they ran away, 
notwithftanding the Difproportion in number. They 
continued lurking about the Fort, and kill'd a French 
man who had advanced too far into the Woods. 

M. de U Salle feeing no way to bring them to an Al- 
liance, refolved to make War upon them to oblige 
them to come to Peace , and fupply him with their 
Pyrogues or Wooden Canon's which he wanted. 
Therefore fet out from his Eort on the 1 3th of Otio^ 
her^ with 60 llout men to look for the Savages, ha- 
- ving provided them with a kind of Breaft-piece of 
Wood, to cover them againft the Arrows or the Sa- 
vages. He was not far advanced when he found the 
Savages incam.ped, with whom he had feveral Skir- 
miihes, killing and wounding a great many, and re- 
turned with many Priibners, elj^ecially young Child- 
ren ^ among whom was a Girl of about four Years 
of Age, winch was Chriftened, and died fome Days 

While M. de la Salle was building and j^erfeding his 
Fort, .thoi^e Families he had brought to begin a Colo- 

A Voyage into North America. i j 

ny, grubb'd up the Land, and fowed fevefal ibrts of 
Corn and Piilfe, which they had brought in their Ear 
and Hulls, which fucceeded very well. I^hey made 
Ibme Cannons, and crofled over to the other fide of 
the Bay, where they, found a fine River, and a pro- 
digious Number of wild Oxen and Turkeys. The 
tame Beafts they had brought from St. Domingo^ as 
Cows, Hogs and Fowls, multiplied very much"^ and 
in fliort the fmall Colony began to thrive , fince the 
War had removed the Savages from their Habitati- 
ons, and 'tis likely that M. de la Salle would have 
fucceeded, had not a new Misfortime worfe than all 
the former, difappointed his Noble Defigns. 

M. de la Salle had often entertain'd me with the un- 
heard of Cruelties exercifed by the Spaniards in New. 
Mexico , and Fem , againlt the Inhabitants of thofe 
vafl Empires, whom they deftroyed as much as ever " 
they could, preferving only tjieir Children to make 
new People. He exclaim.ed againft that Cruelty of 
the Sfa-niards , as unworthy of Men of Honour, .and 
contrary to the Doctrin of the Chriitian Religion. I 
blamed them my felf ^ but yet I offered now and 
then fome Reafons to excufe them, as the Necefilties 
they found thcmfelves under of exterminating*thofe 
Nations, or perifhing themfelves, and forfa king their 
Conquelt ^ for v/henever they thought themfelves 
fafe , they were fuddenly invaded by great Armies, 
and therefore in a perpetual JJanger. M, de hi Sails 
experienced himfclf that NecefTity in Canada^ for the 
Savages do not under/land the Doilrin of forgiving 
or forgetting Injuries x and notvvithftanding all Trea- 
tic9'of Peace, they will revenge themfelves one time 
or other. The French of Canada have done all that 
'is polTible, humanly fpeaking, to gain the Friendfhip 
of the Iroqaefe^ yet they have not been able to heal 
the firlt Breach that happened between them, which 
has been the Source of many Wars, which la Us at 
this very time^ vvhercas that .barbarous People has 
T 3 never 

14 -^ ^^^.^^ ^^^^ North America. 

never had any quarrel with the Dutch inhabiting New 
Tori^jbecaufe thefe have always ufed them very kiitdly, 
difTembling fome infignificant Injuries , or accepting 
their Satisfaftion. M. de la Salle knew better than any 
Body the Temper of the Savages, and the Methods 
how to gain them ^ therefore I wonder that he would 
make Wars upon the Neighbours of his new Colony, 
for this was almoft an infallible way to ruin it, and 
cut off the hope of the Converfion of thofe ignorant 
Nations. From thefe obfervations we may conclude, 
that Meeknefs and Charity fb much recommended in 
the Gofpel, are two Virtues abfolutely neceflary for 
the eff ablilhment of Colonies in thofe new Countries j 
for other wife, the new Inhabitants mull dellroy the. 
Ancient, or be deflroyed by them, either of which is a 
.cruel Neceffity unworthy of a Chrillian. la Salle 
had ordered the Captain of the Frigat to found the 
Bay, and to fuffer none of his men to lie a-ihoar j 
however the Captain himfelf, and fix of his belt men 
being charmed with the Sweetnefs of the Country 
went a-lhoar , and leaving their Canon's upon the 
Owze with their Arms, went into a meadow where 
they fell afleep, and were murthered by the Savages, 
who broke their Arms and Canou. This lad Acci- 
dent put the Colony in a dreadful Conflernation. la 5<^//t' having buried his men, refolv'd to travel 
along the Coaft to find out the mouth of the Mefihaftpi^ 
and having left the Inhabitants and Soldiers who 
were to remain in the Fort, fet oat with 20 men, 
and M. Cavellcr liis Brother. 

This Bay of St. Lewis is formed by feveral Rivers, 
and lies in the Latitude of 27 degrees 45 minutes. 
None of thefe Rivers was broad and deep enough to. 
be an Arm of the Afefchajipi^ but M. dela Salle thought 
they might be Branches of one of the Arms of that 
River , therefore he refolved to follow one of them, 
v/hich cofl him a world of Trouble, for he fonnd fe- 
veral' other Rivers running into that, too deep to be 


A Voyage into North America. 1 5 

"forded, which they crofTed , laying -together feveral 
Branches of Trees, of which they made ufe in- 
ftead of Boats. They met with feveral Nations of 
Savages, and were forced to entrench themfelves every 
Night , for fear of being furprifed. • The continual 
Rains that fell during his Voyage , made the ways 
very bad , and fwell'd feveral fmall Rivulets , which 
increafed his Trouble. Atlaft, oatYiti^thoiFehru' 
ftry^ he thought to have found his lb muchwilh'd for 
River •, and having fortified a Poft on its Bank, and 
left part of his men for its fecurity^ he advanced 
farther into the Country, which appeared unto him 
the moll delicious and fertile that ever he favv. He 
vifited feveral Nations who received him with much 
Humanity , and returned to his Fort on the 3 lit of 
March^ charmed with his Difcovery. 

The Satisfadion he exprefled upon this Account 
can hardly be exprelled, but the Grief which the lofs 
of his Frigat caufed him, over-ballanc'd it. This was 
the only Ship left unto him, with which he intended 
to fail in few Days for St. Domingo^ to bring a new 
Supply of Men and Goods to carry on his Deiign ^ 
but it ran unfortunately a-ground through the Neg- 
ligence of the Pilot, and was dalh'd in pieces. All 
the men were drowned except the Sieur Chefdeville 
one of the Miffionaries, the Captain and four Seamen *, 
the Goods, Linen, and Cloth of the Colony, v/iththe 
Provifions and Tools were abfolutely loft. M. de la 
Salle was a man of an extraordinary Courage , and 
unparallell'd Conftancy^ yet 'tis likely he would have 
funk under this Misfortune, had not God alTifted him 
in an extraordinary manner. 


i^ J Fojags-into North America," 


A ' Continuation of the Misfortunes of M. de la Salle, 
with an Account of two Voyages he undertook to find 
out the Country of the Illinois. 

'Hofe who have converfed with Accounts of new 
Difcoveries, are convinced that thofe who take 
upon them fo dilRcult a Task, are obliged to do a 
thoufand things, ^ which prove ufelefs and iinnecefla- 
ry j for looking for the right way, and no body be- 
ing there to fhew it unto them, 'tis no wonder if they 
miitake It. And as to the Misfortunes that befell the 
worthy Geatkiniu I fpeak of, it is nothing but what 
he, or any body elfe that fliall go about the like En- 
terprife, mufl exped with a very inconliderable Dif- 
ference. The pious Defign he was upon, in relation 
to the Converfion of thofe ignorant Nations, defer- 
ved it feems a bettter Fate ;, but as God's ways are 
not our ways, we mull fubmit to Divine Providence, 
without troubling our felves about a vain inquiry into 
the Secrets of God Almighty. M. de la Salle who was 
a good Chrillian, knew admirably v/ell the Fradice 
of this Dodrin, and without being dejeded by the 
Misfortunes already mentioned, he refblved to go on 
with his Diico7ery. 

As I am more concerned than any body elfe to know 
VN^hether M. de la Salle bad really difcovered the Mefcha- 
/pi, when he returned into Canada over land, becanfe 
J am the firfl: Eurovean that ever travelled upon that 
River, I have carefully perufed all the printed Ac- 
counts of his Voyage, as alfo private Memoirs, but 
after ail, I found that the account publifhed by Fa- 
ther Anafafe is the moil exad, and may be depended 

■ M. dela Salle feeing all his Affairs ruined by the lofs 
of his Ships, and having no way to return into Europe 
^ '■ , ^ ' . ■■ but 

A Voyage into North America.^ if 

but by Canada^ refblved upon fb dangerous a Jour- 
aey, and took 20 Men along with him, with one Sa- 
rage called Nikana^ that is to lay, Companion of the 
^^ation of Chonmon. This Man had followed him into 
fr^ffcf, and had given fuch proofs of his Affedion to 
lis Mailer on feveral nice occallons, that he rdied 
more upon him than upon any EHropan.lAXavdier^ 
M. Mor anger y and 'B^.th^v Anafiafe delir'd likewile to ac- 
company him. They took four Pound of Powder, 
Shot in Proportion, two Axes, two Dozen of Knives, 
feveral Pound of Rajfade or Glafs Beads , and two 
Kettles to boil their Meat, contenting hirafelf with 
Ihefe Provifions, in hopes to find out eafily the Illinois 
md return in a fhort time. Having affilted at the di- 
vine Service in the Chapel of the Fort to implore 
God's Mercy and Protedion , he fet out the 2 2d of 
/4pr;/, 1685. direding his March to the North Ealt, 
for the Mefchafifl running diredly from the North 
:o the South, intothe Gulph of Mexico^ the Country 
Df the Illinois is lituated to the N. E. of the place 
iWhere M. de la Salle left. 

'Tis likely that they wanted Pyrogues and Ca- 
laou's, lince Father Anafiafe make no mention of any, 
ind 'tis likely that M. de la Salle was not fure that he 
bad found out the Mouth of the Afefchafipi^ for then 
he might have callly met with the Illinois by means 
bf that River, knowing that the River of the Illinois 
runs into the Mefcbajipi. 

; After three days March, they difcover'd the fineit 
Champaign Country in the World, and were met by 
a great many Men on Horfe-back, with Boots, Spurs 
and Saddles. This Nation invited them to come to 
their Habitations, but M. de U Salle having taken Ibmc 
Informations from them concerning his way, thank'd 
them for their kindnefs, and would not accept of their 
Olrers. ' The Reader may judge, that all this was 
traafaded by ligns, for they did not underlland one 
jinother. The Equipage of the Nation iheweth they 
• had 

i S A Vojuge />fc? North America. ™ l 

had Commerce with the Spaniards. Our Men having 
continued their March all the Day long, iacampedj 
lipon a rifing ground, v/hich they fortified by cutting i 
down fome Trees to avoid any Surprize. 

Having march'd two days through vail Meadows, 
they came upon the Banks of a River which they cal- 
led Rokecky where they found fuch numbers of wild 
Oxen, called by the Spaniards Cibola^ that the leaft 
Drove confilted of about 400 : They killed ten oi 
them, and refted two or three days to broil the Meat 
for the reft of their Voyage. 

Within a League and a half from the Robed they 
met v/ith another River broader and deeper than 
the S^me before Paris^ its Banks being adorned with 
great Trees, fo well difpofed by Nature, that they 
ieem as many Walks artificially planted. One fidel 
of the River is covered with Woods, and the other isi 
a continued Meadow. They were obliged to cut 
Branches of Trees and tie them together to crofs it 0- 
ver. They called it the Wicked. The Country be- 
tween this Wicked River and another they met few 
days after, is full of Trees, bearing all forts of Fruit,i 
and efpecially of Mulberry-trees, but the Vines are 
fo common, that the whole feems a Vineyard, and^ 
the higheft Trees are covered with them. They 
called the laft River Hiern^ becaufe one of them, a 
German by Birth J of thQConntij of Wirt emb erg ^ lluck; 
fo faft in the Mud, that they had much ado to get 
him ofE 

The Raft or floating-boat of Branches, which they 
commonly ufed to crofs the Rivers, taking up much 
of their time, and this River being narrow, M. de la 
Salle caufed one of his men to fwitn over with an Ax, 
to fell down a Tree, while they feU another on then 
fide, and thefe two Trees meeting together, made a 
kind of Bridge ^ this way was both fafer and ealier, 
and therefore they always made ufe of it, whenever 
the narrownefs of the River would permit it. 

M. d« 

A Voyage into North America. 19 

j M. dela Salle alter'd here his courfe, marching dired- 
ly to the Eaftward. As he told no body the reafons 
of it, it is impoffible to know what was his motive j 
that man was fecret to a fault, and likely would have 
profper'd better, had he been fomewhat more coni- 
municative. After Tome days march thi-ough a plea- 
lant Country, they found another, which, according 
to their account, may be called the Paradife of the 
World, inhabited by a numerous Nation, who re- 
ceived them with all imaginable marks of Friendfhip 
and Kindnefs ^ their Women embraced them chear- 
fully, and caufed them to lit upon fome fine Mats 
^ear their Captains, who prefented them their Calu- 
met of Peace, adorned with .Feathers of feveral Co- 
lours, and wherein they defired them to finoak. They 
prefented them afterwards with a Dilh of Sa^amittee, 
which is a kind of Pap made with the Root of a Shriib 
icaird Ticjue or Toqm^ which looks like a Briar with- 
out Thorns : Its Root is very big, and having wafh'd 
It and dryed it by the Sun, they pound it in a Mor- 
ftar. This Sagamittee tailed pretty well. Thefe ho- 
inell: Savages prefented them with fome Skins of wild 
ipxen finely dreft and good for Shooes, which are ve- 
^y neceflary in that Country, becaufe of fome fharp 
ijcutting Herbs. M. <ie /^5.7//f prefented them, in return 
jpf their kindnefs, Ibme Glafs Beads of black Colour, 
jwhich is much valued among them, they continued 
fome days among that Nation, which time MJe la Salle 
iimproved to give them fome Idea of the Grandeur 
'and Power of the King his Mailer, whomherepre- 
'fenced higher and greater than the ^un. Thefe Peo- 
ple underllood fomething of it by his Signs, and were 
jllrnck with a wonderfull Admiration. M. Caveller 
and Father Anafiafe endeavoured alfb to give them 
ibaie Notions of God, but with what fuccefs no body 
lean tell. 

That Nation iscalfd Biskatronge. but the ^ptrofeans 
i them the Wcefing^ and their River thePviver of 


'^^ JFojage ifjtolS^onliAmQTksi, 

Tearsy becaufe when they arriv'd there, thofe Savages 
wept for about a quarter of an Hour. They receive 
fo all Strangers, whom they thinly . to come from re- 
mote Countries, becaufe this puts them in mind of 
their deceas'd Relations whom they think upon a long 
Journey, and whofe return they exped. That honeft 
People gave M. de la Salle fome Guides, and fupply'd his 
men with whatever they wanted, and crofled them o- 
rer their River in their Pyrogues. 

They palled three or four other Rivers in three 
days time, and met with no conilderable adventure, 
huh on the fourth day as they were near a Village, 
JsTikana the Savage, who attended M. de la Salle ^ Ihot a 
wild Goat, which frighted/ fo much the Inhabitants 
pf that Village, that they rail away. M. de la Salle put 
Ms men 'in a readinefs to fight, and enter'd the faid 
Village, which conilfted of above sooCabbins. They 
march'd to themofl.confiderable, wherein they found 
the V^ife of the Chief of the Savages, who had been 
forc'd to ftay alone becaufe of her great Age. M. de la 
Salle made the moll lignilicant Signs he tould think 
on to let her know that he was a Friend, which be- 
ing perceiv'd by her three Sons, v^ho advanc'd as near 
as they could without being difcover'd, to obferve 
what our men would do, they brought back their 
men, and offer'd M. de la Salle their Calumet of Peace, 
which being accepted, the day was concluded with 
the Dana of the CaUimet and other Demonftratioajs 
of Joy. 1 

However M. de la Salle did not' think fit to trull him- 
felf i\\ their hands,' and therefore refufed to lie in 
their Cabbins, and went to Encamp among fome 
Canes or great Reeds hard by, through which it was^; 
impoffible to come without making a great noife. Thi ' 
was a Maflerpiece of Prudence, for othefwife the 
might have been murther'd ^ for-a Band of Savagi 
got together to furprize them : The rattling noife 
the Canes having given notice of their Approach 


A Voyage into North America. a t 

iM* de la Salky he awaked his men, and fpoke in (b bold 
I Tone to the Savages that they retir'd. They left 
that place the next day, parting from them very ci- 
villy, and having march'd fix Leagues further^ they 
ivere met by another Band of Savages, who had Ears 
of Indian Corn in their Hands j they embrac'd M. de 
U Salle according to their way, and invited him by 
Signs to go to their Village, which he confented" to.. 
They made him luiderftand, that there was a Nation 
to the Well ward who deftroy'd all other men ^ and 
by the Defcription they made, he judged they meant 
the Spaniards of New Mexico^ with whom this Nati- 
on was at War. The Village having notice of the 
Arrival of Af. de la Salle^aW flock'd about them, exprel^ 
fing their jo/, by Signs and other Poftures, and mak- 
ing him underftand that he would oblige them to re- 
main with them to affiit them againft their Enemies: 
/l/f. de la Salle would not agree to that, but promis'd to 
burn in a fhort time, with a greater number of men ; 
and after having made them fbme prefents and re- 
Geiv'd other things they gave them, he left that place, 
the Savages carrying him and all his men over their 
River in their Pyrogues. This Nation is called ICiro- 

', They continued their March to the Eaftward 

[through fine Meadows, and three days after, having 

eft the Kirononas^ Nikana their Savage cry'd out of 

fuddden that he was a dead- man, having been ftung 

•y a Rattle-Snake. This lad accident oblig'd them to 

. arry fome days in that place : They gave him im- 

|mediately fome Orvietan, and having icarified the 

I Wound, they apply'd upon it fome Salt of Vipers^ 

whereby he was reover'd. 


22 J Voj/age into North America* 


A Continuation ofM. dela SaiWs Foyage andDiffove\ 
and how he was receiv'd by the Savages Cenis. 

THey march'd feveral days without meeting with 
any Savages or any Accidents, and came to a 
River very broad and rapid, which they judg'd to 
be near the Sea. They made a Raft to crofs it, and 
M. de la Sa/kj and M. Cavelier^ and part of his men 
ventur'd upon that floating Boat, which the Rapidity 
of the Stream carry'd down with fuch a violence, 
that they were in few minutes out of light, leaving 
their Comrades on the Ihore under an* unfpeakable 
Grief. Father Anafiafe comforted them as much as 
he could, being himfelf under a great affliction •, for 
befides their Savage, who was of great ufe to them, 
had loll his way, and was wandering in the Woods •: 
They continued in that condition all the day, but in 
the Evening they heard M. de la Salle hailing them 
from the other Shore. Their Raft had been ftopp'd 
by a Sand in the middle of the F^iver, which gave 
them time to recover their ftrength, in lb much, that 
they mafter'd the Current and got happily over ^ tho' 
one of them attempting to catch a Branch of a Tree, 
fell into the Water and was carry'd away. They 
thought him drown'd, but being an excellent Swim- 
mer, and knowing it was in vain to frrive againfi; the 
Stream, but by degrees he was carry'd down a great 
way, and at lall: got a-(hore and rejoyn'd Father A- 
nafiafe and his Companions, who having eat nothing 
all day long, were exceeding hungry. They found 
no Game about them, and wanting all nlanner of Pro- 
viilons, they were reduc'd to a great Extremity: the 
divine Providence, v*^ho takes care of the meaneit of 
his Creatures, reliev'd them alfo at this time, two 
young Eagles fell from a Cedar, which afForded them 

I Meal, tho' it was but a fmall matter, for tm almolt 
tarv'd Travellers. 

They tarry!d in that; place that night, and the next 
(iay they endeavour'd to crofs the River, and by the 
advice of M. de la Salle, they made a Raft of Canes, 
«rhich with the help of two men that fwam to defend 
jt againft the Rapidity of the Stream, they got all o- 
irer except their Savage. Being thus rejoyn'd they 
piarched two days through a Forreft of Canes, through 
svhich they were forced to cut their way with their 
^xes, and on the third day they found Nikana 
ivith three wild Goats already broyl'd, and another, 
bvhich he had jull kill'd. M. de la Salle ordered two 
pr three Guns to be fir'd to fhew his Joy. 
: Having refrefhed themfelves they continued their 
March Eaflward, travelling through a moll delicious 
Conntry, where they found Savages, who had no- 
thing barbarous but their Name. They met one of 
them who came from lliooting with his Wife and Fa- 
mily^ he prefented M. de la Salle with a Horfe and 
fome Flelh, defiring him by figns to go along with 
him to his Habitation, and left he Ihould have any 
Sufpicion, \\t left his Wife and Family with him., and 
went to his Village, where he was accompany'd by 
JSlikana, and a Footman of M. de la Salle. They re- 
turn'd two days after with two Horfes loaded with 
Provilions, and acquainted their Mafter v/ith the ci- 
vility of that People, who fent their chief Comman- 
ders and young Warriours to complement them. They 
were handfomiy covered with' drefs'd Skins, adorned 
with Feathers of dillerent Colours. M. de la Salle 
thought fit to advance, and within three Leagues of 
the Village he met the Savages, vv ho prefented them 
their Calumet of Peace m great Ceremony. They 
conduced them in triumph to the Cabbin of their Ge- 
neral, where a great number of People came to fee 
them. M. dela Salle obferved that the young Warri- 
ors mounted the Guard and \vere relieved ^by turns. 


^4 ^ ^^J^g^ ifff<> North America* 1 

The great civility of that People obliged M. de USM 
to leave the Village and encamp about two Miles of^ 
for having dbferved that the Women were exceeding 
kind to thera, and pretty handfbm, he was afraid his 
men would be debauch'd, which might have been of 
a fatal confequence. They tarry'd there four days, 
and bought fome Horfes for fbme of our EHropean 

This Village belongs to the Cenis, and is one of the 
molt populous and largeft oi America^ being about 20 
Leagues long, not in a continued Street, but becaufe 
tlie Hamlets are fo near one another, that the whole 
Jooks as if it were but one. Their Cabbins are extra- 
ordinary fine, of about 50 Foot long, and built 3s 
Bee-Hives. They plant Trees round-about, whofe 
Branches joyn over their Gabbins, and which they tiet 
together : Their Beds are placed round-about their't 
Cabbins, four Foot higher than the floor, and they 
make their Fire in the middle. Each Cabbin is for 
two Families. They found among them feveral 
things which they muft have from the Spaniards^ aS 
Ibme Pieces of Eight, Silver Spoons, Lace, deaths 
and Horfes. They had alfb a Bull of the Pope, ex- 
empting the Spaniards of New Mexico from falling in 
Summer-time. How they came by it, they could ne- 
ver underlland. The Horfes are fo common, that 
one of M. de la Salle's men had one given him lor his 
Ax, and another offer'd a fine one for Father Anafia- 
fe^s Capuch. They have however no dired Trade 
with the Spaniards^ but get thefe things from th^£ 
ChoHmans their Allies, who being Neighbours of thci 
Europeans are often in War with them. M. de it^ 
Salle having always the Mines of St. Bar he in hii 
Thoughts, delir'd them by Signs to draw a Map o|,1 
the Country, and the Courfe of their River, whicff 1 
they underltood, and with a Piece of Coal, theft 
made on the white Bark of a Tree a Defcription or I 
their Country and River, that M. de la Salle under-^* 


A Voyage into North America. 5 5 

ftood they were within fix days journey from the Spa- 
niards^ whom they knew, their Warriors going often 
to allift the Chonmans againil: tliem. 

M. de U Sallcj who had a particular art to gain 
the Frien^Bup of the Savages, told them a great 
many things of the Grandeur of the King his Mailer, 
whom he reprefented as the greatefl Captain of the 
World, and as much above the Spaniards as the Sun 
above the Earth : he gave them an account of his lig- 
nal Vidories: At which, fays Father ^/7^f/?-<iy£',they put 
their Fingers upon their Mouth to exprefs their Ad- 
miration ^ but feeing M. de la Salle did not fpeak their 
Language, I would fain know how the Cenii under- 
ftood the account he gave them of the glorious Ani- 
ons of the King of France. Surely this is a Fiftion, 
or atbeft, too long a Comment upon a Converlation 
which was aded by iigns; and Father .Anafiafe 
might have fpar'd this Refledion upon the Spamardsy 
ifor tho' the King of Fr^;?c^ is a great Monarch,yet the 
jKing of Spain poffeflres fach Countries in the old and 
inew World, that no Prince can be compar'd to him 
in thatrelped, and the Motto of the Catholick Kings, 
Sol mihi mmquam occidit^ may be more eafily jultilied, 
•than the Nee flnribus imfar of the King of Frayice>. 
[Thofe who willconfider the extent of the Dominions 
iof the Spaniards in the WSfi-Lidies^ will find that they 
fare above 2500 Leagues in length, v/hiqli I think the 
great Mailer of M. de la Salle can never match. 
j There were at that time fome Ambafiadors of the 
^hoMmansj at the Village of the Cer/is^ who paid a Vi- 
ifit to M. de la Salle^ and at their coming in made the 
Jsign of the Crofs, and kneeling down killed Father 
]Auafiafe\ Govvn, lifting up their Hands to Heaven^ 
and giving them to underlbnd, that Men cloathed 
With like Habits taught their Neighbours. They 
piade fuch ilgns as convinced the French that they 
^ad been at Mafs^ and one of them drew with a 
p)ai atail Woman v/eeping at the Foot of the Crofs, 
f U for 

26 A Voynge into North America. 

for the Death of her Son who was nail'd to it. This 
he muft needs have feen over an Altar in the S^ani^ 
Churches, and 'tis no wonder if they knew Father >4- 
vafiafeh Gown, for the Francifcans are very numerous 
in that Country. Our Author adds, thj| they told 
M. de la Salle^ that the Spaniards made a great flaugh- 
ter of the Indians^ and that K he would go along 
with them with his fire Arms, it would be eafie to 
conquer them, feeing they are Cowards, and fo Ef- 
feminate as to have two Men before them, when they 
w^alk in Summer-time each with a large Fann to re- 
frefh them. 

This puts me in mind of feveral Convcrfations 
which I had with M. dc la Salle^ at Fort Frontenac con- 
cerning our Difcoveries, and fpeaking of Miffionaries 
and the Qualities they ought to have, I remember 
he told me often that the Jefuits of the College oiCoa 
in the Eafi-Indies^ which was given them by a Bp. of 
the Order of St. Francis^ and whofe Revenues amount 
now to a prodigious Sum, travel in a Litter, where 
they perform this MifFion, having two Men on each 
fide to cool them with a Fann. This he knew from i 
fome of thofe Jefuits themfelves, but as he had left this 5 
Society, I did not altogether believe what he told 1 
me of it j but I wonder that Father Anafiafe would i 
charge upon the Spaniards of*New Mexico^ what M. de 
la Salle toM me of the Jefuits of Goa. The reafon may 
be eafily difcover'd the Spaniards will either fcorn this 
Refledion, or let it go without Vengeance, whereas 
the Jefuits are never affronted with tapunity. 

M. de la Salle having tarried feveral Days among the 
Cenisj continued his March through the Habitations 
of the Najfonls ^ thefe two Nations are in confederacy, 
and divided by a large River, on the Banks of which 
the Villages are iituated : They have much the fame 
culloms and manners. 

Within five Leagues of that Place four of xM. de la 34- 
/^'s men ran away to the NaJfo?jis^ which fadly vex'd 

him ^ 

A Voyage info >Jorth America. 27 

him ; and few Days after, he together with M. Moran^ 
nr his Nephew, fell fick of a violent Fever, which 
obliged our Travellers to tarry in that Place for feve- 
rai Weeks, for notwithllanding they recover'd, it 
was a long 'tune before they were able to continue 
their Voyage. This Diflemper difappointed ail their 
meafures, and was the occaiion of feveral misfortunes 
that befel them afterwards. They tarried there two 
whole Months, being reduced to the greateft Extremi- 
ties ^, their Powder v/as moll fjDent, tho' they were not 
advanced above 1 50 Leagues in a dired Line ^ fome 
pf their Men had deferted, others began to be irrefo- 
Jnte ^ and all thele things being carefully confider'd 
iby M. de la Salle, he refoived to return to Fort Lewis. 
|£very body approv'd his Deiign, and fb they retur- 
ned the fame way without meeting with any remark- 
jable Accident, except that one of them was -fwallow- 
ed by a Crocodile of a prodigious Size, as they re- 
paired the Wicked River. 

! They returned to their Camp the 1 7th of OEloher 
\\6^6. being received with an incredible joy by their 
Companions, who thought them as good as Idfl: a- 
bion? thefe barbarous Nations. 


Ajhort Defiriptio?? of Fort Lewis, of its ndvantages Si- 
i'.atlon^ and of the Fertility of the Country about it. 

'THAT has been already obferved is enough to 

\l fhew thf Charafter of M, dc U Salle, and that 

lever Traveller v^as more undaunted, and confianc 

|n his Undertakings than him. ^ All the misfortunes 

md accidents we have mention'd, were not enough. 

defed his Coiirage, nor deterr blm from his former 

lefigns, in which through the Grace of God he ex- 

;d to ^Y:CCQ?A.. 

II 2 He 

28 A Fojage into North America. 

He remained two Months and a half at Fort 'Lew^ 
ts'j during which time he took a View of all the Ri- 
vers that run into that Bay, and found above 50 
which are Navigable, if we may believe Father ^m- 
fiafe, who was with him : They come mofl of them 
from the Weft and North- Weft. The Fort is fituated 
in a fandy Ground, but the Soil about is very fertile. 
There are large Meadows in which the Grafs grows 
as high as our Wheat in Europe. Thefe Rivers are 
very frequent, being commonly at 2 or 3 Leagues 
diftance. Their Banks are adorn'd with Oak, Mul- 
berry-Trees, and other Sets of Trees, fome whereof 
are altogether unknown in Em-ope. The Country is 
ail alike going to the Weftward, till within two days 
Journey of the Spaniards. 

This Fort is fituated on a riling Ground, on the 
Bank of a River, having the Sea to the South-Eaft, 
the Meadows to the Weft, and two large Ponds, and 
a Foreft to the South-Weft •, the neareft Neighbours 
are the Guoaqms^ who have abundance of Horfes, 
and the Bahamas and GninetSy who are, wandering 
Nations, with whoiii M. de la Salks was in War. He ; 
forgot nothing during that time to comfort his finall 
Colony, which began to multiply, feveral Children 
being born fmce their Arrival. He imployed his Men 
about grubbing up the Lands, which as I have faid, 
proved very good and fertile. In the mean time our 
MilTionaries applied themfelves to the Inftrudion of 
Ibme Savage Families, who left their own Nation to 
live with the Europeans. M. de la Salle us'd them with 
all poffible kindnefs, knowing how advantageous it 
would be to w4n tliofe barbarous Nations over to 
his Intereft. 

M. de la Salle having caft up an Intrcnchment 
bout a large Inciofure, wherein were the Habitatic 
of the Colony, under the Cannon of the Fort, zi 
taken all other precautions for their Security, call 
the Inhabitants together, and made lb pathetical a 


JFojage into North America. 29 

Speech to them about the NecefTity he was under to 
make a Voyage to the IlUonis Country, that he drew • 
Tears from every one of the Ailerably, eonfidering 
the Danger and Fatigue of To great a Voyage, for 
he was very much beloved. He took 20 men with 
him with his Brother, his two Nephews, Father A- 
naflafe^ and one Jonftd a Phto •, ajid after publick 
Prayers, he ^tt out a fecond time from Fort Lewis^ 
refolv'd not to return till he had found the Illinois. 


An Account of M. de la Salle'j fecond Voyage^ from 
the Bay of St. Lewis, to the Illinois. 

MDe la Salie vv ith 20 men fet out from his Fort 
• on the 7th oi January 1687, and met the 
hrll Day a great Band of Bdoamosy who were going 
upon a military Expedition againit the Savages, called 
Trigoanna. He made alliance with them, a;id de- 
iigned to do the like with the Gulnets^ whom he met 
alfo, but they ran away upon his approach:, How- 
ever, having overtaken them by means of hiiHorfes, 
they agreed together, and promifed on both fides an 
inviolable Peace. 

They continued their March to the North-Eafl, 
'and crofled the firll River, which they had called 
before the River oiCanes^ becanfe the Banks of it are 
covered with them. The Country is diveriified with 
Meadows and Woods, and the Soil is fo fertile, that 
Grafs grows 10 or 12 Foot high. There are feveral 
populous Villages of Savages upon tliat River, but 
they vilited only the Guarar. and Aaachorema. They 
croiTed the fecond River of C^//^^, dillant 3 Leagues 
from the former. Its Banks are inhabited by feve- 
ral different Nations, and the Country is full of Hemn 
which grows naturally in thofe Parts. They met 
5 Leagues farther another River call'd Sablonnlercj 
U 3 ■ becaufe 

I o J Voyage imo North America. 

becaufe it flows through a fandy ground , tho' the 
Grafs of the Meadows near its Banks Hieweth the Fer- 
tility of the Soil. 

Having pafTed three or four fmall Rivers , they 
found 8 Leagues from the Sahlonniere the River Rohecky . 
whofe Banks are peopled with feveral Villages of Sa- ' 
vages, who fpeak, in a manner from their Throat, 
They are in War with the Spaniards^ and defired A^. 
de U Salle to join with them, but he had bufinefs elfe 
where , and with 20 Men alone he was not able 
to do any great things againft the Spaniards. He 
remained five or fix Days with them, and from thence 
continued his march to- the Wicked River, fo called, 
becaufe a Crocodile had devoured one of his men. 
That River has a long courfe, and is inhabited by 40 
Villages of Savage??, which compofes the Nation Ka- 
noatlnno^ which are likewife at War wich l\it Spaniards., 
They went through fome of their Villages, where they 
were kindly receiv'd ; tho, if we may" believe Father 
Anafiafe^ the cruelties of the 5p^;2/^r^j- have fome- 
what changed their good Nature into fierce nefs. This, 
I take to be M. de la Salle'' s Opinion ^ for in all his 
Travels he endeavoured to reprefent the Spaniards 
as the moil odious and cruel Nation in the V/orld. 
I muit own, as I have already intimated, that the 
Spaniards were forced to deltroy feveral Nations hiA^exv 
Mexico^ but they were obliged to it to preferve them- 
felves againft them, for ^Kt the Natives would have 
deftroyed them. 'Tis certain, that the Savages have 
RO kindnefs for the Europeans , and keep fair with 
them, only as long as they fear them. But I won- 
der, that M. de la Salle fliould blame fo much the 
Spaniards^ and yet form the Enterprize he was about, 
feeing it v/as impofiible for him to liicceed without 
dellroying the Spaniards themfeives ^ and as to their 
Tyranny, I remember to have convinced him more 
than once, that tb.e Spanlf) Domination is eafier and 
milder than any other he could namCc 

■r Jc L Jh/A- 

M ■ Vaf.J.-r ^u^A^ -^cu/: 

A Fopge into North Arnertca. ^ % 

M. de la Salle having got fbme Horfes from thofe 
Savages, crofTedthe River in , Canon's made of Skins 
of wild Oxen, the Horfes fwimming ovei' •, and four 
Leagues from thence crolTed the River Hle-ns or Hansy 
already mentioned, continuing their march to the 
North-Eaft. They crofTed feveral other Rivers and 
Brooks, which were mightily fwoln by the Rains 
that fall in that Country about that time, which is 
their Winter, the difference of Sealbns being only 
known by thofe Rains. _ The Country they travelled 
through is diverfified with Meadows, Woods, Groves, 
Hills and Springs. The came at laft to three great 
Villages called Taraha^ Tyaka^fan and Pdonna^ w^here 
they found good Horfes. They met fome Leagues 
further the Palaftelfiom , a People compos'd of ten 
Villages. Thefe are in Alliance with the Spaniards. 

I cannot but wonder at Father Anajiafe\ negle^ 
cling to make a mxOre exad Diary of their Voyage^ 
and to be more particular about fo many different 
Nations he fpeaks off, and therefore I defire the Rea^ 
der to give me leave to make now and then fbme Relie- 
dions upon this Voyage of M. de la Salle^ having fb 
intimately known that Gentleman , and travelFd lb 
long with him in America. My Defci-iption of Lou-. 
ifiana^ which I Printed at Pans^ did him a very great 
kindnefs in relation to his Enterprize. 

C H A P. Vll. 

M. de la Salle and three more are unfortunately mur- 
therd by forne of their own Party. 

AFter they had gone through fb many different 
Nations as is above related, there fell out a 
nioff- unhappy Accident, to wit, the AiraffincttioQ of 
M. de la Salle., his Nephew Mor anger ^ and fome o- 
^jhers, M. de la Sdle, was then in a fine Country for 
liuntiBg : His People regaPd themfeivcs very plenti- 
U 4 fully, 

The murder of ?77^?iJ-'^<: /^ ^^//^ 

A Foyage into North Atnerlca. ^t 

M. de U Salle having got fbme Horfes from thofe 
Savages, crofledthe River in , Canon's made of Skins 
of wild Oxen, the Horfes fwimming over;, and four 
Leagues from thence croHed the River Hk-ns or H^insy 
already mentioned, continuing their march to the 
North-Eail. They crofTed feveral other Rivers and 
Brooks, v(^hich were mightily fwohi by the Rains 
that fall in that Country about that time, which is 
their Winter, the difference of Seafons being only 
known by thofe Rains. The Country they travelled 
through is diverfified with Meadows, Woods, Groves^ 
Hills and Springs. The came at lad: to three great 
Villages called Taraba, Tyakappan and Pdonna^ where 
they found good Horfes. They met fome Leagues 
further the Fdaqueffions , a People composed of ten 
Villages. Thefe are in Alliance with the Spaniards. 

I cannot but wonder at Father Afiafiafeh negle^ 
cling to make a more exad Diary of their Voyagey 
and to be more particular about fo many differenc 
Nations he fpeaks off*, and therefore I defire the Rea^ 
der to give me leave to make now and then fome Retie- 
dions upon this Voyage of M. de la Salle^ having fo 
intimately known that Gentleman , and travelFd fa 
long with him in America. My Delcription of Lou^. 
ifiana^ which I Printed at Fa-risy did him a very great 
kindnefs in relation to his Enterprize. 

C H A P. VII. 

Ai. de la Salle and three more are Hnfonima!:ely mur- 
therd hy fome of their own Tarty. 

AFter they had gone through fb many different 
Nations as is above related, there fell out^ 
iiioit' unhappy Accident, to wit, the Aflafli nation of 
M.. de la Salky his Nephew Moranger^ and fome o- 
jhers, M. de U Sdle. was then in a fine Country for 
hunting : His People regaPd therafeives very plenti- 
U 4 fully. 

3? A Voyage Into North America. 

fully, and refrefhed themfelves after their tirefbme 
Travel with excellent good Chear for feveral Days to^ 
gether : He had fent M. Mor anger his Nephew, his 
Laquey Saget^ and feven or eight of his Men to a 
certain place, where Nlka his Huntsman, who -was 
a Savage Chaonemn had laid up a ftock of wild Bulls 
Flefli, that they might get it fmoaked and dried to 
carry along with them, and fo not be obliged to halt 
fo frequently to hunt for Provilions. 

With all his Prudence, M.dela Salle could not dif- 
cover the Conlpiracy of lome of his People to kill his 
Nephew, for they refolved upon it, and put it in Ex^ 
ecution 3II of a fudden on the 1 7th of March^ wound- 
ing him in the Head with a Hatchet. The Blow was 
ilruck by a Perfon Avhom Father AnajiafvAi out of 
Charity would not name ^ they flew likewife the La- 
quey and poor Nika , who had provided for them 
by his Hunting for three Years together with toil and 
danger : Mor anger languilhed under his Wound for 
two Hours, during v\/hich time, he gave all poffible 
tokens of his Piety , forgiving his Murtherers , and 
embracing them frequently, refigning himfelf up to 
Gods good Pleafure, and relying upon his Saviour's Me- 
rits, as his very Murtherers acknowledged, when their 
Rage was cooled : He was a very honelt Man and a 
^ood Chrillian. 

Thefe Wretches not content with this bloody Fad, 
re&lved not to flick there, but contrived how to kill 
their Mailer too, for they feared he would have jull- 
ly punifjied them for their Crime. Father Anajlafmi 
fays. They were xmq, Leagues off the place where 
Mor anger v/as killed., and that M. de la Salle being con- 
cerned'at his Nephews tarrying folong (for they had 
been gone two or three days) was afraid they might have 
been furprized by ibme Party of the Savages ^ where- 
upon he deiired Father AnafiaftHs .to go with him 
to look after his Nephew, and took two Savages a- 
long with him j upon the way M. de U Salle ehte;--. 


A Voyage into North America. j j 

tained 'em with a pious Difcourfe of Grace and Pre- 
delHnation ^ but cliiefly he enlarged upon the great 
Obligations he was under to divine Providence for 
preferving him in the many dangers he had undergone 
during a twenty Years abode in America , nine of 
which he fpent in travelling, and 1 with him^ he 
feemed to be peculiarly affeded with God's Goodnefs 
to him, when all of a fudden, Father AnafiafiPM ob- 
ferved that he fell into a deep forrow of which he 
himfelf could give no account \ he grew mighty un- 
quiet and full of trouble, a temper he was never feen 
in before ; Father Anafiafipn did all he could to reco- 
ver him out of it. 

They were got about two Leagues, when he found 
his Lacque's bloody Cravat, and perceived two Ea- 
gles (a common Bird in thofe parts) holering over 
his Head, at the fame time he fpied his People by the 
Water-fide : he went up to them and enquired for his 
Nephew, they made him little anfwer, but pointed 
to the place where he lay. Father Anafiafins kept 
going on by the River fide, tillatlaft they came to the 
fatal place, where two of the Villains lay hid in the 
Grafs, one on one fide, and one on the other, with 
their Pieces cock'd, the firit prefented at M. de la Salle 
but mifs'd Fi.'e, th: other fired at the fame time, and 
Ihot him into tlu^iiead, of which h| dy'd an Hour af- 
ter, March i ^ (,%-]. • 

Father AnajufiM expefted the lame .fate, but did 
ilot refied upon th;; danger he was in-, he was fenfibly 
touched at this crutl SpeAacle, feeing^ M. de la Salle 
fall a little way off from him with his Face all bloody ; 
he ran to him, took him up in his Arms, and wept 
over him, exhorting him as well as he could in this 
Conjunfkire to die like a good Chrifi:ian ; the unfortu- 
nate Gentleman had been at his Devotions jufl- before 
they fet out, and had jufl time enough to confefs 
part of his Life to Father Anaftafm^ who gave him 
4bfolution, arijd foon after he died : In thefe his lall 


j4 ^ f^(>)^g^ i^io North America* 

Moments he perform'd as far as he was capable what^ 
ibever was proper for one in his condition, he prefs'd 
the Father's hand at every thing he iaid to him, efpe^ 
eially whehheadmonifhedhimto forgive his Enemies 5 
mean while the Murtherers Itruck with Horror at 
what they had committed, began to beat their Breafts, 
and deteft their Ralhnefs. Father Anafiafms would 
not ftir from the place till he had bury'd the Body as 
decently as he could, and plac'd a Crofs over his Grave. 
Thus fell the Sieur 'Robert Caveiier de la Salle ^ a 
Man of confiderable Merit, conftant in Adverlities, 
fearleB, generous, courteous, ingenious, learned and 
capable of every thing : He labour'd for twenty years 
together to civiliz^the favage Humours andManners of 
a great number of barbarous People among whom he 
travelFd, and had the ill hap to be mailacred bf iris 
own Servants, whom he had enrich'd : he dy'd in the 
Vigour of his Age in the middle of his Courfe, before 
he could execute the defigns he had form'd upon Neva 


The Author's RefieElions ufon the Life and DeMk of M. de 
la Salle, ivh^ Mnrtherers kilFd one another. 
• ith^ 

MDe la Salle told me feveral times , vMlG: we 
• were together in Fort Frantenac , before we 
went upon 01^ Difcoveries, and alfo when we were 
in purfuit of them, that when he was a Jefuit, having 
liv'd 10 or 1 1 years in that Order, the Fathers of that 
Society caus'd frequent Ledures to be rea4 during 
the firft two Years to all thole that enter'd iniQt the So - 
eiety,of the tragical Deaths and fatal Mifcarriages that 
overtook fuch as had quitted their Order ;, and this 
was done to fix thofe that were newly entred ^ I ought 
to fay this out of Jultice to M. de U Salle ^ who for- 

J Voyage into North America. ^ e 

merly depofited in my hands all his Papers, whilfl: he 
took a Voyage to France^ and I ftaid at Fort Fromenac^ 
that he quitted his Order with the confent of his Su- 
periours, and that he had written Teftimonials of his 
good Conduct during his ftay in that Society. He 
Jievv'd me a Letter written at Rome by the General 
of that Order, wherein he teftified that the faid Sieur 
de la Salle had behav'd himfelf prudently in every 
thing without giving the leait occalion to be fuipeded 
guilty of a venial Sin. <• 

I have a hundred times refleded upon what he%s 
iaid to me, when we entertained our felves with the 
Stories of our new Dilcoveries, and I ador'd God for 
the unfearchablenefs of his ways, who accomplifhes his 
Will by thofe means he is pleafed to appoint •, and 
uncertain as I v/as of my Deftiny, I gave my fclf up 
to his good pleafure, refolv'd to fubmit patiently in 
every thing to his divine Providence. Father Anafia- 
fim arrived at length where was M. Cavelier^ a Prieil, 
Brother of the Defund \M. de la Sailed to wTiom he. 
related his Death ^ the Murtherers came rudely into 
the fame Cabbin or Hut prefently after,and feiz'd up- 
on all they found in it, the good Father had not lei- 
fure for a long Harangue, but his Countenance bath'd 
in Tears , was a fufficient Intimation of what he had 
to fay : M. CaveUer at firft fight of him, cry'd out. 
Ah ! my Brother is dead. I cannot forbear prefent- 
ing the Publick with fome account of this Prielt, M. 
Cavelkr^ with whom I fojourn'd in Canada during one 
Summer ofnry Miffion to Fort Fromenac^ of which 
his Brother was Governour and Proprietor. He was 
a pious and difcreet Ecclefiallick , perfedly qualified 
for a Miffionary : He no fooner heard this fatal News, 
but he fell down upon his Knees, and fo did the Sieur 
CaveUcr his Nephew, expeding the Villains cam.eto 
butcher them, and therefore prepar'd themfelves to 
die like Chriftians ^ but the Aflaflines mov'd with' 
Compailion at the fight of the venerable old Man, 


|6 A Vdjdge into North America, 

and being fbrry belides for their late wicked Deed?, 
refblved to fpare thera , upon condition that they 
fhould never return 'm\xy France^ but they were a 
long time e'er they fixt upon granting them Mercy j 
fome of them that had a mind to fee tlieir Kindred 
once again, endeavoured as well as they could to 
dear themfelves from fo deteftable an Action ^ others 
laid, 'twas lafeft to rid their hands of thefe two inno-. 
cent men, or elfe they might one day call them to aii 
acflbunt, if ever they met again in France. 

<frhey chofe for their Leader the Murtherer of M. 
de la Salle^ and upon Deliberation they refolv'd to go 
to the famous Nation of the Cenis already fpoken of ^ 
fo tHeymarch'd altogether for feveral days, andpafs'd 
divers Rivers. Thefe infamous Murtherers made the 
?wo Cavellers ferve them as Valets, and gave them no-, 
thing but their leavings to eat. They arrived without 
any rub at the place they wifh'd for. A,Contell 
riles betwixt a German of Wittemhm-g^ nam'd Hansy 
and him that murther'd M. de la Salky about the Su- 
periority of Command , upon this their men divide 
themfelves into two Parties^ one follows Hans^ the 
Other the Murtherer. They were come away from 
the Cems, among whom they tarry'd fome time, and 
arrived at the Najfonis^ where the four Defer ters 
whom I mentioned before, rejoyn'd them. Thus 
they were all got together upon Afcenfion £w, and 
the Quarrel betwixt the two Parties, being blown up 
to that height, that they determined to murther 
one another. Father Aaafiafms made an Exhortation to 
them upon theFeftival day, with which they feem'd 
to be fo touched, that they made as if they would 
confefs themfelves ^ but they did not continue long 
in that mind. Thofe that moil regretted their Ma- 
flei-'s murther, took to Hans\ fide. This man two 
days after taking his opportunity, punifhed one crime 
with anqther, for he fir'd a Piilol at the murtherer 
of M. di U Salle J the Bullet pierced his Heart, and h^ 


J Vo^Age into North America.^ 37 

drop'd dead upon the place. One of Hmi\ Crew 
ihot him that killed M. Mor anger in the fide, and be- 
fore he could well recover himfelf , another let fly 
juft at his Head, there was no Ball in his Musket, buc 
the Powder fet fire to his Hair, which catch'd ^is 
Shirt and Cloaths with fb much violence and quick- 
nefs, that he could not put it out, but expired m rbc 
Flame. The third Conlpirator took to his Heels and 
faved himfelf^ Hans was mighty eager to make fure 
of him, and finifh in his Death, the vengeance due to 
M. de U Salle -^ but the Sieur Jontel made 'em Friends. 
and fo the matter refted for that time. 

Thus Hans became the chief Leader of this miferablc 
Troops they refolv'd to return to the CmV, among 
whoni they defign'd to fettle,for they durft not venture 
back into Enrobe for fear of nieeting the punifhment 
their Crimes deferv'd : At that time the Cenls were up 
in Arms and ready to march out to fight with the 
Kanoatmno a cruel People, their implacable Enemies. 
When they take any Prifoners, they throw thera a- 
live into a Caldron and boil them. The Cenis thea 
took Hans and fome other Europeans along with them, 
the reft waited till they ihoiild return, though Ha^js 
would f^in have perfuaded them all to go , but they 
would not flir. When Hans was gone, they depart- 
ed out of the Country of the CmV, and among 'em were 
the two Cavcliers^ the Sieur Joittel^ Father Anafiafvm 
and others ^ each had his Horfe, Powder, and Lead, 
with fome Goods to defray their Charges upon the 
way: they made a halt in the Country of the iV^^^iV 
to celebrate the O^ave of Ufete Sen. In their Relations, 
they fay , that the People entertain'd them perpe- 
tually with Stories of the Cruelty of the Spaniards to- 
wards the Americans^ and told them twenty feveral 
Nations were going to make War upon the Spaniards^ 
and invited them to go along with them, becaufe, 
faid they, you will do more execution with your 
Guns, than all our W'arriors with their Maces and 


5 8 J 'Voyage into North Arhericai 

Arrows. But they had other Defignsin their HeadSj^ 
and took occalion in thele Dilcourles to give them to 
underftand that they were come among them by ex- 
prefs Order from God, to inftrud them in the know- 
ledge of the Truth, and fet them right in the way to 
Salvation, and this was their employment for i o or 
12 days to the third oijum, 

I make noqueftion, but M. Cavelier the Priell, 
and Father Anaftafim end^avour'd to their utmofl to 
give light to thefe Najfonis^ and deliver them out of 
their ignorance. But the four other Europeans that 
were in their company were not enough in number to 
terrific the Spaniards who are ufed to fire-arms ^ be- 
fides they did not underftand the Language of thefe 
People , and therefore I cannot eafdy comprehend 
how they could gather from the Difcourfe of theft 
Najfonis^ that the Spaniards were ^o cruel to the Ame- 
ricans ; they had no Interpreters along with them, IbJ 
that they could not underftand a word of what wa3 
iaid to them by thefe People, who had never feenanj 
other Europeans before them. 

Moreover 'tis certain , that fince the days of th^ 
Emperor Charles the Fifth, the Spaniards have not 
dar'd to execute any Cruelties upon the Natives ol 
New Mexico^ becaufe they have too few of their own 
Subjects to guard their Conquefts agalnft the iniults of 
their neighbouring Indians^ were they irritated. No|J 
they live peaceably with them, and trouble no bd- 
dy, unlefs they are firft attacked. 

C H A P. IX. 

The Cenis permit M. Cavelier the Prieft , and Father. 
Anaftafius , with their Company , to continue their}. 
Journey thorough feveral harharom Nations. ■ 

H E Cenis gaVe thefe fix Europeans two Savage^ 
for Guides, who took their way thorough th^; 



A Voyage mto North America. 39 

inc^Country in the World Northwards, and North- 
EalWardsj they pafs'd over four great Rivers, and 
nany Channels made by the Rain, inhabituted by di- 
ners Nations Eallward, they came among the Haqms, 
:he Nablaij or the Naanfi^ a valiant People at War, 
with the Cenisj at length they arrived near the Cade- 
Ucchos^ June the 13th, one of their Guides went be- 
rbre to inform the Barbarians of their coming. The 
chief Men and the Youth, whom they found a League 
from their Village, received them with the Calumet^ 
ind gave them fome Tobacco ^ foitie le<l their Hor- 
"es by the Bridle, and others carried them about m 
Triumph:, they faid they were Spirits come from the 
Dther World. 

• All the Village being come together, the Womea 
according to their Gullom v/afh'd their Heads and 
iFeet with warm Water, after which they were feated 
ipon a Bench cover'd with neat white Mats j then 
:hey went to revelling, dancing to the Cdimet^ and 
;nade other publick rejoycings JDay and Night. Thefe 
People knew nothing of the Europeans but by Report, 
,tis to be prefum'd they have fome Ihadow of Reli- 
gion among 'em, but all their Ideas are very con- 
iis'd, and their Notions unaccountable, they feem 
;o worihip the Sun, becaufe they fend up the Smoak 
^f their Tobacco to hint, though they have their 
;hare on't ^ their Ceremonial Habits have commonly 
!,wo Suns defcrib'd upon them, and upon the reft of 
ihe Body repreientations of wild Bulls, Deer, Ser- 
pents, or other Animals j the two religious Europeans 
bok occaiion from hence, to give them fome LelTons 
X)ncerning the true God, and the principal Mylteries 
)f Chriftianity •, 'ds to be fuppos^d all this was done 
l)y Signs. 

;^ In this place God afflided them -by a Tragical Ac- 
ident, the Sieur Adame maugre all DilFwafions, s 
vould needs bath himfelf, June the 24th at Night. 
1$. Cavelier, Nephew to M. de la Sdle went along 


40 ' A Vot^Age into North America J a 

with him to the River-fide, which lies pretty ,,i^af 
the Village. Marne threw himfelf into the Water, 
and never came up again. 'Twas a Whirlpool that 
luck'd him in, and drowned him in a moment. 

A little after his Body was drawn out of the Wa- 
ter, and carried to the Captain's Houfe \ all the Vil- 
lage lamented his Death : The Captain's Wife wrapt 
him up decently in a handlbme Mat, whjile fome 
young Men dug a Grave for him, which Father AnA- 
fiajim bleft ^ and then they committed him to the 
Earth with all poffible Solemnity. The Barbarians 
admr'd the Ceremonies of his Interment, and a- 
bove all,- the finging of the Pfalms at his Obfequies. 
Upon this they offer'd them Inftruftions about the 
Immortality of the Soul, and continued to teach them 
for eight days, for fo long they tarried after in that 
fatal Place; the dead Man was baried upon an Emi- 
nence near the Village, his. Grave was fenc'd about 
with Pallifado's, and a great Crofs fet up over it 
which was made by the Savages : They departed out 
of this Country, July the id. 

Thefe People dwell upon the Side of a River, 
where three 'other Nations inhabit, the 'Notchoosj 
Natchetes and Omdiches. The Travellers were re- 
ceiv'd very kindly by all of them. From the River'ot 
the Cenis^ where they firft met with Beavers and 
Otters; the farther they advanced Northward, the 
greater Number they found of thofe Animals. Whilfl 
they Ibjourned among the Ouidkhes^ they met with 
three Warriours of two Nations caU'd the Cahinnio^ 
and the Mentous^ who dwelt twenty five Leagues 
farther, Eaft-North-Ealt, and had feen fome French- 
men. They ofterd to condud 'em to their Country- 
men, and by the way they crofs'd four Rivers and 
Brooks, or Torrents made by the Rain, there they 
were receiv'd by thefe Nations with the Calumets 
Peace in their Hands, with all poffible Tokens 
Gladnefs and Efteem. Many of thefe Savages ta| 

A Voyage into North America. 4 1 

to 'era of an Enrofean^ who was a Captain aiid had but 
one Hand ^ this was the Sieur de Toml a Neapolitan, 
mentioned in my firit Vohime. They added, that he told 
'em, that a greater Captain than himfelf wonld.probab- 
ly pafs-by their Village ^ raeiining the Sieur deU Salle. 

The Chief Man among them lodg'd them in his 
Cabbin or Hutt, and made his Family go out of it ; 
there diey were treated fe vera 1 Days with all forts 
of good Cheer. Nay, they order'd a folemn Feaft to 
be kept publickly, wherein they danc'd to the Cdu- 
met four aad twenty Hours together, and fung Songs 
made purpofely for the Occalion, which their Cap- 
tain didated to them as loud as he could, they en- 
tertained 'em as Envoys from the Sun, who came to 
defend them from their Enemies with Thunderbolts, 
meaning their IMufquets which they had never feen 
before ^ in the heat of thefe Rejoycings the younger 
Cavelkr let Off his Pillol three times, crying out Vive 
le Roy^ which the Barbarians repeated with a loud 
jVoice ; adding, long live the Sun. 
[ . Thefe Savages have a prodigious Number of Bea- 
years and Otters in their Country, which might be 
bafily exported by a River near the Village \ thefe 
Savages would have loaded their Horfes with them, 
but they refus'd them, to fnew they were free from 
by Self-deiign, and prefented the Barbarians with 
Ratchets and Knives ^ at lafl: they went away with 
two Cahinnioh to guide them ^ after they had receiv'd 
me AmbafFadors from the AnaUu^ the Tanko^ and 
pther Nations Northweft, and South Weftward, they 
!:t-avers'd for fome- Days the fii-eft Country in the 
IVorld full of Rivers, Meadows', little Woods,.,HinS) 
md Vineyards. ' -• 

Among others theyo:ofs'd over four large Naviga-^ 

le Rivers, and. after a March of about fixtyLeagiies, 

hey came to the QJfotteosz.^ who dwell upon a^No- 

le River running from, the North- Weil, upon whofe 

nks grow the finelt Woods in the Univerfe. 

X The 

42 A Voyage into North Anierica. 

?I'he Skins of Bevers and Otters are every where 
found in To great a Quantity, as well as all other kinds 
of Hides and Skins of Bealts, that they throw 'em all 
in a heap and burn them, of fo little value are they ac- 
counfad. 'Tis upon the famous River of the Akanfn 
that fo many Villages ftand, as I mention'd in the 
%it Tome of my Difcoveries. 
" "\!Father Anafiafms fays in his Relation, that there 
they began to know where-abouts they were: At the 
fame time he knew very well, that neither he nor any 
Man in his Company had ever been upon the River 
j\defchafi^i : Indeed I went up it by my felf, with 
two' Indians in a Canou in i58o, and afterwards mi 
1^82,. M. de la Salle went up it as high as Akanfat, 
'TIS .'hijghly probable, . Father Anafiafms thought he 
]«?as then at Fort Crevccosur^ fituated in the Country 
of the JUinois^ becaufe he found a great Crofs there, 
and beneath it the King of Francis Arms ^ beiides he 
laysr a Houle built after the European way, and upon 
this the Sieur Jontel^ and two more that were left 
difcharged their Mulquets. At the Noife of the Guns 
out came two French Canada-ns^ their Commander's 
Name was M. Couture ^ whom I knew particularly 
well when 1 lived in Canadd^ and was one that made 
the Voyage along with us to to dilcover the Lomfiana. 
This M. Couture gave them to know, that he was Po 
fted there by the Sieur de Pontiy by order of M. de | 
Salky to keep up an Alliance with the Neighbourinj 
Savage Nations, and guard them againft the Infults ^ 
the Iroquois^ their fworn Foes. 

They vifited three Villages, the Forimans^ the D^ 
^inga^ and the Kaf^a ^ they received 'em every whefiji 
with'Feafts, Speeches, Dances, and all other Expre§ 
lions of Joy. They were lodg'd in the Houfe beloii-; 
ging to this fmall Fort. Thefe of Canada that we 
lettled there entertained 'em very kindly, and ma< 
them Mafters of all. Whatever Affairs thefe Savag^ 
contelled about they never decided them immediate' " 


! -^ ^<>J^g^ ^^^^ North America. 45 

but fummon'd together the chief Men, and the moft 
Ancient of the Villages, and deliberated upon the 
matter in difpute. Thefe Travellers ask'd them for a 
Pyrogue, and fome Savages in it to go up the River 
\Mefchafiflj as far as the Illinois^ by the River of that 
Nation, which in my Map of Lonifiana^ I call the 
River of Seignelay^ in honour to the Miniller of State 
bf that Name, who favour'd and took care about 
pur Difcovery. Father Anafiafius fays they ofFer'd 
their Horfes, fome Powder and Lead in exchange for 
the Pyrogue. After the Council had met upon this 
Subjed, they came to a Refolution to grant them the 
iPyrogue they demanded, • and four Savages to man it, 
lone of each Nation to fignify the ftrid Alliance they 
bad made with them. This was punctually execut- 
ed, fo they difmis'd the Cahinnio with Prefents to 
^heir Satisfadion. 

I Upon this Head I would obferve, without preten- 
ding to relied upon M. de la Salle^ that he undoubt- 
edly never found out the true Mouth of the River 
\Mefchafip^ nor Father Anaftafms neither, who ne- 
l^er was in that Part of the Country^ and if tlie iaft 
jlid luckily light upon it by hclf of the Savages that 
guided him, 'tw-as owing to the Diredions he re- 
ceived from M. Comtrc^ Commander of the Skonce; 
but it may be he will give us more light into this 
batter hereafter. 

C H A P. X, ' 

"^e Voyage of the Simr Cavelier a fr.iefi-^ and Father 
Anaftalius^ RecolUtt in, a Pyrogne to the Illinois,. 
und fever d Obfcrvations concer-ning their Return. 

Fter they had tarried a little time among thefe 
— People, M.. Cav slier ^ and Father Anafiafius ^ 
rmbarked in the River of Mefchafipi.A^g. i- they 
X 2 eroded 

^4. JFojage if^toNonhAmcncdL. * 

croiTed the River the fame day in a Py rogue of 40 
Eoot long. The Stream was very ftrong in that Place, 
fothey went all afhore to travel the reft of the Jour- 
i^ey on Foot, becaufe they had left their Horfes at 
jiJuinfay though :they had done better perhajDS to 
haive kept them: They left no Soul in the Py rogue 
but. young CaveUer ^ whofe tender Age joyn'd 
with the Fatigue of Travelling fo far, made him un- 
capabie of profecuting the journey on Foot. Father 
j4nafiafms''th'mks that from the place where they fet 
out to the Illinois^ they had 400 Leagues to march 
afoot before they could get thither^ but all this is 
fpoken by guefs. 

• One of the Savages v/ent aboard the Pyrogue to fceer 
it along the River, and one of his Comerades reliev'd 
him trom time to time. The reft of the Company 
made no ufe of the Pyrogue, but only when they had 
Gccafion to avoid a dangerous Place, or crofs any Ri- 
vers ^ they underwent a great deal of Toil in this Voy- 
age, the Heats were excefTive in that Seafon, the Sand^ 
was burnt by the Sun, but more than all, the want of 1 
Food, which they endur'd feveral days, reduced 'em 
to extreme Hardihip. 

Father Anajtafms adds. That they were got 200 
Leagues over land from the Bay of St. Lmis^ that is 
to lay, 1 00 Leagues to the Cmis^ . 60 [to the North 
North-Ealt, and 40 to the Fall: North-Eail ; from the 
Najfonls to the Cadodacchos 40 North North-Eaft-: 
ward, from t\iQ Cadodacchos to the Cahinnio and thd 
Mentoiis 25 to the Eafl North-Eall, and from the Ca- 
hinnio to the Akmtfti do Ealt North-Ealt. 

They contiiia-^d their Pro^refs up the River by the 
fame way, that they had ^qard M. de la Sails went 
in 82, except that they went to Skacha. Father A-^ 
Tiafiafmsj lays M. de la Salle v/as not there. I made 
mention of this Nation in my Difcovery in 80, in the 
preceding Volume ^ their principal Village is twenty 
five Leagues Ealt from Akanfa. The People are ro- 



I , • 

A Voyage into North America. 4 c 

jbuft aiid numerous, confilling a.t leaft of 4000 figjit- 
iing Men: They have abundance of all forts of Skins 
and Hides. Their Leaders often brought the Cdnmet 
to them to iignifie that they were willing to make -an 
jAlliance with them ^ nay, tliey offer'd to go and fetf 
rtle themfelves upon the River Oaabache to be nearer 
jtort Crevecceiir in the Country of the Illinois^ ^whither 
'they were Travelling. 

[I This famous River of Omhache is full as large as 
\Mefchafif ^ a great many other Rivers run into it, 
the out-let where it difcharg,es it felf into Mefchajipl is 
feoo Leagues from Akanfa according to M. delaSallis 
Computation \ the truth is, it is not ^6 far crofs the 
fcoiintry, but it may be as much in the following the 
purfe of the River Mefchafm^ which winds ^bout 
very much. Straight over land 'tis not above 5 good 
ijlays journey. 

[ They crofs'd the River Onahache^ Aiigufi 16. and 
found it fail do Leagues along the River A^efchajtpi to 
ihe mouth of the River of the Ilii/jolsj about 6 Leagues 
below "the mouth of that River North-Weltvvard, is 
[:he famous River of the the A^ajfoHrites or the Oraaes^ 
ivhich is as large at lealt as the River it falls into. It is 
'bade up of feveral other knov/n navigable Rivers in- 
labited by numerous Nfations, as the FanimAha^ who 
|ave but one Captain and 22 Villages, the leall of 
Hiich contains 200 Cabbins. The P'meajfa the Paria^ • 
mQ Pa?Mlogaj and the A^hm antes y each of which is 
|s confiderable as the ?^;7/»Zi^/:;^. 
I The Oraaes have 17 Villages- upon a River of their 
Pame, that difcharges it felf into that of the Majfon- 
^kes. ^ Our Maps and tbofe of M. de U Sdle^ have pla- 
|ed the Or ages there. Formerly the Akanfa dwelt a . 
reat v/ay up one of theie Rivers, which bears their 
iame ftili, and which I take notice of about the midit 
f the Pailage of the River Ouahache to that of the Aiaf- 
wites'^ there lies the Cape of St. Anthony oiTadti.^^ and 
icreabouts live the Savage Nation of the Manfonolea. 

( . ' X q ■ ': ■ sc^t. 

^6 A Voyage into North America. 

Se^t. 5. M. Cuvelier and Father Anafiafim arriv'd 
at the mouth of the River of the Illinois j 'tis reckon'd 
1 00 Leagues from thence to Fort Crcjecoeur , as I re- 
mark'd in my firft Volume. The pafTage all the v.^ayis 
dear and navigable^ by large Veflels. A Chaouemn 
nam'd Turfm , having feen them enter his Village, 
ran by ^.and to carry the Nev/s to M. Belle Fomaincy 
Commander of that Fort ^ he could not believe what 
he told him , but they follow'd apace after the Bar- 
barian , and came to the Fort, Seft. 14. prefently 
they conduced them to the Chapel, where Te Deum 
was thankfully fung. The Canadans that \tere in 
the place , and fome Savages fir'd Volleys of Muf- 
kets. j 

M. de Tonti^ whom M. de la, Salle defigned to bte| 
Commander of Fort CrevecaMr , was gone among the 
Jroqitois to difpofe thofe Barbarians to an Alliance. 
Thefe Travellers were receiv'd with ail the kindnefsi 
imaginable , and M. de Belle -Fount ai-n omitted no Te-: 
ftimony of his Joy to fee them fafely arriv'd. Ij 

It muft be confell, that no man can evade his dH 
ftiny. At the fame time it muft like wife be acknow-- 
ledged that the Difafter of M. de la Salle had forae-r 
thing very fatal in it ^ he undertook this great Voy-i' 
age with defign to find out the mouth of the Rivet- 
Mefchafipi^ but unfortunately fell by the way with^i 
out fucceeding in his Enterprize, and yet ju ft after hisi 
Death, his Brother, Father Anafiafus^ &c. went littj 
that Rivei" and arriv'd at the IHrnois. 

'Tis indubitable, neverthelefs, that there is an ex-: 
cellent Haven at the mouth of this River, as I ob-') 
ferv'd in 80. The entry into it is very conveliient^t 
as may be eafily feen. Of the three arms that com-i 
pofe r.his out-let , I always followed the Channel ofc 
that in the middle. 'Tis a commodious Harbour^ 
and Jias feveral places fit to raife FoitrcfFes upon, thafe 
are in. no danger of being overflow'd, as has former- 
ly beeii thought. The lower part (?r mouth of the^ 


A Forage into North America. 47 

River is habitable, and is inhabited by feveral faVage 
Nations that don't lie far from it. The greatell Vef- 
fels may go up above 200 Leagues from the Gulph of 
Mexico^ as far as the month of the River of the ////- 
nois^ which River is navigable for above 100 Leagues, 
and difcharges it felf into the Rivqt Mefchafip. At the 
lower end of the River dwell feveral other Nations, 
which I forgot, as the Pkhem, the Oz.anbo^m^ the 
Tanglbao, the Onomka, the Movifa^ and many others, 
wliofe Names ealily efcape ones Memory , when one 
palTes through them without leifure, or conveniency 
to take neceflary Obfervations and Notgs. 

'Tis probable that M. de la Salle not finding the 
Mouth of that River in the Sea, fanlied that the Bay 
of St. Lewis was not above 40 or 40 Leagues from the 
Mouth of one of its Arms, at leaft in a ftrait line •, 
but by misfortune he never was at it. God fets bounds 
to all Men , and their Enterprifes, to all the defires 
of their Hearts, as well as to the vail: Ocean. 

Doubtlefs God permitted it fo to be, that Father 
Anafiafm who is now Vicar of the Recollects at Cam-^ 
hray^ fhould difcover no Nations in his Travels, 
without taking into the Number many more Savage 
People well known to thofe he conversed with en 
pafant , becaufe they traffick with them, Which at 
the fame time were never feen by any Enroptan. 

Thefe People, as I have already noted, have very 
good Horfes, fit for any fervice in abundance. They 
think themfelves well paid for a Horfe, if One gives 
them a Hatchet. 

Father Anafiafim went from the Bay of St. Lewis 
to Che Gulph of Mexico^ with dellgu to fettle a Miffion 
among the Cenis in his 2d Voyage. Father Zemhim 
Mamhre Recoiled, who Itaid behind at the faid Bay, 
was to have come and joyn'd him , to the end they 
might fpread the Faith among the neighbouring Na- 
tions. They expedled from Enrobe a great number of 
Labourers , but the death of M. de la Salle obliging 
X 4 i^iin. 

4$ AVq^age into North America. 

him to proceed further, he don't doubt but Father 
Zenohim has been there to look for him. 

So it may be he is now in that Country with Father 
Maximits a Recoiled and Native of Lijle in Fla?iders^ 
and that they have left the Sieur ChefdeviUe a MifFio- 
^ary of St. Sdficim^ at the Miffion of the Port in th^t 
Bay. He determined himfelf to be there , becaufe 
there were nine or ten European Families there with 
their Children, befides fonie of Af. de ' U Sdles men 
have married with the Women of the Country to 
augment the little Colony. This is the Extrad of 
Father Anafiajms's account of his toilfome Voyage. 
What are become of the People left in thofe parts 
iince that time, we know not. 

Father Anafiafm conceal'd the deplorable Fate of 
M. de la Salljj becaufe 'twas his Duty as v/eil as M. 
Caveller's the Prieft, to carry the firil News of it to 
Court,' and fecm-e the Effects of the deceas'd in the 
faid Fort of the Illinois^ becaufe he advanced Mony 
upon the Enterprize. He departed from the IUi?7ols 
in the Spring, i(588. together with father Anafiafmy 
young CaveUer^ M. Joutely and one Barbarian, who 
dwells at prefent near f^erfailles -^ they arrived at Qne- 
heCy July 27. and fetfail for France the iot]\of A^i^gajt 
following. God granted them a favourable palFage to 
Taris^ after having run through incredible Dangers j 
and they gave an account of their Voyage to the late 
Marquis de Seignelay. 

This is the Story of M. de la Salle's laft Voyage, 
which I thought my felf obliged to give the World, be- 
eaufe 'tis a continuation of mine, and confirms feveral 
things related in my I go on now to de- 
icribe the Religion and Manners' of thofe barbarous 
Nations, which I difcovered in my Voyage. 

: H A R 

A Voyage into North Anierka. 49 


the Anther^ s Refldtions ufon the Voydge to China ; the 
Opinion of mofi of the Savages of North America, cort- 

' cerning the Creation of the World^ and the Immonality of 
the Soul. 

TIS a common Saying, That Truth is the. very 
Soul and Ellence of Hiftory : now this account 
)f the Manners of the Savages oi 'North America be- 
ng taken fincerely, needs no other Recommendation, 
Novelty and Variety join together to pleafe the Rea- 
ier, though I treat of unpolilhed People-, 
ind therefore I hope, that a Defcription of 200 dif- 
"erent Nations, which I have either feen my felf, or 
3een informed of by fome Rehgious that have been 
imong them, will divert the Curious. 

The Son of God having foretold, That his Gofpel 
Tiould be preached throughout the Univerfe , the " 
Faithful have always interefted themfelves in for- 
ATarding the accomplifhment of that Prophecy, and 
aboured to convert thofe barbarous Nations wha 
lave no knowledge of the true God. 'Tis true, that 
nultitude of favage People which inhabit the valt 
Countries of America^ have had their Eyes fhut a- 
5^infl: the Light of Truth: But we have already be- 
pn to preach Chrill; crucified to them, to the befl of 
j)ur skill , that we might bring them to Salvation, 
yi^e hope tlierefore that thole who are llirr'd up by 
|he Love of God, will not be wanting for the future 
fo finiih v/liat we have begun, but endeavour the Sal- 
ivation of fo many Souls , who might nor p.erifh, if 
phriftians would help them to get out of their. 
Oatural Blindnefs. To clear the way, and direft the 
ioeans to it, we are going to give an account of the 
ideas thefe People have of Religion, and likewileof 
jheir Manners, that fo we 'nlay the more readily 
spntrive the methqd of the^ir ' Gqayerlion , and in 
r ' " ' , what 

what manner to inftrud them, to render them capa^ 
ble of receiving the Truth and eternal Salvation. 

Our Dilcoveries have acquainted us with mofl part 
of North America J fo that I don't queftion if the King 
of Great Britain , and the States of Holland fhould 
think fit to fend us back thither to finifh what we have 
fo happily begun , but we fhould dcmonllrate what 
we could never yet give a clear Account of, though 
many Attempts have been made to it. It has been 
found impoffible hitherto to go to Ja^an by the 
Frozen Sea ^ that Voyage has often been frullrated j 
and I am morally afUir'd, that we can never fiicceed 
in it, till we have firil difcovered the Continent be- 
twixt the Frozen Sea and Nem Mexico. I am per- 
fiiaded that God preferved me in all the great Dan- 
gers of my long Voyages, that I might perfed that 
happy Difcovery ; and I here offer my felf to under- 
take it , not doubting the Succefs of the Enterprize, 
(God willing) provided I am furnifh'd with conveni- 
ent Means. 

I don't wonder, that' the Learned are at alofs how 
^wmV^ was Peopled, and that infinite number of Na- 
tions fettled upon that vail Continent. America is 
half the Terreltrial Globe. The molt expert Geogra- 
phers are not throughly acquainted with it, and the 
Inhabitants themfelves , whom we difcovered , and 
who in all likelihood fhould know beft, don't know 
how their Anceflors came thither \ and certainly if in 
Europe we wanted the Art of Vi/^riting (asthofe Peo- 
ple do) which in a manner makes the dead live again, 
recals what's pafl, and preferves, the memory of 
things, 1 am afraid we fhould not be lefs ignorant , 
than thofe Savages. 

The greateft part of the Barbarians in North Ame- 
rica have generally a Notion of fome fort of Creati- 
on of the Worlds they fay. Heaven, Earth and 
Mankind were made by a Womai"i,and that fhe and her 
Son govern the World j and for tiiis reafon, perha|>s 


A Voyage into North America. 51 

it is, that they reckon their Genealogies by Women. 
They lay farther , that the Son is the Author of all 
good things, and the Woman of all Evil. That both 
of them enjoy perfedl Felicity. The Woman, they 
fay, fell out of Heaven big with Child, and lighted 
upon the back of a Tortoife, who fav'd her from 
drowning. When we objed: againll the Ridiculouf^ 
nefs of their Belief, they uluaDy anfwer, That fuch 
an Objeftion is offeree with them that m^ake it, but 
is of no weight againfl; them, becaufe they look upoa 
themfelves to be created after another manner thaii 
the Europeans are. 

. Other Savages upon the fame Continent, are of 
opinion. That a certain Spirit called Otkon by the Iro- 
quois^ and Atahaiita by the otjier Barbarians at the 
Mouth of the River of St. Lmrence^ is the Creator of 
the World, and that one Mejfou repair'd it after the 
Deluge. In this manner do they alter and confound 
by their Traditions that Knowledge of the univerfel 
Deluge, which their Anceflors probably had : They 
fay , That this Mejfou or Otkon being a hunting one 
day, his Dogs loft themfelves in a great Lake, which 
thereupon overflowing, cover'd the whole Earth in a 
fhort time, and fwallowed up the World. They add. 
That this Mejfoii or Otkon gathered a little Earth toge- 
ther by the help of fome Animals, and made ufe of 
this Earth to repair the World again. They think 
the Europeans inhabit another World difrerent from 
theirs ^ and when we go about to undeceive them, 
and teach them truly how the llniverfe was created, 
they lay all that- may be true enough of the World 
we live upon, but 'tis quite another thing with theirs : 
Nay, they often ask us, whether we have a Sun and 
Moon in Enrobe as well as they. 

There are another ibrt of Savages who' dwell at 
the Mouth of the River of St. Lanrence and Mefcha- 
ftp., that tell us a very odd Story ^ they lay much 
like the former, that a Woman came down from Hea- ' 


52 J yojage mo North ArnQTica, 

veil, and hovered a while in the Air, becaiife flie 
could find no place to fet her Foot upon. The Fifli 
of theSeacompaffionating her, held a Council to de- 
termine who Ihould receive her. The Tortoife of- 
fered himfelf, and prefented his Back above Water, 
the Woman placed lier felf upon it, and ftaid there. In 
fime the Filth of the Sea gathering and fetling about 
the Tortoife by little and little, formed a great extent 
of Land, which at prefent is that we call America. 

Now fay they, "this fame Woman being uneaiie at 
her living iblitarily, and troubled to have no body to 
pafs the time with , more agreeably than ihe did :, 
there delcended from on high a Spirit, who found 
her fain alleep with melancholy j he approached , 
her unperceived, ard from that Conjunftion came 
forth two Sons, out or her fide ^ thefe two Children 
could never agree together after they were grownup. 
One was a better Hunter than t'other, and every 
day there was fome fcuffling between 'em. At length 
tlieir Animoiities grew to that Extremity, that they 
could not endure one another : One of them Speci- 
ally was of a very violent Humour, and had a mor- 
tal hatred for his Brother, who was better tempered, 
the lafl unable any longer to fiibrait to the rude be- 
haviour, and ill treatment which the other beftowed 
upon him perpetually, refolved to feparate himfelf 
from him ^ fo he flew up into Heaven, whence to de- 
note his juit refentment, he rattles his Thunder fron^ 
time to time over his unhappy Brother's Head. 

Some time after the Spirit came down again to the 
Woman, and then fhe brought forth a Daughter from 
whom, fay the Savages, is delcended, that numerous 
People who now take up one of the largelt Parts of the 

How fabulous foever this Story be in it felf, yet we 
may difcern a run of Truth in it. This Womans llecp 
and the Birth of two Sons, has fomething in it akin 
•to Adam's ileep, whillt God took one of his Ribs to 
foriji £ve. IMie . 

A Voyage into North America. 55 

, The difagrcement of the two Brothers refenibles 
tije irreconcilable Hatred of Cain and Abel ^ the re- 
treat of one of 'em to Heaven, reprefents the Death 
<)f Abel^ and the Thunder grumbling in the Sky may- 
be compared with the Curfepronoimc'dbyGod, upon 
tlie wretched Cain^ for inhumanly killing his Brother. 

'Tis a lamentable thing to conlider what wild Chi- 
mcera's the Devil puts m thefe People's Heads. Tho' 
they believe that the Soul is Corporeal (for they un- 
derftand nothing elfe by their Otkon^ Atahanta^ or 
J\'Linitoii , but fome material principal Being, that 
gives life and motion to all things) ne\'erthelefs they 
profefs their Belief of the Immortality>of the Soul, and 
a Life to come, in which they fhall enjoy all forts of 
pleafure ; as Hunting, and Fifii 'm abundance, Corn 
for thofe that fow it, for fome never low Corn ^ To- 
bacco, and a thoufmd other Curiolities and Conve- 
niencies. They fay the Soul does not leave the Body" 
as foon as it dies, and therefore they take care to lay 
by the Body a Bow, Arrows, Corn, and fat Meat, 
for the Dead to fubliil upon till they reach the Coun- 
try of Souls. ; . 

And becaufe they think all fenfible Things have 
'Souls, therefore they reckon that after Death, Men 
hunt the Souls of Beavers, Elks, Foxes, Otters, and 
other Animals. They believe tbat the Souls of thofe 
Rackets which they wear under their Feet i'[i Winter- 
time to keep 'em from finking into the Snow, ferve 
'em for the fame ufe in the next Life, as well as the 
Souls of Bows and Arrows to kill Bealls with. And 
fo they fanlie of the'Filh iikewife, and therefore the 
Souls will have occalion fay they for the Arms in- 
terred with the Dead ^ the dead Bodies have no need 
of the Arms and Viduals that are fet by 'em, no lon- 
ger than till they get to the Country of Souls. 

They imagine that the Souls walk' viiibly for Ibme 
time in the Villages, and partake of their Feafcs and 
Revels, therefore they always fee aiide a Portion 


54 ^ Voyage into North America, 

for them. Nay feveral of thefe Nations go {q far as 
to make certain general Fealls for the Dead, accom- 
panied with Songs and horrible Cries, Feafts where- 
in all that is brought is to be eaten up ; , Dances and 
Prcfents of divers kinds. They take up the dead Bo- 
dies in the Village, and the very Bones of thofc that 
are confumed which they call Packets of Souls , they 
remove 'em from one Sepulchre to another, adorned 
with dreiTed Skins, Collars of Porcelain, and other 
like Riches, fuch as their Country affords : They be- 
lieve all this contributes mainly to the Happinefs of 
the Dead. 

I will not be tedious in fumming up particularly 
all their fuperftitious Opinions upon this Subjed, in 
relation to the different Places or Employs they af- 
iign to them, the manner of their living, their Wars, 
Peace, Policy and Laws : All extravagant, ridiculous 
Traditions founded upon Fables invented by their An- 
celtours, and delivered to their Poiterity for credi- 
ble Truths, and as fuch received and firmly held by 

One would be apt to fufped that thefe Savages of 
America originally fprung from the Jews , fome of 
whom might cafually have been wreckt, and caft up- 
on that Part of the World \ for they have feveral 
Cufloms not unlike theirs^ ^ they make their Cabbins 
in the form of Tents, like as the Jews did \ they a- 
noint themfelvcs with Oil, and are fuperftitiouily ad- 
dicted to Divination from Dreams. They bewail over 
the Dead with great Lamentation. The Women go 
into mourning for their near Relations a "whole Year, 
during which time they abllain from dancing and 
feafling, and wear a fort of a Hood upon their Heads, 
and commonly the Father or Brother of the De- 
ceafed take care of the Widow. 

Befides it feems as if God had laid a particular 
Maledidion upon 'em , as he did upon the Jews : 
Tliey are brutiih, and perfjft unalterably in their 

Opinions j 

J Voyage into isJorth America. 5 j 

Opinions ^ they have no certain fixed Place of Abode j 
they are very lafcivious , and have fuch grofs Con- 
ceptions, that when we tell 'era Souls are immortal 
,and immaterial, they ask what they eat in the other 
World. Moreover we may obferve fome Conformi- 
ty between Mofes\ Relation of the Creation of the 
World, and the Belief of thefe Savages about it, as 
I obferved above. But to fpeak frankly, thefe Bar- 
barians feem to have no kind Qi Idea of the Deity, 
and yet they believe another l^ife in which they hope 
tp enjoy the fame Delights, that they are pleafed 
with here. They live without any fubordination , 
without Laws or any form of Government or Policy. 
They are Itupid in matters of Religion , fubtle and 
crafty in their Worldly Concerns ^ but exceffively fu- 


What Method is mofi proper to convert the Savages ; 
what Manner of Perfons they are that ought not to be 
\ haptizjed. 

PU R ancient Miffionary Recolleds of Canada ^ 
and thofe that fucceeded them in that Work , 
jh^ve always given it for their Opinion, as I now owq 
itis mine, that the way to fucceed in converting th^ 
Barbarians, is to endeavour to make them Men before 
^e go about to make them Chriflians. Now in or- 
der to civilize them 'tis necelTary that the Europeans 
ho\M mix with them, and that they ihould dwell 
X)gether, which can never be done for certain till the 
polonies are augmented: but it mull be acknowledg- 
ed, that the Company of Canada Merchants , Jiave 
■nade great Obftacles to the encreaflag of the Colo- 
nies j for out of greedinefs to keep all the Trade ia 
their own Hands, theis Gcntieipea would never per- 

5 6 J Voyage into North Arnerica. 

mit any particular Society to fettle tliemfelvfes in 
Country, nor fufFer the Miffionaries to perfwade thS ' 
Barbarians to dwell conllantly in a place. Yet before 
this be done, there's no way to convert thefe Unbe- 
lievers. Thus the covetoufnefs of thofe who are for 
getting a great deal in a Ihort time, has mightily re- 
tarded the eftablilhment of the Gofpel among the Sa- 

Hence 'tis manifelt, that the Office of a Miffionary 
is very troublefome and laborious, amongft thefe nu- 
merous Nations, and it muft be granted that 'tis ne- 
cellary to fpend many Years, and undergo a great 
deal of pains to civilize People fo extremely ftupid 
and barbarous. 

And therefore , one would not venture witliout 
much caution, to adminifter the Sacraments to adult 
Perfons, who pretend themfelves Converts ^ for we 
fee that after fo many Years of Miffion, there has 
been but little progrefs made, though no pains have 
been wanting on the Miffionary 's Hands. 

So that Chriflianity is not like to gain much ground 
among the Savages, till the Colonies are Itrengthcn- 
ed by a great" Number of Inhabitants, Artifans and 
Workmen, and thga the Treaty betwixt the Barba- 
rians and us fhould be freer, and extended to all En- 
ropeans : But chiefly it ffiould be endeavoured to fix 
the- Barbarians to a certain dwelling Place, and intro- 
duce our Cuftoms and Laws among them, furthered 
by the Affiftance of zealous People in Europe^ Col- 
leges might be founded to breed up the young Sava- 
ges in the Chrifcian Faith, which might in time con- 
tribute very much to the Converfion of their Coun- 
try-men. This is a very proper Method without 
doubt, to ftrengthen the Temporal and Spiritual In- 
terel'-s of the Colonies^ but the generality of Man- 
kind are bent upon Gain and Traffick., and are little 
corcerned to procure God's Bleffing upon them, and 
endeavour the advancement of his Glory. 

.: God- 

'A Voyage into North America.' 5 ^ 

God is often pleas'd to prove his Children; and a- 
nongft 'ei;n thofe that employ themfelves in faving 
Duls, by thofe means that moft afflid them, but 
langers. Labours, Sufferings, and even Death it felf 

ould be welcome to them, provided in facrificing 
lemfelves for the Salvation of their Brethren, God 
>ould afford them the Confolation to fee their Un- 
ertakings Crown'd withfuccefs to his Glory, and the; 
lonverfion of Infidels. ^ ^ 

It is impofllble for us to look upon fo great a Num- 
ler of People as this relation mentions, and confider 
!lic little progrefs Religion has made among the Sa- 
lages of thefe vafl Countries, but we mult needs ad- 
jure the infcrutable Decrees of God, and cry out 
Ifith the Apoftle, O the Depth of the Riches of the Wif- 
lorn and Knowledge of God I a great Number of lear- 
led fecular Priefls, and zealous Religious men of our 
Drder, have carried the Light of the Gofpel into all 
Parts of the Earth, and labour'd hard in the Lord's 
i^ineyard. But God would have us know, that the 
lonverfion of Souls is the Work of his Grace, the 
*le(led Moments of which are not yet come. 
i I cannot help faying with Grief, that there is a 
ijreat deal of difference between the modern Miffions, 
kto America^ and thofe which our Recolleds began 
n the New World, and continued in the Southern 
?arts of America 5 there they daily converted Milli- 
ons of Souls j but in Canada we find the Ground bar- 
ren and unfruitful, nothing but blindnefs and infen- 
libility, a prodigious Diltance from God, and even 
an entire oppofition to the Myftery of our Faith. 
Whole Ages are requir'd to prepare thefe Barbarians 
for the Gofpel, before we can exped to fee it fiourifa 
there : And to add to our afllidion God has permit- 
ted that the Country fliould be in the hands of a 
Company of Merchants, who think of nothing but 
:their private Intercft, and are unconcern'd for the 
jPropagation of the Faith, 
i ° Y cur 

^8 A Vopge into North America^ 

Our Ancient Miflionaries Recolleds did not grant 
the Sacrament of Baptifm to the Savages but witfi 
great Caution, for fear the Sacred Myft^yfhouldbe 
profaned by the Barbarians j and in our Days we fee 
thcfe Nations not at all difpQs*d to Chriftianity: Thej 
feem to have no Senfe at all of Religion, in genera: 
to be incapable of the mofl common reafonings, that 
lead other Men to the knowledge of a Deity true oi 

Thefe miferable dark Creatures liften to all wefaj 
concerning our Myfteries, juft as if 'twere a Song 
they are naturally very vitious, and addided to fom( 
Superllitions that lignifie nothings their Cuftoms an 
favage, brutal and barbarous ^ they willfuffer them 
felves to be baptized ten times a Day for a Glafs o 
Brandy, or a Pipe of Tobacco, and offer their Chili 
dren to be baptized, but all without any Religiou 
Motive. Thofe that one takes the pains to inftrud^ 
for a Winter together, as I my felf taught fome 
them while I dwelt at Fort Frontenac, give no bett 
figns of Edification than others in our Articles ■ 
Faith : So wrapt up are they in infenlibility, to wf 
concerns Religion, which occalion'd terrible Chedc; 
• of Confcience in our Religious, in the beginning Jj 
their Miflion among the People of Canada j they ^ 
that the few Perfons of years of Difcretion that they' 
had .inftruded, and afterwards admitted to Baptifm 
ibonfell again into their ordinary indifference for Sal 
vation^ and that the Children follow'd the unhapp] 
Example of their Parents, infomuch that *twasnobet 
ter than a plain profanation of Baptifm to adrainifte 
it to them. 

The Cafe was fearch'd into to the bottom; and ar 
gued upon with much application ; nay, 'twas car 
ried into the Sorbonne ; at length, after all poffible dill 
gertt Scrutiny into the matter, it was concluded, tba 
as for Perfons of years, and Children near the Poin 
of Death, and who in all humai^e Probability wouk 


"^A Voy^elnto North America.' ' \^ 

:ertainly ibon give up the Ghoft \ they might veiK 
ure to baptize them if they demanded it, becaufe it 
night be juftly prefiim'd, that in that extremity God 
nfpir'd the adult Perfons with his Grace, as 'twas 
bought it had been obvious in fbme of them \ bi^t 
hey dedar'd, that as for the other Savagesi, they 
lUght not to be baptiz'd, until after long oWervatioft 
nd experience, they were perceiv'd to be weil in^ 
lined and inftruded, having a right apprehenfion ot" 
'Ur Myfteries, and had quitted their barbarous Cu- 
toms, they declar'd further that they raighc admi- 
jifter Baptifm to thofe who dwelt conftantly among 
he Ghriftians, were brought up in the fame way of 
jving, were civiliz'd, and above all were well inftru^ 
led, and that they (hould baptize their Ghiidrcn ^ 
ind they composed a Form, and likewife a kind of 
iindamental Canon, for a Rule to thefe Miflionaries, 
p which they were abfolutely to conform themfelves" 
|a the Fundions of their Employ. 


%6 Barbarians of North America don't acknoxoUdg^ 
\ my God. Of the pretended SotHs of terrsfinal 
i| AnimaU, 

jr\llr ancient Miflionaries Recolleds wereacquaint*" 
\J ed with feveral different Nations within the 
•iompafs of ^oo Leagues in North America ^ and I 
lave been among many more, becaufe I went fat- 
her than any of them, having made a V^oyage all 
ilong the River of St, Lameme^ and Mefchaftpi, I 
ybferved, as my Predec^flbrs, that the Savages don't 
vant good Senfe in what concerns the general and 
iiarticular intereft of their Nation. They purfuc 
'lieir Point, and take right Methods to come to the 
iad of their defigns: but 'tis what I am altoniih'd 
Yl at. 

So "J V(>^^g'^ ^f^fo North America! 
at, that whilft they are fo clear fighted in their com' 
mon Affairs, they fhould have fuch extravagant no- 
tions of the concerns of Religion> the Manners. 
Laws, and Maxims of Life. 

We muft all of us own, that almoft all the Savagcr 
in general have no Belief of a Deity, and that they' 
are incapable of the common and ordinary Argu- 
ments and Reafonings that the reft of Mankind ar( 
led by upon this Subjeft*, fo dark and ftupid are then 
Underftandings. At the fame time we may acknow- 
ledge, that now and then in fome of them we difco- 
ver fome glimmerings of a confus'd Notion of God 
Some willconfefs, but very cloudily, that the Sun i 
God : Others fay, 'tis a Genius that rules in the Air 
Some again look upon the Heavens as a kind of Divi 
nity. But thefeonly make a (hew of believing fome 
thing that we can hardly guefs at : we can't fij 
them to any fettled Principle. The Nations Southi 
wardfeem to believe an Univerfal Spirit that governs 
all : they imagine after a falhion, that there's^ a Spi 
rit in every thing, even in thofe that are inanimate 
and they addrefs themfelves to it fometimes, and be| 
fomething of it *, as we took notice of one Barbarian 
who made a kind of Sacrifice upon an Oak, at thil 
Cafcade of St. Antony of Padua^ upon the River Mep 

All thefe Nations don't profefs their Belief of 
Deity out of any refped to Religion : They talk o 
it ordinarily, as a thing they were prepoffcfTed with 
or frolickfomly, not regarding any thing they fa; 
themfelves, any otherwife than as a kind of Fable 
They have no outward Ceremony to fignify that the^i 
worihip any Deity : There's no Sacrifice, PrieU 
Temple, nor any other Token of Religion among! 

Their Dreams are to them inftead of Prophecy 
Infpiration, Laws, Commandments, and Rules, ii 
all their Enterprises, in War, PeacCj Commerce 


A Voyage into N9rth America. 61 
|;nd Hunting: They regard them as Oracles. The 
)pinion they have of their Dreams draws them iftco 
.kind ofnecefllty to be ruled by them j for they 
hink *tis an Univerfal Spirit that infpires them by 
Dreams, and advifeth them what to do .• And they 
arry this fo far, that if their Dream orders them to 
JiB a Perfon, or commit any other wicked Adion, 
[hey prefently execute it, and make (atisfadion for 
jc afterwards, as we fhall Ihew anon. The Parents 
Iream for their Children, the Captains for their 
/illage. There are fome among them, that take up- 
m them to interpret Dreams, and explain them af- 
[cr their own fancy or inclination ; and if their In- 
terpretations don't prove true, they are not lookt 
^pon as Cheats e're the more for that. 
\ Some have taken notic«,that when they meet with 
|ay Cafcade or fall of Waters, which is difficult to 
pofs, and apprehend any dinger, they throw a Be- 
yer's Skin, Tobacco, Porcelain, or fome fuch matter 
into it by \yay of Sacrifice, to gain the Favour of the 
Spirit that prefides there. 

\ There's no Nation but what have their Jugglers, 
,Vhich fome count Sorcerers : but 'tis not likely that 
ihey are under any Covenant, or hold communicati* 
in with the Devil. At the fame time, one may ven- 
jure to fay, that the evil Spirit has a hand in the 
picks of thefe Jugglers, and makes ufe of them to 
pufe thefe poor People, and render them more in- 
capable of receiving the Knowledge of the true God. 
^hey are very fond of thefe Jugglers, tho ;:hey cozen 
em perpetually. 

Thefe Impoftors would be counted Prophets, who 
retel things to come .* they would be lookt upon as 
ving almoft an infinite Power : They boaft that 
[hey make Rain or Fair Weather, Calms and Storms, 
fruitfulnefs or Barrennefs of the Ground, Hunting 
kky or unlucky. They ferve for Phy ficians too,and 
Tequently apply fiich Remedies, as have no manner 
ff.yirtue to cure the Diftemper. Y 3 No- 

6% J Voyage into North America.^ 

Nothing can be imagin'd more horrible than i 
Cries and Yellings, and the ftrange Contorfions 
thefe Rafcals, when they fall to juggling or cor ' 
ring ; at the lame time they do it very cleverlf 
They never cure any one, norpredid any thing thi 
falls out, but purely by chance : mean time they htfWB 
athoufand Fetches to bubble the poor people, w]|#|ij 
the accident does not anfwer their Predidions 2j^ 
Remedies; for, as I faid, they are both Proph^ 
and Quacks. They do nothink without Prefents on 
Reward. 'Tis true, if thefe Impoftors are not veryi 
dexterous at recommending themfelves, and bring?| 
ing themfelves off, when any perfon dies under th^ 
hands, or Enterprises do not fucceed as they pr6-« 
mis*d, they are fometimes murdered upon the pk 
without any more Formality. 

Thefe blind Wretches are wedded to many ot 
Superftitions, which th% Devil makes ufeof to deludfe 
them : They believe that feveral kinds of Animals 
have a reafonable Soul : They have an unaccounfiri 
able Veneration for certain Bones of Elks,Bevers, andi 
other Beafts \ they never throw thefe to their Dogs, 
which are the only Domeftick Animals they keep, be- 
caufe they fcrvc for Hunting : So they preferve thefe 
precious Bones, and are very unwilling to call 
them into the River. They pretend, that the Sools 
of thefe Animals come back into the World to fee 
how they treat their Bodies, and give notice accord- 
ingly to the reft of the Beafts both dead and li- 
ving-, and that if they fiiould find they are ill us'd, 
the Beafts of that kind would never let themfelvfst 
be taken, neither in this World nor the next. 

One may fay, that the Corruption of Sin has 
Ipiead a ftrange Darknefs in the Souls of thefe unhap- 
py people, and aperfeft Infenfibility to all Religion; 
infomuch that they are not to be match'd in any 
Hiftory. ^Tis true, they are obftinately fuperftitious 
m foBfte things j and yet at the far^e time, they are 


A Voyage into k cith America. 6 ^ 

^ot mov'd by any principle of Religion. 'Ti^ 
nothing but flrong prejudice and Imagination- 
When we difpute with them, and put them to a 
nonplus, they hold their tongues j their Minds are 
ftupid, their Faculties are befotted. If we propofe 
our Myffceriesto them, they heed them as indifferent- 
ly as their own nonfenfical Whin^es. I have met 
with forae of them, who feem tculckq^y/ledge that 
there is one firfl: Principle that made i^ things : but 
this rtiakes but a flight Impreffion upon their Mind, 
which returns again to its ordinary Deadnefs, and 
former Infenfibility. 


0/ the great difficulties in converting the Savages. 
Of the Prayers they get by rotCy and of Martyr* 

THE, great Infenfibility of thefe Barbarians is 
caufed principally by their Carelefnefs and neg- 
left to be throughly inltruded. They come to us, 
and attend to what we fay, purely out of Idlenefs, 
and natural Curiofity to converfe with us, as we 
with them; or rather they are tempted to follow us, 
by the Kindnefs and Flatteries we exprefs towards 
them, or becaufe of the Benefit their Sick receive 
from uSjOr out of hope to gain by trafficking with us; 
or laflly, becaufe we are Europeans, and they think 
us ftouter than themfelves, and hope we will defend 
them from their Enemies. 

We teach them Prayers ; but they repeat them 
like Songs, without any diftinftion by Faith. Thofe 
we have catechized a long time, are very wavering, 
except fome few : They renounce all, return into 
their Woods, and take up their old Superftitions 
upon the leaft Crotchet that comes into their Heads 

^4 -^ yoydge Into North America.^ 

I don't know whether their Predeceflbrs had any 
Knowledge of a God -^ but 'tis certain their Language^ 
which is very natural and expreflive in every thing 
elfe,is fo barren on this Subjea:,that we caii'tfind any 
exprelTionin it to llgnify the Deity, or any one of our 
Myfteries, not even the moft common : this gives us 
great perplexity ivhen we would convert them. 

Anothergr^aTObftacleto their Converfion is this: 
MoH of them have feveral Wives j and in the Nor- 
thern parts they change them as often as they plqafe: 
They can't conceive how people can tie themfelves 
indillblubJy to one perfon in Marriage. See how filly 
you are, cry they, when we argue with them about 
it. My Wife isuneafy to me, I am fo to her ; fhe»il 
agree very well with fuch a one, who is at odds with 
his Wife : now why fhould we four lead a miferable 
Life all our days ? 

Another hindrance lies in a Cuftom of theirs, not 
to contradia any Man \ they think every one ought 
to be left to his own Opinion, without being thwart- 
ed : they believe, or make as if they believeti all you 
fay to them ^ but^kis their Infenfibility, and Indiffe- 
rence for every tMrig, efpecially Matters of Religi- 
on, which they never trouble themfelves about. 

Amsrka is no place to go to out of a defire to 
fufFer Martyrdom, takingthe Word in a Theotegical 
Senfe : The Savages never put any Chriftian to death 
upon "the fcore of his Religion \ they leave every 
body at liberty in Belief: They like the outward 
Ceremonies of our Church, but no more. Thefe Bar- 
barians never make War,but for the Intereft of their 
Nation i they don't kill people, but in particular 
Quarrels, or when they are brutifh, or drunk, or in 
revenge, or infatuated with a Dream, or forae extra- 
vagant Vifion : they are incapable of taking away 
any Perfon's Life out of hatred to his Religion. 

They are brutifh in aU their Inclinations j they are 
naturally Gluttons, and know no other Happinefs in 


A Vi^Agt Into North America. ^5 

this Life, but the pleafure of eating and drinking : 
This is remarkable in their very Eyes, and their Di- 
veriionSj which are always begun and ended with 

The Paflion of Revenge which they are poircfTed 
with, is another great Obftacle to Chrntianity : 
t'hey are very tender and affedlionate to their own 
Nation, but cruel and revengeful beyond imagination 
towards their Enemies : They are natifrally Inqpn- 
ftant, Revilers, Scoffers, and Lafcivious. In fliort, 
among all the Vices they are addided to, W5 can 
iperceive no Principle of Religion or Morality ; and 
!to be fure this mufl: needs render their Converlion 

xtremely difficult. 
To perfwade them to any thing, and difpofe them 

o the Faith, 'tis requifite to make them familiar with 

IS, and contrad a good acquaintance with them ; but 
Ihis is not to be done prefently, becaufe firit of all the 
iColonies ought to be multiplied, and planted every 
Iwhere. When they have pafs'd away a few Weeks 
jwith the Europeans, they are oblig'd to go to War, 
|Hunting, or Fifhing, for their Subfiftence, and this 
[depraves 'em extremely. They Ihould be fix'd, in- 
ticed to clear the Ground, and cultivate it, and 
iwork at feveral Trades, as the Europeans do \ and 
jthen we Ihould fee 'em reform their barbarous Cu- 
ittoras, and become more civiliz'd, as well towards 
bne another as us. 

jl In another place we (hall treat of the other South- 
fern Nations, who feem better difpos'd to receive the 

3ofpel than thofe of the North. 


66 A Foy'itge into North America; 

C H A P. XV. 

Tlie manner of Feajiihg among the Savages] 

THey have Feafls at parting from one another, 
Feafts of Thanks, War, Peace, Death,Marriage, 
and Health. They continue revelling night and day, 
particularly^hen they hold thofe Feafts, which they 
term, Eat up all i For then they don't permit any 
one to quit the Company till all be eaten up. And if 
^ Perfon is not able to fluff any longer, he is obligM 

hire another into his place. 

They have other Feafls for the recovery of the 
^Sick, and fome ordinary common Feafls. Formerly 
they kept wanton Feflivals, where the Men and Wo- 
men mingled together promifcuoully, and plaid mofl 
abominable lewd Pranks. But if they make fuch En- 1 
tertainmentsnowa-days, 'tis very rarely, and wheat 
they are at a grea^diflance from the Europeans. 

When they undertake a War, 'tis commonly to re- 
cover fatisfadion for fome Injury, -that they pretend 
has been done to them : Sometimes they engage in it, 
upon account of a Dream, and often as a Fancy takes 
'em : Sometimes they enter into it, becaafc other 
People jeer them : You're a Coward, fay they ; You 
never were in a Battle ; You have kill'd no Body yet. 
Then are they rouzM by Honour, and after they have 
kill'd fome Fallow Deer, make a Feaft, and exhort 
their Neighbours to accompany them in their Enter- 

When they have a mind to go fingly, and alone^ 
they make no Feafl% but only order their Wives to 
get them fome Meal of Indian Corn, becaufe they are 
going to War. But if they would have Companions, 
they go through all the Villages to invite the young 
Men, who take thi^ir Platters of Wood, or Bark of 
Birch: Then they rendezvouz- at the Cabin of him 


4 ^^^l^ ^^^^ North America." 67 

I irho invited them, which they commonly enter, flng- 

ing Warlike Songs. lam going to War, I will re- 

^ vcnge the Death of fuch a Kinfman, I will flay, I will 

burn, I will brihg away Slaves, 1 will eat Men, and 

1 iiich like Expreffibns that breathe nothing but Cruelty. 

When all the Crew are aflembled, they fill the Ket- 

i ties of thofe that have any, or elfe their Porringers 

j of Wood or Bark: then they fit down to eat*, and 

during the Entertainment, he that invited them to 

I the Feaft, fings without intermillion, and exhorts 

them to follow him. 

All this while they fpeak not one word, and eat up 
all they have given them in profound filence, except 
one or other of 'cm between whiles applauds him that 
made the Feafb of War, by anfwering J^dho^ or 5=0- 
guenske. When the Orator has done, he fays to 'em 
all, 'Tis well j I'll march to morrow, or within two 
or three days, according as he hath projefted. Tht 
next day thofe who are willing to accompany him to 
the War, go to him, and afllire him that they will 
follow him any where to revenge him upon his Ene- 
mies. 'Tis very well, Nephews, fays he, we'll be 
going three days hence. And the Savages make 
twelve or fifteen Feafts of this kind before they fet 

Thcfe Barbarians had us'd to make very lafcivious 
Feafts. The Leader of the Party ordered a young 
Woman to proftitute her felf to fuch or fuch a one as 
he pointed at. If Ihe refus'd to gratify them, they 
attributed all their Mifcarriages in their Enterprizes 
to her y fo cunning is the Devil in cherilhing their im- 
pure Imaginations. 

When they marry their Children,they feldom make 
a Feaft. But if they do think fit to make any, they ob- 
ferve certain Ceremonies in it : thefirft thing they do, 
is to prepare Viduals. To this end they fill with 
Meat thofe Kettles which they have truck'd for with 
the Europeans, or great Earthen Pots which the Wo- 

6S A Voyage into North America: 

men make. They provide as many of them as they 
delign to have Guefts : when the M«at, or Sagamite 
is drefs'djthey go to invite their Guefts,ahd this they 
do by putting a little flick into their hand, and fayr 
ing, I invite thee to my Feaft. No fooner faid, but 'tis 
done, they need not be ask'd twice. They all come 
with their ufual Utenfils. The Mafter of the Cabin 
diftributes to each an equal Mefs, and he that provides 
the Feaft,or feme other in his place,fings without ceaf- 
ing till they have eaten all up: after the Banquet they 
iing and dance, and at lall without any Formality of 
returning Thanks to the Donor, they go back every 
one to their Cabin without fpeaking a word. None 
but thofe who have convers'd with the Europeans, 
return Thanks to thofe that invited them. 

The Feafts made to recover the Sick are much after 
the fame manner : But they do more good to the 
Guefts than to the fick weak Perfons. The Feafts for 
the Dead are more doelful and fad. No Body lings or 
dances then. The Kindred of the Dead are in a deep 
mournful lllence. They look mightily troublMj to 
move their Guefts to CompaOion : all that go to thefe 
Feafts, carry Prefents with 'em j and laying them at 
the feet of the near Kindred to the Deceas'd,fay,here's 
fomcthing to cover him,towards building a Cabin, or 
making a Palifade round his Sepulchre, according to 
the nature of their Prefents : then they feed plenti* 
fully, and return home without fpeaking a word. 

As for the ordinary Feafts, they order 'em feveral 
ways according to their Fancy : if they have any 
Knives bought of the Europeans, and have eaten and 
cut fat Meat with them, they ordinarily wipe their 
Knives with their Hair. They commonly eat fitting 
upon the ground, and having nothing to wipe upon. 
So they are forc'ft to wipe their greafyKnives in their 
Hair, and then rub their Faces all over with it. Thefe 
frequent Undions without doubt harden them, and 
make 'urn capable of undergoing much Toil. 


^A V(y^Age hio North Americai 69 


Tie manner af Adopting the Europeans among the 
• Savages, 

ITook notice in my former Volume that a Barbarian 
Gaptain of the Ijfati, or Nadoueffam^ named Aqul* 
paguetin^ adopted me in the place of his Son,who was 
kill'd in Battle by the Miamis ^and that thishelp'd me 
to gain Credit among thefe people, and infinuate my 
felf into 'em, the better to difpofe 'em to believe the 
Gofpel. This is what the Mifiionaries fliould aim at, 
when they are among the Savages ^ they Ihould en- 
deavour to infinuate themfelves into the Favour of 
him who is moll famous of all the Leaders among 
'era, and raoft enclin'd to the Europeans. Then this 
Captain brings them forth, for that's the term the 
Savages ufe to fignify their Adoption j and this is done 
in a Feall. The Captain, I fay, adopts a Miffionary 
for his Son, or for his Brother, according to his Age 
and Quality ^ after which all the Nation look upon 
him as if he were actually born in their Country, and 
a-kin to their Captain : by means of this Ceremony 
he gets admiffion into the Family, in the quality of a 
Son, a Brother, Uncle, Nephew, or Coufin, with 
refped to thole of the Family, and according to the 
rank they hold in it by their Birth. 

And to carry on their Defjgns the better, the Mif- 
iionaries caufe a Council to be aflembled, tofet them- 
lelves off the more to the Barbarians. And here let 
it be obferv'd, that all Aflbmblies, held by order 
pf their Captains, are call'd Councils. Thofe that 
come to thefe AfTemblies, lit upon the Ground in a 
Cabin, or in open Field '<, they keep filence whillt 
their Leader makes his Harangue, and religiouOy 
obferve whatever they once firmiy conclude upon. 


7© ^ V(^*g(i into North America: 

The MifTionaries deliver themfelves, in thefe Af- 
femblies, either by word of Mouth, if they under- 
ftand the Language of the People, orelfe by Interpre- 
ters They tell 'em that they come among them to 
make an Alliance and Friendfliip with them, and at 
the fame time to invite them to traffick with their 
Nation ; in coaclufion, they defirethe Savages to per- 
mit them to dwell in their Country, to inftrua: them 
in God's Law, which is the only way to Heaven. 

The Savages often accept the Offers of the Miffio- 
naries, and affiire them they are well fatisfied with 
their Perfons : but to win the Barbarians, 'tis requi- 
fitethat the Miffionaries give them Hatchets, Knives, 
or other European Merchandizes, which the Savages, 
efpecially thofe who never yet had any Commerce > 
with the Europeans, feta high value upon. We ney« 
treat of any Affair with them without prefentmg 
them with fomething of that nature, which they va- 
lue more than we in Europe do Gold. After this the 
Barbarians hring forth, that is to fay adopt thofe 
that have made Prefents to them. They publickly 
declare them Citizens, or Children of their Country ; 
and according to their Age, as I faid before the 
Savages call jthe adopted Perfons, Sons, Brothers, 
CouUns, according to the degrees of Relation : And 
they cherifh them whom they have once adopted, as 
much as if they were their own natural Brothers or 

Children. , _ ,. , . ^ 

I forgot to take tiotice m my former Volame, that 
theereataptain of the /jTrfti, named Ouajicoude, ot 
pierced Pine-tree, caird me his Brother. There are 
iio examples among the other Nations of adopting 
anv one for a Brother to a Captain fo abfolute as he. 
He had been feveral times at War with feventeen or 
eighteen Nations, Enemies to his, and brought away 
their He.ids, or made them Prifoners. 

Thofe that are Valiant and Couragious are very 
much elteem'd by the Savages. They ordinarily ufe 

^ Vo^Aga hto North America^ ^ i 

ho other Arms than Bows, Arrows, and Maces • but 
theyufe them very dexteroufly. They are clear- 
limb'd, adive; and robiift : I never faw any blind, 
crooked, or deform'd Perfon among them. 

0/ ths MaYYiages of the Savages in North America] 

MArriage is not a Civil Contraft among thefc 
People 5 the Man and Woman don't intend to 
bind themfelves together for as long as they live, they 
live together no longer than they agree together, and 
love one another. As foon as they are difcontented 
^with each other, they fay, as I before obferved, My 
;Wife is uneafy to me, and I to her, flie'll agree weU 
enough with fuch a one who is weary of his Wife ; 
there's no reafon why we four fhould live unquietly 
;all our days : So without more ado, without any Cla- 
Imor orNoife, they feparate, and remain perfectly 
I indifferent for each other. 

I Thefe Barbarians fometimes marry their Daughters 
;^t nine or ten Years old, not that the young Couple 
come together fo foon, their Age is too green for 
ithat, but they exped to make forae Advantage of 
i their Sons-in-law ^ for when they return from hunt- 
ing, the GirPs Father has the difpofal of the Skins, 
and the Flefh they have taken: but at the fame time 
I the Girl is obliged to hx'mg thz Sagamite^ or Milk 
'thicken'd with Indian Corn, and the Meat provided 
i for her Husband's eating, tho' Ihe do not yet cohabit 
i with him : fometimes 'tis five or fix Years before 
I they confummate. 

When they marry, they make F^afts with great 

pomp and rejoicing '■, all the V^illage is invited by 

I turns : every one makes good Chear. After the 

Banquet they fing and dance, as the Europeans upon 

. that occafion, but after their own way. They 

7s A Voyage into North America^ 

They often marry clandeftincly,and there goes but 
one word to the Bargain. A Savage unmarried Man 
goes to a MaidjOl", Unmarried Woman j without more 
Courtlhip, he tells her, if flie will go with him, ihe 
fiiall be his Wife : She makes no Reply at firft, but 
paufes a little while, holding her Head betwixt both 
her Hands while fhe is conlidcrin^ what to do 5 the 
Man holds his Head in the fame pbfture, and ftands 
lilend After fhe has thought a little of the Matter, 
fhe fays Netho^ or Niaoua, which fignifies, I am con- 
tent : The Man lifts up his Head prefently, and re- 
plies, 0«e, that is to fay, 'tis a Match. At Night 
the Woman or Maid takes an Iron Hatchet, or if 
her Nation have no Commerce with the Europeans, 
flie takes one made of Stone that will cut ; (he goes 
and cuts as much good Wood as fhe can carry, brings 
it to the door of the Savage's Cabin, and lays it 
down ; fhe goes in and fits down by the Man, who 
does not offer to carefs her : when they have fat to- 
gether long enough without fpeaking, the Husband 
tells her in the Iroquoife Tong\iQ,Sentaouy^ 'tis time to 
lie down, repofe your felf : fometime after he comes 
and lays himfelf down by her. 

Tis very rarely feen that any of 'em make Love 
after the European manner, courting, dallying, and 
jelling fondly and merrily y they re-enter into a re- 
ciprocal Kindnefs with as much eafe as they broke it 
off before : They part very quietly, for they make no 
more word on't thaUylquit thee ; that's all : they are 
perfedly indifferent to each other after when they 
meet, and take no more notice than if they had 
never feen one another. 'Tis true, they fometiraes 
fight before they part , but that happens very 

Among the Northern Savages, and particularly 
the Iroquois^ fome have two Wives, but not foj* any 
long time : when they part, fometimes the Woman 
carries away all the Clothes and Skins j but at other 


A Voyage into North America. j^ 

dmes again (he carries nothing away but the piece of 
Stuff that ferves her for a little Petticoat, and her 
3lanket. Commonly the Children follow their Mor 
;hers, who continue to ntirfc and bring them up, be- 
I'aufe the Ellate of every Tribe or Family lies in com- 
Hon: there ate fome that flay with their Fathers ; 
;)Ut almoft all the Savages that are divorced 4eave 
iheir Children to their Wives, faying, they don't 
Relieve they are theirs j wherein they frequently tell 
i:ruth, for there are very few Women among them 
^hat withftand the temptation of a woollen Blanket, 
J)r any other trivial Prefent. 
* When their Children are begotten by an European, 
>ne may perceive it by their Face or Eyes 3 the Chil- 
dren of the Savages are perfedtly black,and not pale 
)x fwarthy like the Europeans \ they fee farther 
the Woods like wife, and with more quicknefs than 
burs : Their Eyes are more piercing than the Euror- 
peans. • 

If the Savage Women were capable of contrading' 
Vlarriage, and keep ftedfafl in it, we might marry as 
nany of them as we would to the Europeans ^ buc 
;hey have no inclination to Confl:ancy,they can't keep 
their Conjugal Vows inviolated, and are very readv 
:o leave their Husbands : this we know by Experi- 
mce, and their common difcourfe upon this Subject 
:onfirms us in it. When a Barbarian who has no 
^ife pafTes through a Village, he hires a Woman for 
I Night or two, whilft he tarries from home, or is 
luntlng Bevers, or for fome Weeks, according to 
lis fancyi the Parehts never hinder k : on the contra- 
7, they make the firft advances, and are over^joy'd 
Aat their Daughters gain fome Clothes or Skins. 

There are all forts of Humours reigning among the 
savages, as among the Europeans ; fome love their 
Wives Very tenderly, others flight 'em i ioiv.t bear 
md ufe them very hardly, but that does not iaft 
ong, becaufe they turn them off*,' nay, there ars 
2 foffi'a 

74 -^ Voi/age into North America^ 

ibme of them that are jealous^ as I faw one who beat 
his Wife becaufe Ihe Danc'd with other Men. Thofc 
that are good Hunters have the choice of the finefk 
Women, the reft have none but the homelieft, and 
the Kefufc. When they grow old, they rarely part 
with their Wives j and if they do, Jtis for weighty 
Reafons. Some of them live twelve or fifteen Years 
with their Wives, who arc ready to go diftradcd if 
their Husband is a good Hunter, and leaves them : 
fomctimes they are fo grieved at it, that they poifon 
themfclves j I have known fome attempt it, and have 
faved their Lives by giving them Treacle. 

When thefe Barbarians goto hunt theBever in the 
Spring-time, they frequently leave their Wives in the i 
Village to fow Indian Corn and Gourds, and thea i 
they hire another to go along with them: Wheai 
they are about to return, they give them a Bever at • 
two, and fend 'em back to their Cabin j then they goi < 
home to their Wives as tho they had done nothing { 
blameable : but if the laft pleafes them beft, they \ 
take her, and turn away the firft without more ado: 
and thefe Savages wonder the Europeans don't tak^j 
the fame courfe, ,i. 

One day whilil I liv'd at Fort Frontenac 2Lmofi^{ 
the Iroquois^ the Husband of one of our Women of] 
panada was gone twenty or thirty Leagues fromo 
thence j the Women Savages came to her, and toKlli 
her fhe had no fenfe, take another Man till your Hof-1 
band returns. This great inconftancy, and continualj 
change of Women, are two things very oppofite tot 
the Maxims of the Gofpel, which we endeavour tot 
inftil into the Savages : 'Tis one of the moll confi-f 
derable Obftacles of the Faith \ but among the So!W 
them Nations, SLtidtho^Q oi Mefchaftpi^ Polygamy is i 
in falhion. In all the Countries of the Louiftana therci 
are Savages to be met with that have often ten or 
twelve Wives j they frequently marry three Sifters, 
and give this reafon for ^o doing, that they agree 
better together than with Strajigcrsj JYhw 

A Voyage into North America. 75 

When a Man has given Prefents to the Father and 
Mother of the Maid that he would efpoufe, fh& 
becomes his own for Life, if he pleafe. Sometimes the 
Parents take their Son-in-law's Children, and then 
they give 'em back the Prefents they made 'em, but 
this happens very feldora. • If any Woman defile her 
Marriage-bed, the Husband cuts off her Nofe, or an 
Ear, or gives her a flafh in the Face with a ftone 
Knife 5 if he kill her, he is clear'd for a Prefent vsrhidi 
he gives to her Parents to xoi^z avocf^ tkir Tears^ 
'tis the very exprellion they ufe : I have feen feveral 
markt in the Face. 

The men of the hot Country are more jealous of 
their Wives ; than tbofe of the North j the firft are 
ifo jeabus in this matter, that they wound themfelves> 
and fometimes kill themfelves in a blind paffion of 
Love, which prompts them to this Fury, 
i One thing is very remarkable, and that is, young 
(Warlike Savages feldom have to do with Woraea 
till thirty Years of Age, becaufe, fay they, their 
:Commerce with Women exhaufts their Strength, 
iweakens their Knees, and renders them heavy in the 
Courfe j thofe that marry before that Age, ar^ook'd 
iupon as Men unfit for War or Hunting, and are de- 
fpifed as effeminate Perfons, 
I The Southern Men commonly go naked, but their 
I Women are partly covered with a Skin finely drefc, 
iefpecially in their pances and Ceremonies: The 
Maids oil their Hair, curl it, and tie it in Locks : 
'The Women wear their Hair like the Bohemians^ 
they greaze it too, and paint their Faces with all 
ilbrts of Colours, and ib do the Men^ 

2 2] ^ c:h a R 

yl Ji Voyage into North America. 


Of the Remedies which the Sal/ages adminifter to the 
Sick j they have Momtehanh among them. Their 
opinion of Infant-Bapifm when the Author Hv*d 

WHen the Savages are tired and weary, they go 
into a Stove to recruit the ftrength of their 
Limbs y and if they have a pain in their Thighs or 
Legs, they take a Knife or a Stone that will cut, 
which they can get, and make a fort of Scarification 
upon the Part that is grieved ^ while the Blood runs, 
they fcrape it off with their Knives or Stones till it i 
has done running, and then they rub the Wounds i 
with Bear's Oil, or Deer's Greafe , this is a foveraign i 
Remedy, and they ufe the fame when they have a j 
Pain in tl^e Head or Arms. 

To cure Tertian or Quartan Agues^ they compofc 
a Medicine with a certain Bark which they boil, and 
give it to the lick Perfon to fwallow after his Fit. 
They have fome knowledge in Herbs and Roots, with 
which they cure feveral Diftenipers: They have in- 
fallible Remedies againft thePoifon of Toads,Rattle- 
fnakes, and other dangerous Animals j but none a- 
gainft the SmalWPox, as we have. 

There are Mountebanks or Quacks among thcmi 
whom we have already fpoke of under the name of 
Jugglers : Thefe are fome old Savages who live at • 
other Peoples Coft, by counterfeiting themfclves ; 
Phyllcians, after "a very fuperftitious manner. They i 
make no ufe of Medicines but when they are call'd I 
to a fick Perfon ; they make themfelves be fued tOj 
as tho they were to do fome thing very extraordina- 
ry and difficult : at laft, after much intreaty, the 
juggler comes, he approaches the fick Perfon, feels 
his Body all over j and after he has well handled and 


A Voyage into North America. 77 

:onfiderM it, he tells 'em; there's a Charm or Spell 
in fuch a part, in the Head, Leg, or Stomach, or 
where he thinks fit j he adds, that he mufl remove 
:his fame Charm, and that it can't be done but with 
\ great deal of difficulty, and 'tis neceflary to do a 
great many things before he can fucceed in it. 
; This Charm is very malign, fays he, but it mufl be 
•etch'd out coll what it will : The fickPcrfon's Friends, 
^Vo blindly believe all the Quack tells 'em, make 
mfwer, Tchagon^ Tchagon, Courage, Courage, Do 
iffhat you can, fpare nothing that you know will do 
lim good : Then the Juggler fets himfelf down very 
gravely, and confidsrs fomc time what Remedies to 
nake ufe of 5 by and by he rifes up, as out of a pro- 
bund Sleep, and cries, It fhall be done. You fuch a 
pne, the Life of your Wife, or your Child is very 
tear to you, then fpare nothing that may fave it j 
/ou muft make a Fealt to day, you muft give one 
iihing or other, you muft do this or that : at the fame 
lime they never fail to execute the Juggler's Orders. 
Ifhe other Savages go all together into a Stove, and 
ing as loud as they can haul, and make a ratling with 
f ortoife Shells, or Pumpkins made hollow, and Indian 
porn put into '^jm.j and to this Noife the Men and 
)kVomen dance : nay, fometimes they get drunk with 
^randy bought of the Europeans, and then they make 
i horrible din and clutter. 
I While they are all taken up in this manner, the 
^Id Juggler keeps clofe to the fick Perfon, whom he 
iorments by holding his or her Feet and Legs, and. 
jripes them hard in the part where the pretended 
t^harm lies ; he makes 'em fufFcr incredible Pain, e- 
?ough to kill 'em, and often makes the Blood ftart 
mt at the end of their Fingers or Toes •, at length 
iftcr he has done all this, he Ihews a piece of Skin, a 
iock of Woman's Hair, or fome fuch thing, and 
ells 'em 'tis the Charm which he has drawn out of 
vhe fick Perfon's Body, when at the bottom 'tis all a 
piece of Roguery. Z.3 Onc<; 

^g A Voyage into North America. 

6nce I baptiz'd a little Child which feem'd to me 
to be at the point of Death, and next day it recover- 
ed contrary to my expeftation j a while after the Mo- 
ther told feveral Women in my prefence, that I had 
cur'd her Child : She took me for a Juggler, faying,' i 
I was an admirable Fellow, that I knew how to cure i 
all forts ofDifeafes by fprinkling Water upon the i 
JJead and Face. 

The Jugglers fpighted at the Woman's Character of 
me, began to. tell ^m that I was of an aufteer me- 
lancholy Humour, that I fed upon Serpents and Poi- 
fon, that fuch Folks as Teat Thunderbolts. Thci 
Savages were aflonilh'd at the ftrange Stories theft I 
Rafcals made upon me on the occafion of baptizing , 
the Child; na^, thefelmpoftors added, that we had i 
all Tails like Beafl:s,that the European Women have 
but one Pap in the middle of the Breaft, and bear i 
five or fix Children at a time, and a great deal more 
of fuch ftuff to make us odious ; and this they did ( 
becaufe they thought that what I did would lelTen i 
their Credit, and thereby they (hould bedepriv'd of i 
many a good Treat. 

Thefe poor honeft People, who arc eafily put upon, i 
began to fufpedme : when one of them fell fick, they 
Came and ask'd me whether I had poifonM him or 
no ? and threatned to kill me if I did not cure him. 
I had much ado to undeceive them, and I was forc'd 
more than once to appeafe them, by giving them 
Knives, Needles, Awls, and other fuch like Trifles 
of little Value with us, but much priz'd by the Sa- 
vages. After which I gave a Dofe of Treacle to the 
fick Man, and fo I quieted them. The Savages often 
have recourfe to our Medicines, becaufe they find 
them good ; if they don't operate fuccefsfully, they 
lay the fault upon the Remedy, and never upon the 
iil Difpofrtion of the liek Perfon. 


A Voydgs into North America. 79 

€f the Conjiitution or Temper of the Savages. 

GEnerally fpeaking, the Savages are very robuft j 
the Men, Women and Children are of an extra- 
ordinary vigorous Conftitution, therefore they are 
very rarely troubled with Diilempcrs. They don't 
know what it is to cocker and make much of them- 
felves *, thence it comes that they are not fubjed to 
any of thofe Indifpolitions that our Luxury brings 
upon us. They are not afflided with Gout, Dropfy, 
or Gravel, nor are they feverifii ^ they are hardly 
ever incommoded with thofe Difeafes which the Eu- 
ropeans fall into for want of Exercife t, they are fel- 
dom troubled withlofs of Appetite *, they areufually 
addided to gormandi2ing,inforauch that they rife in 
the Night to eat j if by good luck they have Meat or 
Sagamite by them, they fall to it like Dogs without 
getting up. 

And yet they can undergo fuch long Abftinences 
as would doubtlefs be intolerable to the Europeans ; 
fomctimes they fall two or three days together,when 
there's a neceffity for it, and this without difconti- 
nuing their bufinefs, whether it be War, Hunting, 
or Fiftiing. The Children of the Savages that dwell 
towards the North, are fo hardened againft Cold, 
that in the depth of Winter they run ftark naked 
through the Snow, and tumble about in it, as Hogs 
wallow in the Dirt in Summer-time. When the Air 
is fiird with Manngouim^ they don't feel their 

'Tistrue, the (harp Air they expofe themfelves to 
as loon as they can run about, contributes in fomc 
fort to harden their Skin for any Fatigue \ but yet it 
jnufl be confefl: that this great Infenfibility is owing 
to a ftrong robuft Temper of Body : for tho <m 
Z 4 Hands 

? e 'A Voyage into North America^ 

Hands and Face are always expos'd to the Weather^ 
yet they are never the lefs fenfible'of Cold. When 
the Men are a Hunting, efpecialiy in the Spring- 
time, they are almoft continually in the Water, not- 
withftanding it be very cold ^ and yet they come out 
of it frelh and gay, and return to their Cabins with- 
out complaining. 

When they go to War, they fometimes poft them* 
felves behind a Tree three or four days together, 
eating a very inconfiderable quantity of Vi<!l«als all 
that while ^* and thus they lie hid in ambulh, waiting 
to make a favourable Blow. They are indefatigable 
Hunters, they run very fwift, and hold it a long 
time. ' 

The Nations of Louifiana, and of the River Mef- 
x^afipi, run much fafter than the Iroquois j there are 
no wild Bulls or Cows which they can't overtake. 
The Savages of the South, tho inhabiting a warmer 
Country, and more pleafant than the North, are no 
lefs robuH, nor lefs accuftomed to Fatigue than the 
Savages of the North, who fleep upon the Snow 
wrapt in a little Blanket, without Fire or Cabin. 

The Conftitution of the Women is no lefs vigo- 
Vous than that of the Men Savages, iiay they are ra-. 
•ther more robufi: ^ the Women fervefor Porters,and 
-4re fo ftrongi that few Men in Europe can match 
Ithem , they'l carry Packs that two or three can hard- 
ly lift up : I obferv'd in my firfl Volume, that they 
UfuaHy carry two or three hundred Weight, and let 
their Children a top of their Burden, who are not 
reckon'd into the Weight : 'tis true they walk flow- 
3y, but they never fail to meet at the rendezvous of 
the Nation. The warlike Savages undertake Voya- 
ges of three or four hundred Leagues, as if 'twere 
no moi e than a kind of Walk, as from :Amjlerdam to 
Breda : They don't carry their' Pro vifion along with 
thera ^ they live by Hunting, which they follow dai- 
iy % they take nothing but a Knife with them to make 


A f^ojdge into North America. 8i 
Bows and Arrows with ^ and in that Equipage they 
will go a thoufand Leagues, if they are minded. 

The Women Savages are brought to bed without 
any great Pain ^ fome of them go put of their Ca- , 
bins, and retire afide by themfeives into the next 
Wood 5 they come back agen prefently with the new 
born Infant wrapt up in their Blanket or dr elTed 
Skin : Others, if they fall in labour in the Night 
time, deliver themfeives of their Children upon 
their Mats, without crying out, or making a noife ^ 
the next morning they rife, and go about their or- 
dinary Bufinefs within doors or without, as tho no- 
thing had happened. 'Tis further remarkable, that 
whilft they are big with Child, they ftir about, car- 
ry heavy Burdens^ ibw Indian Corn, and Gourds j 
and what is more ftrange than all this, their Chil- . 
dren are very well fliap'd, there are few of them 
ctooked or deformed, they have no natural Faults 
in their Bodies ; which makes me think, that their 
Mind might eafily be fafliionedas comely as their out- 
ward Form, if it were cultivated, and if we con- 
verfed more with them to polilh their wild barbarous 

C H A P. XX. 

ADefcripim of the Savages that go clothed^ andthofe 
that do 'ADt, 

;o .. _ 

ppHE Savages of North America on the North fide, 
\ X according to the report of their antient Men, 
have always gone covered, even before they had any 
Commerce with the European?: The Men and Wo- 
men cloth'd themfeives with diefs'd Skins; they are. 
now cloth'd after the fame manner, but thofe that 
have any Commerce with the Europeans have com- 
monly a Shire, a great Coat, fuch as the Mariners 
• ' watch 

$2 J Voyage into North America^ 

watch in at Sea.,with a Cowl to it,and a Piece of Clotl 
made faft before and behind, with a Girdle whici 
comes down to their Knees \ belides they have Stock- 
ings without Feet, and Shoes made of drefsM Skins. 

When they return from Hunting in Spring timc^ 
they truck their Skins for Coats, Shoes, and Stock- 
ings: fome wear Hats out of Qomplaifance to the 
Europeans : Some of them have Blankets in which 
they wrap themfelves, holding two Corners of it in 
their Hands, when they are in their Cabins, they 
often go quite naked, having nothing but a Piece of 
Cloth, which they gird about them in Winter 5 'tis 
faftenM about their Loins, and hangs down betweea 
their Thighs as low as their Knees. When thefct 
Barbarians go to War, or to a Fcaft, they dawb/ 
their Faces all over with red or black, that their E-S 
nemies may not perceive they turn pale with Fearf 
they like wife colour their Hair red, and cut it in fo-c 
veral fafhions, efpecially the Northern Savages:; 
Thofe of the South cut all their Hair off, or rather: 
they finge it off with Stones made red hot in the Fir«,( 
till it be To Ihort, that it does not cover their Ears : 
<Df ten-times the People of the North let their Haiti 
hang down in Curls on one fide, and cut the othcrc 
fide clofe, according to their Fancy. There" artr 
fome that rub their Hair with Oil, and afterwards ] 
dap fome Down,or little Feathers upon their Heads: s 
ibmetimes they faften near their Ears great Plumes of 3 
Feathers 9 fome make themfelves Wreaths of Flo\i^ \ 
crs, others make 'em of Birchen Bark, and fome of 3 
drcfs'd Skins, that are work'd very prettily j th€ttJ 
they look like fome of Cafar*s Soldiers, who were r 
painted of divers colours : They make themfelves c 
taken notice of for their Fantafticalnefs. 

The Northern Women are clothed like the Men, 
except that they wear a piece of Stuff made like a 
PetticQat,which reaches down almoft to their Knees: 
When they go to Fcafts, they drefs themfelves in all 
^ their 

A Vopgt into North America, 8 j 

their beft Attire, bcdawb their Tempels, their 
Cheeks, and the Tip of their Chin with thr^e forts 
of Colours. The Boys go ftark naked, till they arc 
capable of Marriage ; and even when they are clo- 
thed, thofe Parts, which Nature forbids Men to dil- 
cover, are always left uncovered, at leafl: if they have 
no Shirts. The Girls begin to put on Cloths at five or 
fix years old; and then they wear a piece of Stufi^ 
that goes round 'em, reaching from their Loins down 
to their Knees. When we went into their Cabins to 
'inftrud them, we obliged them to cover themfelves % 
this produced a good efFed ; now they begin to be a* 
iham'd of their Nakednefs, and cover themfelves a 
little better th^ they did formerly. 

'Tis otherwife with the Women and Girls of the 
Louifiana and Mefchaftpy which lie Southwefl of Ca- 
nada above a thonfand Leagues from Quebec ; there 
we fee the Girls in puris naturalibus, juft as they came 
out of their Mothers Belly, till they arrive at a fit 
Age to marry ; mean time the/ are not at ^H a- 
Iham'd, becaufe us'd to it. 

The Men and Women, and efpedally the Girls, 
wear about their Necks Sea-fhells of all Figures ; 
they have likewife fome Shells of abouCrta Finger's 
length, made like little Pipes,which they wear attj;ieir 
Ears for Pendants ^ they have Girdles likewife, fome 
Made of Porcelain, others of Porcupines Hair, fome 
of Bears Hair, and others of both mixt together. 

The more confiderable Savages carry at their Backs 
with much Gravity, a little Bag, wherein is their 
-Calumet or Pipe, their Tobacco, their Steel to ftrike 
fire, and other Trifles. They have Skill enough to 
make a little Cloak or fort of Robe with dr€fs*d Skins 
of Bears, Bevcrs, Otters, black Squirrels, Wolves, 
Lions, and other Animals ; they put'em on when they 
go to their AlFemblieSjWhere they fit as gravely when 
they are at Council, as the Senators of Venice. But 
the Savages of our lail difcovwy betwixt the frozen 


^4 -^ VoyAge into North America,' 

Sea and new Mexk'o,^ appear always naked upon all 
occafionB ^ from whence I took occafion to tell Father 
Gabriel one day, whilffc we were among the Illinois^ 
that probably thefe Savages did not fin in Mam j be- 
caufe he cover'd himfelf with Leaves, and then had 
a Habit of Skins given him after he had finned ; 
Thefe Savages have really no manner of Shanie to 
fee themfelves naked j nay they feem to glory in it. 
When they talk with one another, they often make 
Bfe of thofe Terms, Tcheganta^ which are obfcene , 
and would make me write 'em down, when I was a- 
bout compofing a Didionary, and they nam'd the 
Parts of the Body to me. Whatever I might fay to 
Father Gabriel de la Ribourd, I am nwerthelefs per- 
fwaded by the Scripture, that all Mankind are dc- 
fcended from j4dam ; and therefore, the Savages as 
well as others, are finners, and corrupted by their 
Birth, and that they will perifli in their Sins if they 
don't receive the Gofpel ; for there is no other name 
by which Men can t)e faved, but the Name of Chrilt. 
I know very well that Habits don't fave any body ; 
h\it in fhort, if thefe poor People would obferve the 
Precepts of the Law of Nature, God would work a 
Miracle in fiheir favour, rather than fufFer 'em to pe- 
rilh in their Ignorance ^ and therefore he would lead 
'em into the knowledge of the Truth, by means wor- 
thy of his Wifdom. But thefe unhappy Barbarians 
violate the Precepts of the Law of Nature, and live 
in Stupidity, and in the diforders of a dreadful Cor- 
ruption, which makes them fit Subjeds of God's 
Wrath. Mean time, Chriitians, who are guided 
by the faving Rays of Truth, ought to labour with all 
their power to bring thefe People out of Darknefs, 
into the Light of the Gofpel, and the hopes of Salva- 
tion i fo may they help to extend the Kingdom of 
Jefus Chriit, and draw thefe poor People out of Con- 
demnation. To this end they fhould eflablilh ftrong 
Colonies, who by trafficking and converfing with the 


"A Voyage into North America^ 8 5 

5arbarians, will difpofe them to imitate them *, en- 
raging them, by works of Charity, their inftruai- 
!ns, and good Examples, and" even by the temporal 
t^dvantages to be drawn from the Converfation of 
:he Europeans, to embrace Chriftianity, and grow 
more tradable and gentle than they are yet. 

Of the Games and Shorts ofthe-Savages. 

THE Savages ofA7brtfc^menV^,haveGames for Men^ 
and fome for Children. The Men commonly play 
With the Stones of certain Fruits that are red on one 
ride,and black on t'other ^ they put 'em into a pretty 
large Wooden-platter, not very deep^or into a Bafon 
of Birchen-Bark, upon a Woollen-Blanket, on a dref- 
M Skin, upon a Robe of Bever, or upon a large Goaf, 
they play fix or feven together,but there are but two 
of them that take hold of the Platter with their two 
Hands, one after another , they lift it up, and ftnke 
ihe bottom of the Platter againft the Ground, to 
hullle thefe fix Nuts together : If there come up five 
red or five black all of a fide, that^s one Game won ; 
for they make three or four Games up, more or lefs, 
according as they agree upon it. All the Gamefters 
play one after another. Some of the Savages are fo 
addided to this Game, that they play away all they 
have to their great Coat, and their furr'd Gown. 
When they are at play, they bawl as loud as they can 
hout, as earneftly as if the decifion of an Empire were 
in agitation : and all this Noift is made as if the 
Chance were to be forc'd to fall on their fide. When 
they fhake the Platter, they lay themfelves over the 
Shoulders at fuch a rate, that they make themfelves 
black and blue with the Blows. Thefe Barbarians 
play often with Straws or Broom-fprigs, half a foot 


$6 'A Vcyiigeinto North AraericaJ 

long,or thereabouts *, one of them takes them all inhii 
hand, and then without looking upon »em, divide 
'em into two parts, and gives one to his Adverfary i 
he that has the even, or the odd Number, according 
to their Agreement, wins the Game. The Childrei 
Savages likewife often play at tfiis Game, but thej 
don't follow it fo eagerly as the Men^becaufe they ha7< 
nothing to ftake.The Women or Girls dare not me4- 
Sle with this Game, I don't know for whatreafon. 

The Savages have another Game which is commi 
among the European Children. They takefo 
Grains of Indian Corn, or fomefuch thing j then th 
put fome into their Hand,andask how many is thi 
he thatguefles right, has the Game. j 

They have another Game that they are mighi 
pleasM with, and which in the Irocjuoife Tongue ti 
caW Omon hayenti j but 'tis rather a fort of Traffi] 
and Barter than a Game: they go into two Cabins 
into one and fix into t'other, then comes one w 
fome Skins, Clothes, or what elfe they have a mindi' 
to truck ^ he goes to the Door of one Cabin, makess' 
a certain Cry j and they within anfwer him : then heii 
tells 'em^ finging aloud, that he will fell or truck 
what he" holds in his hands, xt^^zimg^Oumn hayenti: 
Thofe within the Cabin make anfwer with a hoIIo\pji, 
Voice, Hon^ Bon^ Hon^ Uon, Hon, five times. TIw 
Crier or Seller having ended his Song, throws t^ 
Goods into the Cabin, and returns home. 

Then the fix in t'other Cabin,after they have o 
ferr'd about the Price of the things that this Peri 
threw into the Cabin, depute one of their Number 
ask the Seller if he is willing to take in exchange^ 
great Coat, a Shirt, a pair of Shoes,, or fuch '-* 
Commodity , and then a zd Perfon carries the E( 
valent to the other Cabin, or elfe they deliver bai 
their Goods again that they threw in, if they can't a-i 
gree about it, or if it is not worth as much as Vfh^ 
they offer in exchange. i^ 


^A Voyage into North America^ 87 

Thefe Ceremonies arc accompany'd with Songs on 
ill (ides : fometimes whole Villages of Savages vi- 
it one another alternately, more for the divcrfion of 
Jiis Game oiOmon hayenti^ than to fee one another, 
rhis word fignifies a Bargain, where one gives to re- 
reive again^ The, Iroquoife Tongue has compound 
fvords in it V one in their Terms imports fometimes 
ive or fix French words, as the word Cannoron is as 
nuch as to fay. This is an Affair of great Confe- 

; Their Children have another Game. They take a 
Bow and two Sticks, one big, one little : they hold 
she little one in their right hand, and ftrike it 
flpas high as they can with the other j another looks 
where it falls, and throws it up again to him that 
(truck it. This Play has likewife fomething in it 
like fome among the European Children. They like- 
wife make a Ball of Rufhes or Leaves of Indian Corn; 
they tofs it up, and catch it upon the point of a Stick. 
The great People, Men and Women, pafs away the 
Winter-Nights a telling Stories over the Fire, like 
the Europeans. 


\Th6 manner of making War among the Savages j thty 
are very much given to Revenge. 

TH E Savages of America have almoft all of them 
a ftrong Propenlion to War, becaufe they are 
very Revengeful: when Once they have taken a dif- 
;guft to any one that is not of their own Nation, they 
muft be revcng'd fooner or later, tho' they wait an 
Opportunity to the third or fourth Generation. They 
! are relllefs day and nigist till they have taken Satif- 
i fadion for an Affront, by deftroying, if they can, 
!! gioft of that Nation they are enrag'd at ; And then 
IC they 

88 J Voyage info North AmcvkgL^, 

they make the reft dwell amongft them, and take ^i 
their way of living in every thing. The lro<ium 
whom the Sweeds, then the Dutchj the Englifii, adS 
French, have Furnifhed with Fire-Arm^, are reckon**! 
at prefent the moft Warlike of all the Savages yeii 
known : They have flain the belt Warriours araoagi 
the Hmom^ and forc'd the reft of that Nation to jaU 
with them, to make War together againft all thM 
Enemies lituated 5 or 600 Leagues diftant froHi 
their five Cantons. They have deftroy*d above tm 
Millions of Men, and are now adually at War witb 
the Inhabitants of Canada* ol 

If France diO not fend Succours of Ammunition afidi 
Provifion to the Canadans, the Irotiuois may be ab^ 
to ruin them by the means Thave mention'd in m^ 
former Volume. "^1 

Thefe Barbarians can fpoil their Neighbours, as Wi 
have feen by experience : we can gain nothing frofiiJ 
them, becaufe all we can plunder them of is worfl 
little or nothing j this fierce Nation J fay may cafim 
ruin the Commerce of their Neighbours, who chiefs 
ly fubfift by trafficking for Skins with the Savageiji 
The European Colonies are not yet fufficiently efta4 
blifhed, and cannot fubfift without Commerce, unlefi 
every thing neceflary for Life be brought them b^) 
Ship 'j befides the Irotiuois are mifchievous and crafty, 
yet like wild Horfes who don't know their own 
ftrength.They are certainly able to ruin their Neigh J 
hours, for fome Reafons which *tis not prudent tool 
make publick. They had utterly ruin'dCanada loflg 
ago, if the Count de Frontenac had not won them by 
gentle Methods. They are the moft formidable Ene- 
mies that the Europeans have in all America. I doU 
but hint it here, but am afliir'd of it, from what 'll 
know of thofe People ; I dwelt four whole years tf' 
mong them i I have been fent in Ambafiy to them, 
and they have carried themfelves very friendly to- 
wards me, 


J Fojagemto North Amevkal g^ 
This People have over-run many different Nations, 
md thofe who ' remain'd after the defeat of the reft 
[lave been always forc'd to fubmit to them. The 
Iroquois have confiderable Men among them who are 
:heir Leaders, and Governours in their Voyages. 
rhey have thofe under their command that will fol- 
ow them any where, and do all they are order'd : 
>efore they fet out, they provide themfelves with 
jood Firelocks, which they get in exchange from the 
Europeans lor Skins, and Furs j they take Powder, 
Jail, Kettles, Hatchets, and other neceflary Imple- 
nents in War along with 'em. Sometimes they 
lave young Women and Lads, that go along with 
hem, and in this Equipage they march three or four 
hundred Leagues. 

When they come near the place where they defign 
[0 make War, they march flowly, and with much 
precaution j then they never kill Deer with their 
rire-arms, for fear of being Difcover'd. They only 
ife their Arrows upon that occafion, which make no 
loife in flying. When they would ihoot, they look 
arefully round them, for fear of a Surprize. They 
end out Spies, to difcover the entrance into the Vil- 
ages, and fee where beft to begin their Attack : and 
fthey fee any one come out of the Village, they fur- 
frize and take him if they can, which often fuc- 
leeds, for they do all their bufinefs treacherouQy. 
i There arc no Warriours like them in all America 
or Ambufcades: They lay wait for Men hid behind 
I Tree, as tho their Defign was upon fome Beaft. 
rhey count him a good Warriour that is cunning at 
fjrprizing his Enemies. If they can efcape handfom^ 
y, after they have given their blow, from their Ene- 
qies, they are reckon'd incomparable fellows. 'Tis 
lotto be conceived how quick they skip round aTree 
vith their Firelock in their hands, to defend thems- 
elves from the Arrows that are fliot againft them, 
rhey are very nimble at leaping over the Trees that 
A a are 

90 'A Vopge into Ndtth America^ 

^re fallen down in the Woods as they run along -i 
There are abundance of thefe Trees of a prodigi-j 
oils bignefs, which fall with Age for want of Roots. 

Their Patience is admirable. When they find they 
are cleverly hid, they^fl tarry behind the Trees two' 
or three days without eating, waiting a favourable' 
opportunity to kill an Enemy : Sometimes they will 
fliew themfelves fairly, but that's very rare j and ii| 
they were not almoft certain of their Blow, thej; 
would hardly expofe themfelves, at leaft if thej 
were not back'd by a great number of their owr 
Men: Thefe Barbarians don't fight after the Euro-, 
pean manner, becaufe they are not difciplin'd to itJ 
and can't keep their Ranks fo well in opeii Field : S 
that they can't ftand a Skirmifh fo well as our we| 
commanded Souldiers : Neverthelefs when they i 
once heated and animated, they are incomparable. 

They are fo malicious, that they fet fire to th<I: 
Gorn of the Europeans when they are dead : Thej( 
burn their Houies, which they fet fire to with lighted, 
Cotton, faftned to the Point of their Arrows j foKj 
then the Fire takes hold of the Boards, or of thcl 
Straw that their Houfes are thatch'd with ; for theSa-i: 
vages let fly their Arrows with extraordinary Force;; 
fo the Houfes are foon in flames. 

There was an Iroquois Captamnzm^dAttreouatiOji^ 
7iontage^ whom I know very well, that treated me verji| 
civilly in my Voyage from F§rt Frontenac to New Tork\ 
we call'd him Lagrande Cwew/e, becaufe his Mouth wavj 
very broad. This man having mifs'd his aim once, rail 
into Montreal in Canada^ crying, Bai^ Hai, whic^ 
is a token of Peace : He was very kindly receiv'd i 
and made much of; nay, they gave him confiderail 
ble Prefents, becaufe they had a mind to havea gooii 
llnderflanding with that infolent Nation. When h 
withdrew from that place, the perfidious Vill^j* 
kiil'd two Men that were thatching a Houfe. ' 


A Voyage into North America.^ 9 1 
Some of them told us, that they had been at War 
is far as the Spanifh Territories in Nem Mexico i, for 
;hey faid they had been in a Country where thelnha- 
)itants gathcr'd red Earth, and carryM it to fell to a 
toion who gave them Hatchets and Kettles for it^ 
md this they faid was call'd the Country of Gold t hue 
'tis likely this Story was devifed by the Savages to 
[)leafe Mr. de la Salie when he was at Fort Frontenacl 
for he greedily heard any one talk of the Goldea 
Mines of St. Barhe. I have been among all the Nati-; 
3ns of the River Mefchafipi, none of whom except 
the inimk ever mention'd the Iroqudis otherwife than 
as certain People, Neighbours of the Illinois, from 
whom they learnt that the Iroquois are a very cruel 
People, tho not ftout, but ti^nly becaufe they have 
|ire-arms, which they bought of the Europeans : 
That without them they never durft attack the lUi- 
ttoh^ who are valiahter, and more dexterous at Bows 
and Arrows than the Iroquois. 

Thofe Iroquois that don't go out to fight, ^re con- 
temn'd, and pafs for Cowards and effeminate Men, 
Becaufe they have Firelocks, they invade all other 
Nations between both Seas, that is, from North to 
South : and no Nation in America can ftand before 
the Iroquois on account of their Firelocks. This ren- 
ders them haughty and infufferable. They call thera- 
felves Men by vvay of Excellence, as tho other Na- 
tions were no more than Brutes in companion with 
them. 1 underlland very well how to bring the Iro- 
quois to a better pafs : but a Man of my Charader 
ought not to talk of thefe Matters but with a grea^G 
4eal of Caution) becaufe the Remedies which I 
would propofe, might perhaps be worfe than the 
Mifchief that might be apprehended from that Na- 
tion J neverthelefs I may difcover my Sentiments in 
due time to thofe high Perfons that put me upon wri- 
ting this Work. 

A3 2 GHAPi 

9^ J Voyage into North America. . , 


Of the Cruelty of the Savages in general^ and j^artkU' 
larfy of the Iroquois. 

THere are no Savages in all the Northern America 
but what are very cruel to their Enemies. We 
are aftonifii'd at the Cruelties which the Neroes^ the 
Dioclefiansy and the Maximins infli(9:ed upon the 
Chriftians, and have their Names inDeteftationand 
Horror 5 but the Inhumanity of the Iroquois towards 
the Nations they make Slaves goes beyond theirs. 

When the Iroquois hgipre kill'd a Man, they tear off 
the Skin of his Scull, and carry it home with them as 
a certain Mark of their Vidory, When they take a 
Slave, they tie him, and make him run after them ; 
if he is unable to follow them, they ftick theiri 
Hatchet into his Head, and there leave him, after: 
they have torn off Skin and Hair together. They 
don't fpare fucking Infants : If the Slave can march 
after them, they tie him every Night to a piece of 
Wood made in the form of a St. Andret9*s Crofs, andi 
leave him expos'd to be ftung by the Maringoins^ and 
other Flies, in Summer-time, and ufe him as cruelly 
as may be. 

Sometimes they fix four Pegs into the Ground, to; 
which they Fallen their Slaves by the Feet and Hands,' 
and fo leave them all Night long upon the Ground 
in the (harpeft Weather. I omit a hundred other 
Sufferings which thefe miferable Wretches undergo 
in the day time. When they are near their Villages^ 
they fet up loud Cries, whereby their Nation knows 
that their Warriours are return'd with Slaves. Then 
the Men and Women put on their belt Apparel, and 
go to the entrance of the Village to receive them ', 
there they make a lane for the Slaves to pafs through 
them. But 'tis a lamentable Reception for thefc ' 

'. " poop 

TAe Crudity of The Jaira^^ Jrc^ucif 

^ A Voyage into North America. pj 
poor People : The Rabble fall upon them like Dogs 
, or Wolves upon their Prey, and begin to torment 
them, whilft the Warriours march on in File, 
mightily pufF*d up with their own Exploits. 

Some kick the Slaves, fome cudgel them, fomecut 
them with Knives, fome tear off their Ears, cut off 
their Nofes or Lips, infomuch that moft of them die 
in this pompous Entry. Thofe that refift againft 
thefe rude Treatments, are referv'd for exemplary 
Punifhment. Sometimes they fave fome, but very 
rarely. When the Warriours are entred into t^heir 
Cabins, the Ancients affemble themfelves to hear the 
f elation of what pafs'd in the War. 

If the Father of a Savage Woman has been kill'd, 
they give her a Slave for him, and 'tis free for that 
Woman either to put him to Death, or fave him 
alive. When they burn them, this is their manner ^ 
They bind the Slave to a Poll by the Hands and Feet, 
thentliey heat red-hot Mufquet-barrels, Hatchets^ 
and other Iron Inftruments, and apply them red-hot 
from head to foot, all over their Body ; they tear off 
their Nails, and pluck out their Teeth \ they cut 
Collops of flefh out of their Backs, and often flea 
their Skin off from their Scull : After all this they 
throw hot Aflies upon their Wounds, cut out their 
Tongues, and treat them as cruelly as they can de- 
irife. If they don't die under all thefe Torments, 
they make them run and follow them, laying them 
an with Sticks. 'Tis reported, that once a Slave 
ranfo well, that he fav'd himfelf in the Woods, and 
could not be catchM again. 'Tis probable he died 
there for want of Succour. But what is more fur- 
priiing is, that the Slaves ling in the midft of their 
Torments, which frets their Executioners exceed- 

An Iroquois told us, that there was one Slave whom 

they tormented cruelly ; but he told them. You have 

QO Ingenuity, you don't know how to torment your 

A a 3 |Prifoners, 

Q^ J Voyage mtoNotthAtAQric^l 
prifoners, you are mere Blockheads ; if I had you 
my Circumftances,lM ufe you after another manner ; 
but whilffe he ran onfo boldly, a Savage Woman gets 
a little Iron Spit heated red-hot, and runs it into 
his Yard : this made him roar j but he told the Wo- 
man, You are cunning, you underftand fomethingj 
this is the Courfe you ftiould take with us. 

When the Slave which they burn is dead, they eat 
him ; and before his Death they make their Children 
drink fome of his Blood, to render them cruel and 
inhumane. Thofe that they give their Lives to, live 
with them, and ferve them like Slaves : But in length 
of time they recover their Liberty, and are look'dt 
upon as if they were of their own Nation. 

The Savages of the Louifiana that dwell along thcj 
River Mefchafipi^ and are fituated (even or eight hui ' 
dred Leagues * beyond the Iroquois^ as the J}fati'dii\ 
NadoueJJans^ amongft whom I was a Slave, are n< 
lefs brave than the Iroquois 5 they make all the Na 
tions round them tremble, tho they have nothing! 
but Bows, Arrows, and Maces. They run fwifter 
than the Iroquois^ and make excellent Souldiers j but 
they are not fo cruel .* they don't eat the Flefli of 
their Enemies ', they are content to burn them only. 
Once having taken a Huron^ who eat humane Fleflfi 
as the Iroquois^ they cut off pieces of Flefli from hiii; 
own Body, and faid to him ; You that love Man'^' 
Flefli, eat of your own, to let your Nation know, 
who now live among the Iroquois^ that we deteft and l 
abominate your Barbarities j for thefe People arc 1 
like hungry Dogs that devour any fort of Meat. 

The Iroquois are the only Savages of North An 
ricA that eat humane Flelh j and yet they don't do 
but in cafes extraordinary, when they are refolvf 
to exterminate a whole Nation. They don't eat hu-^^' 
laane Flelh to fatisfy their Appetites ^ 'tis toiignify 
to the Iroquois Nation, that they ought to fight with- 
out ever fubmitting to their Enemies j that they 

• ought 

A Voyage into North America. 9 5 

ought rather tQ eat them than leave any of theni 
alive : They eat it to animate their Wan ioms ^ for 
they always march out of their five Cantons the day 
after, to fight with their Enemies; for the Rendez- 
vous for next day is always given notice of by thefe 
Feafts of humane Flefli. 

If the Europeans would leave furnifhing the Iroquois 
'with Fire-arms, who are not fo dextrous at the Bow 
as formerly they were, the other Nations on the 
contrary having always been us'd to it, they would 
infallibly root out the Iroquois^ their common Ene- 
mies, who dwell four and five hundred Leagues off 
from them. 

The firft Canton of the- Iroquois lies Southward ; 
they call it Gagniegue^^ or yJgniez. ; they are Neigh- 
bours to Nev^Tork, and have three Villages which I 
have been in ; they make up at molt four hundred 
fighting Men. The Second lies Weflward, and is 
called Onneiouts, and make up about a hundred and 
ftfty fighting Men. The Third, which lies Well- 
ward likewife, contains the Onnontaguez. or Moun- 
taineers, a People fituated upon the only Eminence 
in the five Cantons ^ they border upon the Onneiouts, 
Thefe Onnontaguez have three hundred fighting Men, 
the bravell of the whole Nation. The Fourth lies 
about thirty Leagues further Weftward, where live 
the Oiongums^ divided into three Villages, who make 
up three hundred fighting Men. The Fifth contains 
the Tfomontouans^ towards the further end of the 
Lake Frontenac or Ontario : Thefe People are the 
greatefl and moft conliderable of all the Iroquois Can- 
tons. They comprehend in three Villages three hun- 
dred fighting Men. 

I took notice in my firft Volume of three or four 
Iroquois Villages on the North-fide of the Lake Onta- 
rio or Frontenac 'j but I don't defcribe thefe Rve Can- 
tons of the Iroquois here, I only treat of their Barba- 
rity and Cruelty, and add, that they haVd fubducd 
A a 4 a 

^6 A Voyage into North America. 

a very large Country fince within thefe fifty Years ; 
that they have extended their Territories, and mul- 
tiplied their Nation by the Deltrudion of other Peo- 
ple, the Remainder of whom they have made Slaves, 
to enereafe the number of their Troops, 

Ths Policy of the Savage Iroquois. 

THE Councils held continually by thefe Barbari- 
ans for ordeting all Affairs, ought to be conli- 
der'd as the main Caufe of their Prefervation, and 
the fear all the Nations of North America are put in 
by them. They aflemble for every little Bufinefs 
that is to be done, and confult what Methods they 
Ihould take to gain their ends. They undertake no- 
thing hand over head. Their old Men, who are 
wife and prudent, watch over the Publick. If one 
complains that fome Perfon has robb'd him, they 
carefully inform themfelves who it is that committed 
the Theft. If they can't find him out, or if he is 
not able to make reftitution, provided they be fatif- 
fied of the truth of the Fad, they repair the Lofs, 
by giving fome Prefentto the injur'd Party, . to his 

When they would put any body to death for an 
enormous Crime, which they are perfwaded he is 
guilty of, they hire a Man, whom they make drunk 
-with Brandy, (for thefe People are very greedy of 
it) that the Kinsfolks of the Criminal may not feek 
to revenge his Death. After this drunken Man has 
kill'd him whom they judge culpable, they give this 
account of it, that he that flew him was mad and 
drunk when he ftruck the blow. Formerly they had 
another way of doing Juftice, but 'tis abrogated j 
They had a Feall once a Year, which wc may call. 


A f^oydge into North America. 97 
the Feafi of Fools^ for they play'd the fool in good 
carnelt, ruaniog about from Cabin to Cabin : If du- 
ring that day they fell foul upon any one, or took 
away any thing, the cunning old Men next day ex- 
cus'd all, by alledging that he that had done the Mif- 
chief was a Fool, and out of his Wits. Afterwards 
they made fome Prefents to wipe oiFthe Tears of 
the Kindred of the Perfon who was malicioufly kill'd; 
His Relations take up with that Excufe,without pro- 
ceeding to take Vengeance. Then thefe Antients 
hir'd fecretly fome Perfon, who aded the Fool, and 
kill'd the Perfon pitch'd upon, whom they had a 
mind to get rid of. 

The j^oquois have Spies and hir'd Men amongft 
them, who come and go perpetually, and tell them all 
the News they learn.They are crafty enough in Traf- 
fick, and are not eafily cheated : They deliberate 
maturely upon every thing, and endeavour to under- 
ftand the Merchandize before they truck for it. 

The Omontagez.^ov Iro3«o« Highlanders, are more 
fubtle and crafty than the reft .• They fteal very cle- 
verly. The Algonkainsyth^ Ahenah^thQ Efq^uimoves ^and 
abundance more Savages that have conversed with 
the Europeans, are as fliarp and politick as they. We 
are not to imagine that thefe People are Brutes, and 
irrational ^ no, they undeftand their own Intereft 
thorowly, and order their Affairs very difcreetly. 


Of the manmr of the Savages hunting of all forts of 
wild Beajis ; and of the admirable Indufiry of the 
' Caftors or Bevers, 

TH E Savages obferve the Time; the Seafons, 
and the Moons of the Year very punctually, for 
the better ordering their Hunting. They call their , 


gZ J Foyage hto North Ammc£ . | 

Moons from the Name of thofe Beads which at cer« 
tain Seafons appear the moft. They call it the Moon 
of Frogs, when the Frogs make their greateftCroak-i 
ing 9 the Moon of Bulls, when thofe wild Beafts ap-t 
pear j the Moon of Swallows, when thofe Birds come, 
and when they go. Thefe Barbarians reckon thus, 
becaufe they have no other Names to diftinguifli their 
Months by, as the Europeans have. They uifLtlje 
fame Method for the Names of Men, calling themy 
Serpent, Wolf, wild Cat, &g. 

They hunt the Elk and the Goat in all feafons, bufe 
more particularly when there is Snow. They hunt 
tlie wild Cat and the Marraofet in Winter, the Por- 
cupine, the Cailor, arid the Otter, tn the Spring,!: 
and fometimes in Autumn. They take the Elk in a 
Gin by the Neck, and the Caftor in Traps. They 
kill the Bears with Arrows or Shot, upon the Oaks,s 
when they eat the Acorns. As to the wild Cats,^ 
they fell the Tree they are upon,' and then the wild 
Dogs fall upon them and kill thera^ The Porcupines 
are taken almoft in the fame manner, with this only 
difference, that they kill them with a Hatchet or 
fork when the Tree is fain j for the Dogs cannot 
Come near them, becaufe of their Quills, which are 
Iharper than Awls, and by little and little pierce a 
Man's Body in an imperceptible manner j and thefe 
Beafts would infallibly be the death of thofe Dogs 
that fiiould attack them : Thefe Beafts do not run 
fwift, a Man may eafily overtake them in running. 
They take the Otters in Traps, where they kill them 
with Arrows or Shot ; they feldom kill them with 
Hatchets, becaufe they are quick of hearing. 

They take the Caftors in Winter under the Ice : 
they firft feek out for the Ponds where thefe Beafts 
frequent : The Caftors fhew an admirable Skill and 
Induftry in the building of their little Cabins. 
When they change their abode, they feek out fome 
Brook in the Woods, and run upwards along the 


"A Vop^e %m North America. 99 

|jde of it till they come to fome flat Country fit to 
make a Pond in ^ 'then after they have well viewed 
the place on every fide, they begin to make a Dam to 
ftop the Water : They make it as Itrong as the Dam 
of any Poiid in £«Ko];f , of Wood, Earth, and Mud j 
and foraetimes fo big, that it will hold the Water of 
^ Pond a quarter of a League long. They make their 
Cabins about the middle of the Level of the Water, 
with Wood, Rulhes and Mud \ and they plaifter it 
all fmoothly together with their Tails, which are 
ionger, and full as broad as a Mafon's Trowel. Their 
Buildings are three or four Stories high, filled almofb 
full with Mats, of Ru/hes ', and in this place the Fe- 
males bring forth their young oiies. 

At the bottom of the Water there arePaflages 
higher and lower. When the Ponds are frozen over, 
they can oiily go under the Ice: And for this reafon 
at the beginning of Winter they make a provifion of 
Alpen Wood, which is their ordinary Food : They 
keep it in the Water round about their Cabins. 
The Savages pierce the Ice about the Cabin with the 
handle of a Hatchet, or a Stakes and when they have 
made a hole, they found the bottom of the Water to 
fmd out the CafiorH Track : When they have found 
it out, they put in a Net a fathom long, and two 
Sticks,of which the two ends below touch the ground, 
and the two ends above come out at the hole which 
is made in the Ice. They have two Cords fixed to 
the Sticks to draw the Net when the Caftor is taken. 

But to the end this fubtle Animal may not fee the 
Net, nor the Men, they ftrow upon the Surface of 
the Ice rotten Wood, Cotton, and fuch like things. 
One Savage ftays to watch near the Net with a 
Hatchet to draw the Cajicr upon the Ice when he is 
taken, while the reft break down the Cabins with a 
great deal of labour : They often find more than a 
foot of Wood and Earth, which they are forced to 
fcew with a Hatchet, for it's frozen as hard as a Stone. 
^- ■ — When 

I oo J Vopge into North America.' 

When that is done,' they found the Pond, and where- 
foever they find a hole, they break the Jce for fear 
the Ca^on fliould hide themfelves under it j fo dri- 
ving them from place to place, at laft they force 
them into the Net. They labour cxtream hard in 
this manner from *Morning till Night without eating 
any thing, and for all that do not take above three or 
four CaJioYs, 

The Savages take alfo in the Sprin^thefc Bealls 
with Traps in the following manner. When the Ice 
begins to thaw, they obfervethe CaJior\ Paflage,and 
fet a Trap there j they bait that with a branch of 
the Afpin Tree, which reaches from the Trap into 
the Water. When the Cafior finds, he eats it even 
in the Trap, and then falls upon two great Logs of 
Wood which kill him. They take the Martens al- 
mofl in the fame manner, with this difference only, 
that they put no Bait for them. 

All the Southern Nations towards the River Mef^ 
chafipi are more luperftitious in their hunting than 
the Northern People, and particularly the Iroques. 
Whilft I was among them, their old Men,fix days be- 
fore the hunting of the wild Bulls, fent four or five 
of their moft expert Hunters upon the Mountains to 
dance the Calumet with as many Ceremonies, as a- 
mpngll the Nations to which they are wont to fend 
Embafiies, to make fome Alliance. At the return of 
thefe Men, they openly expofed for three days toge- 
ther one of the great Caldrons they had taken from 
us : They had wreathed it round about with Feathers 
of divers Colours, and laid « a Gun a-crofs over it. 
For three days together the chief Wife of a Captain 
carried this Caldron upon her Back, with Flowers in 
great Pomp, at the head of above two hundred Hun- 
ters: They all followed an old Man who had faftned 
one of our Indian Handkerchiefs to the end of a Pole 
like a Banner, holding his Bow and Arrows 5 he 
marched with great Gravity and Silence. 


A Vcyage into North America. i o i 

This old Man made the Hunters halt three or four 
times; to lament bitterly the Death ofthofe Bulls 
theffiop'd toJdlL At the laft Stage where they 
relied,^ the moft antient of the Company fent two 
of their nimbleft Hunters to difcover wild Bulls. 
They whifpered foftly to them at their return,before 
they began the hunting of thefe Beafts. Afterwards 
they made a Fire of Bulls Dung dry'd in the Sun, 
and with this Fire they lighted their Pipes or Calu- 
mets, to fmoakthetwo Hunters which had been fent 
to make the Difcovery.Prefently after this Ceremony 
was over, a hundred. Men went on one fide behind 
the Mountain, and a hundred on the other, to en- 
compals the Bulls, which were in great numbers : 
(They killed a great many in Confufion with their 
Arrows, and we Europeans feven or eight with Shot. 
Thefe Barbarians did wonderfully admire the effedt 
of our Guns: They heard the Report, but did not 
fee the Bullets, and they thought it was the Noife 
that kill'd them ; they laid their Hands on their 
Mouths, to (how how much they were aftonifti'd, and 
cry'd out, Man/a Ouacanche^ which lignifies in the 
Language of the IJJati, this Iron does harm to Men 
and Beafts : We do not know how it comes to pafs, 
but we cannot fufficiently admire how the Noife of 
this round Inftrument breaks the Bones of the largeft 

It was no fmall matter of Admiration to fee thefe 

Savages flea the Bull, and get it in pieces j they had 

neither Knives nor Hatchets, but fome few they had 

ftole from usj and yet they did it dexteroufly with 

the Point of their Arrows, which was made of a 

Iharp Stone j Afterwards they took Stones,and broke 

the Bones, and with them they feparated one piece 

from another. After they had thus difmembred the 

! Beaft, their Wives dry'd them in the Sun, and the 

j Smoak of fmall Fire, upon wooden Gridirons. 

yV^hile the Hunting lafts,they only eat the Intralsjand 

U- the 


X02 A Visage into North Artierica* 
the worit pieces of thofe Beafls, atid carry the belE 
part home to their Villages, which are above two hun^ 
dred Leagues from the place of hunting. 

0/ their manner of Fijhmg: 

THE Savages that dwell in the North fifh in « 
different manner from thofe of the South: The- 
lirfl catch all forts of Fifh with Nets, Hook^^-and^ 
Harping-irons, as they do in Europe, I have fecn 
them fifh in a very pleafant manner : They take a 
Fork of Wood with two Grains or Points, and fit a 
Gin to it, almoft the fame way that in France they 
catch Partridges : After they put it in the Water, 
and when the Fifh, which are in greater plenty by 
far than with thus, go to pafs through,^ and find they ; 
are entred into the Gin, they fnap together this forr 
of Nippers or Pinchers, and catch the Fifh by the i 

The Iroquois in the fifhing feafon fometimes make^ 
ufe of a Net of forty or fifty fathom long, which they 
put in a great Canom \ after they caft it in an oval 
Form in convenient places in the Rivers. I have 
often admired their dexterity in this Affair. They 
take fometimes four hundred white Fifh, befides ma- 
ny Sturgeons, Which they draw to the Bank of the 
River with Nets made of Nettles. To fifh in this 
manner, there muft be two Men at each end of the 
Net, to draw it dextcroufly to the fhoar. They take; 
likewife a prodigious quantity of Fifh in the Rivers 
of Niagara^ which are extreamly well tafted. 

The Fifliery is fo great in this place, that it's capa-i 
ble to furnifh with Filh of feveral forts the greatefti 
City in Europe. It's not to be wonder'd at. The Fifhj 
continually fwim up the River from the Sea towardsi 


"A VcyMge mfo North America: xoj 

the Spring, to find convenient places to fpawn in: 
The River of St. Laurence receives in this part of 
'Niagara an infinite quantity of Water from the four 
great Lakes of which we have fpoke,and which may 
properly be called little frefh- water Seas. This 
great deluge of Water tumbling furioufly over the 
greateft and molt dreadful Leap in the World, an 
infinite number of Fiffi take great delight to fpawn 
here, and as it were ftagnate here, becaufe they can- 
jnot get over this huge Catarad: So that the quan- 
tity taken here is incredible. 

Whilft I was in the Miflion of the Fort Frontenac^ 

(l went to fee this Leap, which comes from a River 

?in the North, and falls into a great Baffin of the Lake 

Ontario^ big enough to hold a hundred Men of War. 

Being there, I taught the Savages to catch Fifli with 

their Hands : I caufed Trees to be cut down ?in the 

I Spring, and to be rolled down to the Bank of the 

[River, that I might lie upon them without wetting 

me j and after I thruft my Arm into the Water up 

to the Elbow, where I found a prodigious quantity of 

Fifti of different Species ^ I laid hold on them by the 

Gills, gently ftroking them j and when I had at feve- 

ral times taken fifty orfixty large Fi(h, I went to 

warm and refrefh me, that I might return frefiier to 

the Sport : I caft them into a Sack wbich a Savage 

held in his hand. With thefel fed above fifty Iroquois 

Families of Ganneouffh^ and by the afliftance of 

Monfimr de la Salle, taught them %o i^Unt the Indian 

Corn, and to inftruCt their Children in theChriftiaa 

Religion at the Fort Frontenac, 

The moll confiderable Fifhery of the Savages is 
that <^f Eels, which are very^ large, of Salmons, and. 
Salaion-trouts, and white Fifli. ^ The Fifhery of the 
Iroquois ^gnies which are near New Yorh^ is of Frogs, 
which they take, and put them whole into their Cal- ^ 
drons without skinning them, to feafon their Saga- 
tnit?^ which is a fort of Pottage made oflndian Corn. 


1 04 A Voyage into North America.' 
The Salmon-trowts are taken in many other places hi 
the Rivers which falj into the Lake of Frontenac • 
There are there fuch quantities of them, that th«y 
kill them with Sticks. 

They take the Eels in the Night when it's calm : 
thefe come down all along the River of St. Laurence^ 
and are taken in this manner. ^ The Savages put a 
large Bark of the Birch-tree, with fome Earth upon 
the end of a Stake, after which they light a fort of 
aFlambleau which gives a clear Light j after that 
one or two go iiito a Canow^ with a Harping-Iron 
placed between the two Grains of a little Fork : when 
they fee the Eels by the light of the Fire, they ftrike 
an infinite quantity of them, becaufe the great whitd 
Porpofes which purfue them make them fly towards 
the Banks of the River where the Porpofe cannot fol- 
low, becaufe of the fhallownefs of the Water. They 
take Salmons with Harping-Irons, and the white Filh 
with Nets. 

The Southern People which dwell upon the River 
Msfchafipi are fo crafty, and have fuch quick and 
piercing Eyes, that tho' the Fifhfwim' very faft, they 
will not fail to ftrike them with Darts a great depth 
in the Water,which they fkoot with a Bow. Belides, 
they have long Poles fharp at one end, which they 
dart moftdextcroufly : In this manner they kill great 
Sturgeons, and Trouts, which are feven or eight fa- 
thom in the Water. 


CHAP. xxvn. 

Of the Vtenfils of the Savages in their Cabins ; and of 
the extraordinary manner they ftrike Fire, 

BEfore the Europeans arrived in the North Ame- 
rica^ the Savages of the North and the South 
made ufe ( as they do even to this day ) of Pots of 

Earth j 

J Voydge hto North America. io 5 
Earth ; efpecially thofe that have no Commerce w ith 
:he Europeans, and can procure no Caldrons o r 0- 
ither Utenfils : Inftead of Hatchets and Knives, they 
make ufe of fharp Stones, which they tie with 
Thongs of Leather in the end of a cleft Stick. In- 
|!tead of Awls, they malvC ule of a certain fharp 
i3one, which is above the Heel of the glk : They have 
10 Fire- Arms, but only make ufe of Bows and Ar- 

\ For to make Fire in a new manner, new, and quite 
bknown to us, they take a Triangle of Gedar 
^Vood, of a foot and half, in which they makefom? 
I^oles of a fmall depth : After they take a Switch or 
little Stick of hard Wood \ they twirl it betweea 
f)0th their Hands in the Hole, and by the.qiHck Mo*- 
Jion, produce a kindof Dufi: or Meal, which is con^ 
f^erted into.Fire ; after they pour out this white Fou- 
ler upon a Bunch of dried Herbs,and rubbing all toge-^ 
her, and blowing upon this Pouder, which is upoii 
[he Herbs, the Fire, blazes jn a moment. 
I When they would make Platters, or woodei^ 
jlpoons^ or Porringers, they drill their Wood witli 
[heir ftone Hatchets, and hollow it with Fire, and 
Jo after fcrape it, and polifh it with a Bever's 

I The Northern NationS;, who have commonly ve-» 
y fharp Winter, make ufe of Rackets to go over 
|6e Snow -^ tliey make them of the Thongs of Skins 
jtat out as broad as little Ribbons^ neater than ouc 
fennis Rackets : Thefe Rackets have no handles, as 
liofe of the Tennis Court, but they are longer and 
)roader •, they leave in the middle a Slit the bread tl^ 
■»f their Toes, that they may be at more liberty to 
i^alk with their favage Shoes : They will perform a 
jreater Journey in a Day, than without them. With- 
bt thefe Rackets they would fink into the Snow^" 
I'hic.h is commonly fix or {twtn foot deep,and forae-? 
frfies more, in Winter j in fome places it's higher 

■ Bfe EhOB 

io6 A Voyage i/ttol^onhAmmcsL. 

than the higheft Houfes in Europe, being driven int( 
Mountains by the Wind. 

Thofe Savages which are near the Europeans 
have at prefent Guns, Hatchets, Caldrons, Awls 
Knives, Tongues, and fuch like Utenfils. 

To plant their Indian Corn, they make ufeo 
Pickax's of Wood, for want of thofe of Iron : The; 
have large Gourds in which they put the Fat of Bears 
wild Cats, &c. There is none but has his leathe 
Bag for his Pipe and Tobacco. The Women mak 
Bags of the Rind of Linden Tree, or of Rulhej 
to put their Corn in : They make Thred of Nettle; 
and of the Bark of the Line Tree,and of certain Rooti 
whofe Names I know not. To few their favag : 
Shoes they make ufe of very fmall Thongs : The; 
make likewife Mats of Bulrufhes to lie upon ; anti 
when they have none, they make ufe of the Barks o 
Trees. Tfhey fwathe their Children as the EuroJeSi 
Women do, with this only difference, that thf 
make ufe of fwathing Bands of large Skins, ancy 
fort of Cotton, that they may not be too hot : Af^ 
they have fwathed them, they tie them upon aJioard 
or Plank with a Skin Girdle j after they hang thi 
Plank upon the Branch of a Tree, or in fome plaai 
of their Cabin, fo that their little ones never lie I! 
Bed ; they hang perpendicularly : And to the cni 
their Urine may not hurt them, they place conveni 
ently a piece of Birch-tree Bark ; fo that it runs a 
way as it were in a Gutter, and touches not th' 
"Child^s Body. 

Thefe Women have Co great a care of their Chil 
dren, that they avoid all carnal Commerce with thei 
Husbands, till the Child be three or four Years old 
The European Women do not fo, becaufe 'tis eafi 
to fupply the defedt of the Mother's Milk, with th 
Milk of Cows, and other domeftick Animals i bu 
they have none of this fort of Cattel : They avoi< 
^lerefore ths Comraerc« of their Husbands vvhil 


A Voyage into North America, 1 07 

ley are Nurfes ; for if they fhould prqve with child, 
leir Infaits would undoubtedly perifh, they having 
pthing futable for a Child of feven or eighth Months 

The Savagips which have Commerce with the Eu° 
jpeans, begin to make ufe of iron Crooks and Pot-' 
Doks, which they hang upon a Sticky which refts 
pon two-forked Sticks fixed in the Ground : but 
jofe that have no Commerce, make ufe of the Bran-; 
Jies of Trees to hang their earthen Pots upon to 
oil their Victuals. 


)f the Manner of their Interring their Dead : Of the 
^ Fejlival of the Dead^ with fume Refie^ions on ths 
\ Immortality. of the Soul. 

f He. Savages bury their Dead with the greatell 
Magnificence they can devire,erpecially their 
jLelations, and particularly their Captains, or Heads 
■f their Clans or Tribes : They put on their belt At- 
tre, and paint their Face and Body witli all forts 
jf Colours. They put them in a fort of jGoffin 
hade of the Bark of Trees, and they polifh the out- 
Ide neatly with light Pumice Stones ^ and they make 
[place where they bury them in the manner of a 
Mau^oleum^ which they encompafs round about witli 
♦takes or Palifadoes twelve or thirteen foot high. 

Thcfe Maufoleums are commonly ereded in the 
iiofl: enjinent Place of their Savage Borough, They 
end every Year folemn Embaflies to their neigh- 
bouring Nations" to folemnize the Feafi: of the Dead, 
AW the People of the Northern America fpare no- 
thing to honour their dead- Friends and Relations, 
whom they go to lament : Th^y make Prefents e- 
fteenf!d among them very confiderabk, as Girdle^ 
6 b 2 dyexj 

io8 J l^oyage wto North AmQviC2L. 
dyed with Sea-purple, and Pipes made with the mofi 
precious Stones that can be found ^ and in a word 
with what they look upon to be the mofl eHimabletc 
the Parents of the Defuna:. Thfey condud them tc 
the Maufoleum, muttering a fort of Prayers, accom 
panied with Tears and Sighs, before the Bones 
whofe Memory they houour for their great Exploit; 
in Peace and War. 

Thefe Savages have particular Ceremonies for th( 
Children of their deceased Friends : When they de- 
lign to bury thefe little ones, as ioon as they are deac 
they wrap their Bodies in a white pjnked Skin in tin 
prefence of their Parents *, it's painted with manj 
Colours : After they carry ic and place it upon i 
kind of Sledge, and fo carry it to be buried : Bu)( 
inftead of making Prefents to the Parents of the de 
ceafed Infants, as they do for thofe of riper Years 
they themfelves receive them to wipe away theip 
Tears, which .they fned in abundance, in the pre-i 
fsneQ of the Parents. 

The Savages have likewife a CuHom of putting ii 
the Coffin of the deceafed of riper Years, whatever 
they elleem valuable, tho to the value of two ok 
three hundred downs: They put there Shoes o 
pinked Skins, garniihed with red and black Porcu- 
pine, a Pair of Tongs, a Hatchet, Necklaces of Pur- 
ple, a Pipe, a Caldron, and a pot full oi Sagamite. 
or Pottage of Indian Corn, with fome fat Meat; I^ 
he be a Man, they bury him with a Gun, Powder, and' 
Ball y but thofe that have no Fire-Arms, con- 
tent themfelves with putting in their Coffin theh' 
Bows and Arrows, that when they are in the Corn- 
try of Souls fas they phrafe it) and of th*e Dead, 
they may make ufe of them in Huntang. 

When I was among the Iffati Nadoueffansy there 
died one of the Savages, that had been bit with a 
Riutlc-Snake ; I came not time enough to give him 
my infallible Remedy, w>,, Orvietan in Pouder. Ii 


A Voyage into North America. 109 

his Accident happened to any one in my prefence, I 
nade them prefently be fcarified upon the place 
hat was bit, and caft feme of the Ponder upon it ; 
fterward I made them fwallow fome of it, to keep 
he Poifon from the Heart. Thefe Barbarians ; 
trangely admired me, that I cured one of their' 
Chieftains, that had been bit by one of thefe Ser- 
lents : They faid to me. Spirit^ for fo they call 
ly Europeans, we fought after you, and the other 
y^o Spirits your Companions ; but we were [b un- 
tortunate, that we could not find you ^ leave us no 
pore, we'll take care of you for the fjture : if you 
ad been with us, our Chieftain, who you fee dead,^ 
/ould have been in a condition to have been merry 
i^ith you : He was excellently well verfed in the trade 
jf furprizing and killing his Enemies ^ he with 
iu;iting maintained his ten Wives : He would have 
jeen in a condition to have been your Benefaftor, if 
:0U had been here to fave his Life : You could have 
;onq it eafily, lince you have cured fo many of our 
Relations •, you would have done him this important 
jiece of Service, and fpared our Tears. 
I Thefe poor People feeing our Method,but not com- 
rehending it, believe we are capable of doing any 
ling, even of arrefting death: They often admired 
le efeifts of the Remedies, which I gave to their 
jck, with a defign to cure their Spiritual Maladies, 
J bringing them to the Knowledge of the true God, ^ 
y the Care I took of their Bodies. 
I I admired how neatly thefe Savages had laid out 
fjf dead Corps ^ they had laid him upon fine Mats, 
iid put him in the pofture of a Warriour, with bis 
{ow and Arrows *, They painted his Body with di- 
ers Colours ^ one would have thought at firft he had 
^en alive. They faid I mufl give him fome Tobacco 
f Martineco, of which I had a fmall quantity, that 
e Defund mi^ht have fomething to fmoak .• This 
yQ,me an occalion to tell them, that the dead did 
B b 3 • neither 


no J Voyage i/ffol!^oTth ArnQnoi. 

neither fmoak nor eat in the Country of Souls^ and 
that they have no more need of Bows and Arrows ; 
for in the Country whither thofe Souls go, they go 
no more a hunting : That- if they would learn to 
kdow the great Captain, they would be fo much fa- 
tisfied with feeing him, that they would think no 
more of Hunting, neither of eating or drinking ; for 
the Souls do not need it. 

They made but a grofs Conception of what I faid 
to them:afterwards I made them a Prefent of two Fa- 
thom of our black Tobacco^ they love it paftionately : 
Theirs is not fo well cured, nor fo ftrong as that, of 
Martineco^ of which I made them a Prefent, I madei 
them underftand, that I gave it them to fmoak, andu 
not to the deceafcd, becaufehe had no need of it. i 
Some of thofe Savages prefent gave me an attentive' 
Ear, and were pleafed with my Difcourfe of another 
life j others faid in their Language, Te^atoui, which: 
13 as much as to fay T/ery well: Afterwards they fata 
them down, and fell a fmoaking, taking no further' 
notice of my Difcourfe. 

1 obferved that the Tears which they fhed, and i 
the Ceremonies they pradifed,a$ rubbing the Defund' 
with Bears Fat, and fuch like things, were rather: 
the EfFeifts of Cullom, derived to them by Traditiofl,f 
wliich fccms to retain foraething of Judaifm, 
than of any fhong Attache they have for them. I 
do not abfolutely defpair of the future Salvatiojl, 
of thefe Barbarians. I believe God will raif^((y| 
f )me proper means to enlighen them with the Light i 
o: the Gofpel j for his Holy Gofpcl is to be prcache4 ' 
io all the World before the Day of Judgment. ,- 


A Voyage into North America. i n 


Of the Superflitlons of the Savage f, and of the ridicU' 
lous things they believe. 

I Always obfervcd that the ftrongefl: Arguments 
than can be brought for the Convcrfion of Infidels 
are of no value till God give a Bkffing. How fhall 
they believe in him whom they have not heard fpeak ? 
I fays St. Paul, How fhall they underftand, if fome do 
I not preach to them ? And how Ihall they preach if 
they be not fcnt ? The found of the Apoftles is gone 
through the World, and their Words are heard even 
to the ends of the World. I ardently beg that the 
f found of the Succeflbrs of the Apoltles may bring to 
! the Paftures of Life th'at Infinite number of Savages 
■which I have feen in my Travels. Great pains have 
j been taken a long time, but as yet no conliderable 
iprogrefs is made, for the generality of them are 
[ ftrongly fixed in their Superflitions. 
i Thefe Barbarians are one more fuperllitious than 
i?mother, the Old Men efpecially ^ and the Women 
• niolt obftinately retain the Traditions of their Ancef- 
i ^ors. When I told them it was a Foolery to believe 
jib many Dreams and Fancies; they ask'd me how old 
i t was ? You are not above thirty five or forty years 
' pld,and do you pretend to know more than our An- 
I tient Men ? Go,go,you know not what you fay ; you 
^ay know what palles in your own Country, becaufe 
iyour Anccflors have told you, ' but you cannot tell 
what has palTed in ours, before the S^irits^ that's to 
fay the Europeans, came hither. 

I reply'd to thefe Barbarians, that we knew all by 
the Scripture,which the great Malter of Life has given 
us by his Son ; that this Son died to deliver Men from 
a place where burns an eternal Fire, which would 
have been their lot, if he had not come into the 
B b 4 World 

112 A Voyage hto North America. 
World to fave us from Sin and from Death ^ that alj' 
Mankind were Sinners in ^^^w, the firft Man of the 
\yorld. Thefe Savages, who have a large Ihare of 
common' Senfe, often ask'd me, Did yon Spirits know 
of our being here before you came hither ? I anfwer- 
€d them. No : You do not learn therefore all things 
by Scripture ^ it tells you not all things, reply'd they! 

It requires a great deal of time to fhew them the 
Falfity of their Superftitions, and much more to per- 
fwade them to embrace the Verities of the Gofpel: 
There's none but God can do it by the Undion of 
his Grace and Holy Spirit. But for all this the Evan- 
gelical Reapers mull not defert the Harveft. A time 
willcome that Men will prefer the Intercfts of Jefus 
Chrilt, before their own : then there vviil be but one 
Shepherd, and one Sheepfold. * 

There are many of the Savages that make the Sto- 
ries of their Antients the fubjeft of their Raillery, 
but others believe them. I have formerly given an 
account of the Sentiments they have of their Oi igine, 
and of the Cure of their Maladies. They have feme 
Sentiments of the fnmiortality of the Soul. They lay 
tlierc is a delicious Country towards the VVtll, where 
there's good Hunting, cuid where they kill os many 
Eeafts as they pkafe. It's thither tliey fay their Souls 
go. '• They hope to fee one another there. But they 
are yet more ridiculous, in believing that the Souls 
of Caldrons,Guns -jM other Arms, which they place 
near the Sepulchre of the Dead, go with them to be 
tnadeufe^of in the Country of Souls. 

A young Savage Maid dying after Baptifm, the 
Mother feeing one of her Slaves at the point ot Death, 
faidy my- Daughter is all alone in the Country of 
the dead, among the Europeans, without Relations, 
and without Friends: The Spring is at hand ^ it's time 
to fow the Indian Corn, and Citruls, or Pompions ; 
baptize my Slave, faysihe, that Ihe may go and ferve 
iny Paughter in the Country of the Euroneans. 
■'■ ■-■''■:•■'■- * A 

\A Vroyage into North America. 1 1 j 
A Savage Woman being at the laft Gafp, cried out 
that (he would not be baptized, for the Savages that 
die Chriftians are burned in the Country of Souls by 
the Europeans. Some of th?m told me one day, that 
we baptized them to make them our Slaves in the o- 
ther World. Others asked me, if there was good 
Hunting in the Country, whither their dying newly 
baptized Infants were going ? When I anfwerM them, 
that they lived there without eating and drinking, 
becaufe they are there fatiated with the Contempla- 
tion of the great Mafter of Life : We will not go 
thither, fay they, becaufe we mnft eat. If wc reply 
that they will have no need of Food, they clap their 
flands upon their Mouths in fign of Admiration, and 
fay, you are a great Liar ^ Can one live without 
eating ? 

A Savage told us one day this Story : One of our 
old Men, fays he, being dead, and being come to the 
Country of Souls, he found there firfl Europeans that 
carefTed him, and made much of him ^ after he came 
to the place where his Country-men were, who like- 
wife received him very kindly : There were Feafls 
there every day, to which the Europeans were often 
invited \ for there are there neither Quarrels nor 
War : After this old Man had taken a full view of 
the Country, he returned home, and recounted all 
his Adventures to thofe of his Nation. We asked 
the Savage if he believed this Story ? He anfwered. 
No, that their Anceftors related it, but they might 
tell a Lie. 

Thefe People admit fome fort of Genius in every 
thing ; they all believe one Mafter of Life, but they 
make divers applications of it. Some have a lean 
Crow, which they carry alway about with them, and 
which they call their Mafter of Life. Others have an 
Owl, others a Bone, fome the Shell of a Filh, and fuph 
like things. When they hear the Owl hout, they 
tremble, and take it for an ill Omen, They are great 


114 -A ^om^ if^fo North America, 

believers of Dreams. They go unto their Baths to 
procure good weather for Hunting. They never 
give the Bones of Bevers or Otters to their Dogs. 
I asked them the reafon % they anfwered me, that 
there wasanO^iow, or Spirit, in the Wood, which 
would tell the Bevers and Otters, and after that they 
would catch none. I asked them what that Spirit 
was ; they anfwered me that it was a Woman that 
knew every thing, who was the Lady of Hunting. 
But the greateft part of them do not believe thefq 

Whilft ! was in the Miffion oi frontenac, a Savage 
Woman was poifoned in the Wood by accident ; 
The Hunters brought her into her Cabin •, I went to 
fee her after (he was dead. I heard them difcourfing 
near the Body of the Dead ; they faid they had feei^ 
upon the Snow the winding Trads of a Serpent which 
came out of her Mouth. They related this very 
feriouny. While they were difcourfing thus, an old 
fuperftitious Beldam faid, fhe had feen the fpirit that 
had killed her. . =. 

I have feen a Boy of about eighteen years old, who 
believed himfelf to be a Girl^ and this Fancy wrought 
fo ftrongly upon him, that he afted all things accord- 
ingly : He habited himfelf like a Girl, and employed 
binifelf ill their fort of work. A Savage which we 
had decoyed into the Fort, and who was the qhief of 
his Village, told me one day that Onontioy which ia 
the naaie they give to the Gove rnour-General 
tif Canada, who at that time was the Count of Fron- 
tcnac, won Id come fuch a day, when the Sun was in 
fnch a place : which precifely came to pafs as he had ' 
faid. This fame old Man, who was called Canneoufe 
Kaera^ that is to fay, the beardedj was the only Man 
of all the Savages which I faw with a Beard. The 
People of the Northern America commonly pluck a- 
way the Beard when it is but down, and for this rea- 
fon they have no Beards. I mufl confefs I knew not 


J foy age into North AmcvlcsL, 115 

what to fay when I faw the Count de Frontenoc arrive. 
This Man had heard no news from any Body. Whca 
I ask'd him how he came to know it ; he faid he had 
learned it of a Jugler who pretended to foretel 
things. But I believe their PredidionS are rathcf 
the effeft of Hazard, than of any Commerce they 
have with the Devil. 


Of the Objlacks that are found in the Converfion 
of the Savages, 

THere are many Obftacles that hinder the Convcr- 
fion of the Savages ; but in general the difficulty 
proceeds from the indifferency they have to every 
thing. When one fpeaks to them of the Creation of 
the World, and of the Myfteries of the Chr^iftian Re- 
ligion ; they fay we have Reafon : and they applaud 
in general all that we fay on the grand Affair of our 
Salvation. They would think themfelves guilty of a 
great Incivility, if tftey fhould fhew the leaft fufpicion 
of Incredulity, in refpedl of what is propofed. But 
after having approved all the Difcourfes upon thefe 
Matters j they pretend likewifc on their fide, that 
we ought to pay all poffible Deference to the Rela- 
tions and Reafonings that they make on their 
part. And when we make anfwer. That what 
they tell us is falfe ; they reply, that they have ac- 
quiefced to all that we faid, and that it's want of Judg- 
ment to interrupt a Man that fpeaks, and to tell him 
that he advances a falfe Propofition. All that you 
have taught touching thofe of your Country, is ss 
yon fay : But 'tis not the fame as to us, who are ot 
another Nation, and inhabit the Lands which are en 
this fide the great Lake. 
The fecond Obftacle which hinders their Conver- 


1 16 A Voyage into North America, 

fion, proceed from their great Superftition, as we 
have inlinuated before. 

The third Obftacle coniifls in this, that they are 
not fixt tb a {)lace. While I was at Fort Frontemc^ 
Father Luke Buijfet, and my felf, were employed a- 
great part of the Year to teach many Children our 
ordinary Prayers^and to read in the /rqwo/i Language; 
their Parents ailifted at the Service in the Chappel > 
they lift up their Hands to Heaven, and kneeled, 
beating their Breafts, and behaved themfelves with 
great refped in our Prefence. They feemed to be 
moved with our Ceremonies -y but they did fo to 
pleafe us, and their only aim feemed to be to get fome 
jprefents from the Europeans. / 

But in cafe they had had fome laudable Defign,they 
would quickly have renounce^ it, becaufe they ftay 
no longer in their Villages than till Harvefl be over, 
which is byt a fmall time ; All the reft; of the Year 
they pafs in Wars and Hunting. Then they carry 
their Families with them, andareabfent eight or nine 
Months: Their Children then, which have begun to 
learn fomething, forget all, and fall to their former 
Superftitions and methods of living. Befides, their 
Juglers, and their old Superllitious Men, minding no- 
thing but their kiterefl, endeavour to create in them 
a hatred towards us, left they fhould believe what 
we teach them. 

The Mercliants who deal commonly with the Sa- 
vages, with a defign to gain by their TrafRck, are 
likewifc another Obilacle : St. yJnguJline long fince 
faid of then] ^Cont in mejl in illis tneditatio doli^& tritura 
mendacii ; They Chink of nothing but cheating and 
lying, to become rich in a fhort time. They ufe all . 
manner of Stratagems to get the Furs of the Savages 
cheap. They make ule of Lies and Ciieats to gain 
double if they can. This without doubt caufes an 
averiion a gain ft a Religion which they fee accompa- 
nied by the Profcflbrs of it with fo many Artifices 
^nd Cheats. / It 

A Voyage into North America. i f 7 

It muft likewife be confcfled, that there are fome 
Miltionaries which in part hinder the progrefs. It's 
hard to learn their Languages, they being fo different 
one from another, that they are nothing like. There 
is then required a great ^ deal of time to be able to 
teach them the My Series of our Religion j and unlefs 
the Holy Gholl infpire extraordinarily, little Fruit is 
£0 be expedcd from thefe barbarous People. 

Befides, the different methods that are ufed to in- 
(Iruft them, retard much their Converfion. One be- 
gins by the Animal part, and another by the Spiritu- 
al. There are diveriity of Beliefs among the Chrifti- 
ansi every one abounds in his own Senfe, and be- 
lieves his own Faith the pureft, and his Method the. 
befl. There ought therefore to be an uniformity in 
Belief and Method, as there is but one Truth, and 
one Redeemer, other wife thefe Barbarians will not 
know what to refolve. 

I put a great deal of difference between the zeal 
and indefatigable pains of the MifTioners, and the 
pretended Succelles which are vaunted of in the 
World. They who are abfolutely dilingaged from 
the love of Riches, and who have beeh in the Mifrioa 
among the People of the Southern ^>wmV^,have with- 
out doubt made a great progrefs in thofe Countries. 
There are forty or fifty Provinces of our Order,where 
the publick Service is performed. They are in pof* 
feffion to Preach with Authority, after having de- 
Itroyed Idolatry. 

But we mult confefs, that thofe who have labour- 
ed in the Northern u^merica have not had the fame 
progrefs. They have made it their application to 
civilize thofe barbarous People, and make them ca- 
pable of fomething of Policy.- They have endeavour- 
ed to put a ftop to the Current of their Brutal Sal- 
lies, and fo prepare the v.'ay of our Lord : not- 
withftanding we muft confefi they have made little 
Progrefs. The barbarous Nation?, by I know not 


1x8 A Voyage into North America.' 

what fatality of Interefl:, are almoft as Savage, and 
have as great an Attache Xp their antient Maxims, to 
Gluttony, Pride, Curfing and Cruelty, and a thoii- 
iand other abominable Vices as even 

They are the fam« they were forty years ago, and 
abpve: And yet many Books are publilhed of the 
great Converfions of the Iroquois and Hurom, We 
were told for certaiflj that thefe Barbarians had built 
as many Churches and Chappels as they had deftroy- 
©d, and yet they are ftill Enemies of all the good 
Maxims of Chriftianity. 

I- do not deny here but that the Miffionaries have 
faithfully difcharged their Miniftry : But the Seed has 
fallen upon an ungrateful Soil, either on the High- 
way, or among the Thorns j fo that th«y'l remain 
inexcufable at the day of Judgment, having refifted 
fo clear Convidtions. 

Be it as it will, every day a great many Children 
are baptized, and fome grown Men on their Death- 
beds if they defire it, which is a great ftep to E- 
ternity : But as to thofe in Healch,few are converted, 
and fewer perftvere. But the Pains, and the entire 
Sacrifice of the Life of a Millionary, would be well 
employ'd, and glorioufly recompensed, if they had 
had the Happinels to convert and fave one only 

The principal and moft afTured part of a Miffionef 
confifts in the Adminiftration of the Sacraments to 
thofe who go to barter among the Savages. And wc 
may to our Ihamc truly fay, that as foon as the Furs 
and the Bevers begin to grow fcarce among the Sa- 
vages, the Europeans retire, and not one is to be 
found. The Savages reproached us with it once irt 
the Prefence of Monlieur the Count de Frontenac^ in 
full Council, at the three Rivers of Canada, fayingj 
Vv'hile we have Bevers and Furs, he that prayed was 
with usi he inftruded our Children, and taught 
them their Prayers and Catechifra i he was infepara- 

JP A Voyage into North America^ i % ^ 
i)le from us,and honoured us fometimes at otir Feafts 
but when the Merchandize failed, thefe Miffioners 
thought they could do no further Service among 

It's likewife true, that thegreatefl part of thofe 
MifTions which were eilablifhed above forty Years ago 
have failed : Witnefsthofe of the great Bay of St. 
Lawrence, of Rijligouc\ of Nipiftguit, of Mshu^ 
Cape Breton^ Port-royal, of the River mif, of the 
Cape of St. Mary Magdalen, of the three Rivers, 
and many more which were eftablifhed among the 
Hurons at the head of this River. Thofe that were 
Miflionaries in thofe Parts, thought good to quit 
them, and even Tadoujfae it felf, to eftablifh them- 
felves at Chigoutimi. 

If God givs me Health and Life, in a third Time 
ril give an account of other Obftacles more conHde- 
rable, which hinder the propagation of the Gofpel : 
I'll only fay in this place, that thofe that would era- 
ploy themfelves to the purpofe in thofe Parts in thisi 
painful Minillry, mull tread under foot the Riches 
of the World, and content themfelves with a mean 
Subliftcnce, according to the Dodrine of the Apo- 
ftles. . 


! of the barbarous and uncivil Manners of the Savages 
i * 

TH E Savages have fmall regard to the avilities 
of Europe : They make a Mockery of the Civi- 
licies we ufe one to another : When thiey come to i 
place, they feldom falute thofe that are there : They 
fit upon their Breech, and have no regard even to 
thofe that come to vifit them. They enter inro the 
; firfl Cabin they meet with,without fpsaking a word : 
They ftke a Seat wherfe they can, and after light 


1 20 A Voyage into North America*, 

thejr Pipe or Calumet : They -fmoak without faying 
any thing, and even fo go away again. 

When they enter into a Houfe built and furnifhed 
after the European Mode, they take the chief place ; 
If there be a Chair before the middle of the Fire, 
they feize upon it, and never rife up for any body^ 
tho' he were a Prince or a King. They look upon 
themfelves as the bell Men of the World. 

In the Northern Parts the Men and Women hide 
nothing but their IStakednefs \ all elfe is expofed to 
view. The Savages of the South are quite naked^ 
having not the lead fentiment of Shame : They do 
the Neceflities of Nature before all the World, 
without the leafl: fcruple, and without regard to any * 
Man. They treat their Elders with great incivility / 
when they are out of Council. The Common Dif-" 
tourfe both of Men and Women is down-right ' 

But as to the Commerce which Men have with i 
their Wives, for the mod part it's in private : But 
fometimes it's done with fo little Precaution, that 
they are often furprized. Befides, the Savages ob- 
ferve none of the Rules of that natural Horiefly 
which is ufed among the Europeans of both Sexes. , 
They never pradice any Carefl'^ or Endearment, , 
which are common among the People oi Europe -^ all I 
is done grody, and with a great deal of Brutality. 

They never wafii their Platters made of Wood or 
Bark, • nor their Spoons. When the Savage Women 
have cleaned their little Infants with their hand^^ 
they wipe them very fuperficially upon a piece of| 
Bark, after v/hich they will handle the Meat that i 
they eac. This often turned my Stomach, that I 1 
could not eat with them when I was invited to their 
Cabins. They feldom or never wafh their Hands or 

The Children fhew but fmall Refped to their Pa- 
rents : Sometimes they will beat them without being 


A Voyage into North America. 121 
chaftifed for it ; for they think Corredion would in- 
timidate them, and make them bad Souldiers. They 
cat fometimes fnuffling and blowing like Beafts. As 
foon as they enter into a Cabin, they fall a fmoak- 
ing. If they find a Pot covered, they make no diffi- 
culty to take off the Lid to fee what's in it. They 
eat in the Platter where their Dogs have eaten, 
without wiping it. When they eat fat Meat, they 
rub their Hands upon their Face and Hair to clean 
them : They are perpetually belching, 
I Thofe that have trucked Shirts with the Europe- 
ans, never wafh them \ they commonly let them rot 
on their backs : They feldom cut their Nails : They 
ifeldom wafh the Meat they drefs. Their Cabins \xi 
the North are commonly filthy. I was furprized 
one day to fee an old Woman bite the Hair of a 
Child, and eat the Lice. The Women are not 
afhamed to make water before all the World : but 
they had rather go a League in the Woods than any 
.body Ihould fee them go to ftool. When the Chil- 
•di-en havepifTed their Coverlets, they call away their 
pifs with their hands. One may often fee them eat 
lying along like Dogs. In a word, they ad every 
[thing brutally. 

i For all that, there are many things found among 
:hem honell and civil. When any one enters into 
fheir Cabins, when they are eating, they commonly 
prefent him. with a plate-full of Meat, and they are 
•ixtreamly plcafed when all is eaten that they give, 
jthey had rather fall two days without Victuals, than 
!et you go without iieartily prefenting you with 
bart of all they have. If by chance the Portions be 
!iftribnted when one comes in, the Wife who makes 
;he Diftribution orders the matter io^ that llie gives 
hare to the New-el>mer. 

Some Savages prefented us the finefl Mats, and the 

left place in the Cabin, when we paid them a Villt, 

Thofe who frequent the Company of Europeans, fa- 

Cc lute 

122 J Forage into North America. ' 

lute us when they meet us. It's likewife the Cuftoni 
of thefe People to return Prefent for Prefent. 

Altho they (hew fmall Refped to their old Men, 
yet they have a great Deference for their Counfels. 
They follow them exadly, and confefs that they have 
more Experience, and know Affairs better than 
themfelves. If an antient Man fhould fay to a young 
Man by way of Reproach, before others. Thou hafi 
no Wit^ he would prefently go and poifon himfelf, 
they are fo fenfible of Ignominy and Difgrace. In 
the Alfemblies which are held for debating their Af- 
fairs, the young People dare not fay a word unlefs 
they be asked. ' 

In their Feafts they often give to the mofl confi- 
derable of the reft the whole Head of the Bead 
which they have killed, or the bcft portion of whaH; 
is drefled : They Bever eat on the fame Plate, unle^i 
it be in War, for then they obferve no mea-j 
fures. They have a great Deference for the (^i 
Men, in that they leave them the whole Govera^i 
menc of Affairs, which isefteemcd honourable amoi^ 
them. J 

There are few that falute after the mode of Europi^ 
I knew a Savage who was called Garagontie^ which IS 
as much as to fay, the Sun that moves ; he one days 
made an Harangue before Monfieur the Count ol( 
Frontenacy and every time he began a new Difcourfe^i 
he took off his Cap, and made a Speech like anQra^i 
tor. Another Captain of the Hojogoins feeing hisi 
little Daughter which he had given to the Count da 
Frontenac to be inftruded, faid very civilly to hini^ 
Onnontioy (for fo they call the Governour of C^«^<iii 
Which word lignifies a beautiful Mountain) thou a^ 
the Mailer of this Girl •, order the bulinefs fo that 
llie may learn to write and read well ', and whcf 
/he grows great, either fend her home, or take her 
for a Wife. Which Ihews you, that the Iroiimh 
look upon themfelves as much as the sreateft Perfosai 
ill the World, 'Jl 

A Voyage into North America . 12^ 

I knew another Iroquois who was called ^treovati^ 
Mch. fignifres, great Throat : this Man eat as the Eu- 
ropeans do ; he wafhed his Hands in a Bafon with the 
jovernour ; he fat lalt down at the Table, and open- 
3d his Napkin handfomly, and eat with his Fork •, 
and did all things after our mode : But often he did it 
out of Craft or Imitation, to get fome Prefent from 
the Governour. The Count de Frontenac was very 
complaifant with thefe Savages ^ becaufe he knew 
that the Iroquois were the Enemies moft to be 
jdreaded by the French, of all the People in the North 

hf the great Indifferency of the Humours of the Savages 1 

GEnerally fpeaking, all the Savages of the Nati- 
ons I have feen in the Northern America^ have 
an extream indifference for all things : They have 
ho particular Attache to any thing, and fet no great 
lyalue upon the moil: precious thing they have.- They 
look upon every thing as very much below them ^ 
and if they had a thoufand Crowns, or any thing of 
equal value, they would part with it without trou- 
ble, and give it all to have what they delire. But of 
all the Northern Nations there is none fo indifferent 
as the Iroquois: they look upon themfelves as Mailers 
of other People, and have often dared to declare 
War againg the French in Canada^ and would have 
conquered it if they had known their Forces. 

Notwithftanding, their indifference for all things 
either of Peace or War, often induced them to make 
a counterfeit Peace with thofe of Canada. Befides, 
they are perfwaded, that unlefs one fends great Re- 
ijiforcements thither, they can abfolutely deflroy 
them when they pleafe, and ruin the Commerce. 

C c 2 La 

124 J Voyage into North America. W^ 
Let the efforts be never fo great againft them, they 
can never extirpate them 5 and it will never pay the 
Charges which will beneceflary to do it: There is 
nothing but blows to be got j and it will be a difficult 
thing to defend ones felf from their Treacheries : 
One can get but fmall Booties among them. 

Their Indifference is fuch, that there is nothing 
like it under the copes of Heaven : They have a great 
Gomplaifance for all that is faid to them, and in ap^ 
pearance do all ferioufly you entreat them to do. 
Wiien we fay to them, Pray to God with us, they 
prefently do it, and anfwer word for word, accord- 
ing to the Prayers they have been taught in their 
Tongue. Kneel down, they kneel \ take off your 
Bonnet, they take it off j hold your tongue, they do 
it. If one fay to them, Hear me, they hearken dili- 
gently. If one give them fome Image, Crucifix-, or 
Beads, they ufe them as Jewels to adorn themfelves 
with. When I faid to thei?i, to morrow is Sunday^ 
or Prayer-day, they anfweiM me, Niaoray that's 
well, I am content, I faid to them fometimes, Pro- 
mife the great Mafler of Life never to be drunk any 
more ^ they anfwered, tJQtho^ I promife you I'll com- 
mit no more fuch Folly, but as foon they got ^^«^- 
wY^, or other Urong Liquors, which they trucked 
with the French, Englifh, and Hollanders, for their 
Furs, they began afrefluo be drunk. 

When I asked them if they believed in the Great 
Mafler of Life, of Heaven and Earth \ they anfwer- 
ed. Yes. Notwithftanding, the Savage Women which 
fome Miffioner had baptized, and who were married 
in the face of the Church with fome French Men of 
Canada^ often left their Husbands, and took others, 
faying, they were not fubjea; to the Laws of the 
Chriftians, and that they did not marry but with a 
defign to flay with their Husbands as long as they 
agreed toge»;her : but if they did not- agree well, they 
were at liberty to change. 


A Voyage into North America. 125 

It's necefTary to civilize this Nation before they be 
uade to embrace the Chriftian Faith. If they be not 
inder the Yoak, it's in vain to labour their Gonver- 
lon, unlefs God by a particular Grace fhould dofome 
Miracle in favour of this People. This is all I can 
ay upon this Subjed, founded upon the Experience I 
is vi^ell as many other Recoleds have had of them. 

CHAP, xxxiir. 

9/ the Beauty and Fertility of the Country of the Sava- 
ges : That porverful Colonies may eafily be planted on 
the North and the South. 

BEfore I enter into the Particulars of thefe charm- 
ing Countries which are in the North and the 
liouth of the Northern America, I'll fpeak two 
vords of the Countries of the North, to the end 
)ne may fee that it's eafy to eftablifh there powerful 

We mufl confefs that there are vail Foreils to be 
id up, which reach from Canada to the Country of 
iouiftanay all along the River of Adefchafipi j fo that 
t would require a great deal of time to clear the 
jround. But this is incident to all new Eftablilh- 

Confiderable Advantages were formerly made, 
nd are fo ftill, from the Fifhery, of which they 
:ried one part, becaufe they fold them in the hoc 
Countries: in which Traffick were imployed in the 
)aftAge a thoufand or twelve hundred VelTels. The 
jeat Bank of Newfoundland, the adjacent Banks, 
he neighbouring Ifles, Cape ^refoM, the broken Ifland, 
nd Acadia^ have the molt Fifti in the World, I do 
ot fpeak here of the Fifhery of the North,, which 
V^wce pretends a Right to, under the Title of the 
rft Pofleflbrs. Thefe Fifheries would be inexhaufti- 
Cc J ble 

1 26 A Foyage into North America, 
ble Mines for the Kingdom, which could not be taken 
from it, if they were fupported by good Colonies. 
A great many Veflels might go every Year to filh for 
the Porpoife, the Whale, and the Sea-wolf, which 
would furnifh us with an infinite quantity of Oil for 
our Domeltick Manufadtures, of which a part might 
be tranfported into Foreign Countries. 

It's granted that the Traffick of Fifliing which is 
upon thefe Coafts of Canada^ gave birth to the firi I 
Eflablifhments which were made in thofe Parts of 
America. There has not * been time enough, nor 
Means to fearch the Country for Mines ; without 
doubt there are Mines of Tin, Lead, Copper and 
Iron in many places, which are left for the Difcovc- 
ry of future Ages. The Country, by reafon of the 
Valt Forefts, vnW furnifh all forts of Wood necefTary 
to tompleat the Mines. In many places is found q 
fort of baflard Marble, and great Bands ot Coal fit 
for the Forges : there is alio a fort of PlaiHer which i 
much refembks Alabafrer. 

' The further one advances into the Country, the 
more beautiful Forefts are found,full of gummy Trees, 
fit to make Pitch^ for Ships, as alio infinite flore m 
Trees fit for Malls, of Pines, Firs, Cedars, Maples, 
fit for ail forts of Work, cfpecially for the building 
of Ships : Great Men of War might be built there, 
Mariners might always find employ enough, and get 
fufficient to maintain their Fami'ies j they would be-? 
come abler Sea-men by this Navigation aud Com- 
merce of the Weft, than of the Levant^ and their 
Experience would be greater. 
^ At the lirll beginning of the Eflablidiment of the 
Colony in Canada^ the Community gain'd every Year 
a hundred thoufand Crowns, befides the Gains of 
pri\7ate perfons. In the Year 1687. this Sum was 
tripled and above, by the Furs which were fent to 
trance i A nd iho the Merchants are forc'd to advance 
iurther into the Country tlian at firfl, ii^ notwith- 


A Voyage into North America. 127 

itanding an inexhauftible Commerce, as we have ob- 
ferved^ by the great^ Difcoveries we have made. 

It muft be granted, that there are no Nations in 
Ewo^e that have fuch an Inclination for Colonies as 
the Engli^ and the Hollanders : The Genius of thofc 
People will not permit them to be idle at home. So 
the vaft Countries of -^^wmc^whichl have defcribed, 
may be made the Soul of their Commerce. Private 
Perfons who fliall undertake it, % without inter effing 
their own Country, may bring it. to a happy iffiie : 
They may eafily contract Alliances with the Savages, 
and civilize them. The Colonies which they fliall 
ellablifli there will quickly be well peopled, and they 
may fortify themfclves there at a very fmall expence : 
They may content themfelves at firft with a mode- 
rate Gain, but in a fliort time it will be extreamly 
confide rable. 

There are in England and Holland a great many 
forts of Merchandizes and Manufadui es of all forts, 
which cannot be confumed upon the place, but in 
time here might be had a prodigious utterance of 
them. And from hence one may better learn to un- 
derfland, than hitherto we have done, the admirable 
Providence of God, v/hofe Will and Pleafure it was 
that every Country in the World fliould not be e- 
qually furnifhed with all things, to the end Society 
and Commerce between different Nations might be 
eftablifhed, and the glad Tidings of the Gofpelbe 
divulged to the ends of the World. 

It is fomething great and glorious to gain Bar- 
ties, and fubdue rebellious Subjsds j but it*s infi- 
nitely more glorious to gain Souls to Cbriit : And I 
muft needs fay, that the principal aim 1 propofe 
in publifhing this great Difcovery, is to animate 
Chrillians to extend the Dominions of our Saviour, ^ 
and to agrandize his Empire. 

It's certain, to return to om* Difcourfe of Trade 

and Commerce, that the Trade of Furs in the North 

Cc 4 is 

128 A Voyage into North America. • 

is of infinite Profit and Advantage. There are to 
be had Skins of Elks or Orignaux^ as they are called 
in Canadia^ of Bears, Bevers, of the white Wolf or 
Lynx, of black Foxes, which are wonderfully beau- 
tiful, which were fometimes valued at five or fix 
hundred Franks y of common Foxes, Otters, Martens, 
wild Cats, wild Goats, Harts, Porcupinesi j of Tur- 
kies, which are of an extraordinary bignefs, Buftards, 
and an infinite of other Animals, whofe Names I 
know not. . 

There may be catch'd, as 1 faid before, Sturgeons, 
Salmons, Piques, Carps, large Breams, Eels, Sword- 
fifli, Gilc-heads, Barbels of an extraordinary bignefe, 
and other forts of Fifii without number. There is 
infinite Gain for the Fowlers : There is an infinity of 
Sea- Larks, which are a lump of Fat : There are Par- 
tridges, Ducks of all forts, Huars, a kind of Dot- 
trel, which imitates Mens Voices, which have an 
admirable diverlity of beautiful Colour?, Turtles, 
Ring-doves, Cranes, Herons, Swans, Buftards, which 
have a rehfti of all forts of Meat when you eat them, 
and a great abundance of all fuch like Game. 

The great River of St. Laurence^ which I have 
often mentioned, runs through the middle of the 
Country of the Iroquois^and makes a great Lake there 
which they call Ontario^ viz. the beautiful Lake ^ it's 
near loo Leagues long, and a vail number of Towns 
might be built upon it. Thefe places having Corre- 
fponclersce with New Torh.^ judicious Perions will ea- 
fily fee at what vaft Profit the Trade will be ^ and 
here it's to be obferved, that the middle of this Ri- 
ver is nearer NcivTork than Qutbcc^ the Capital City 
of Canada. ' ^ ■ 

'■ The River of St. Laurence on the South has a 
Branch which comes from a Nation which is called 
K^s:, or the Outtaotmls \ en the North aie the AU 
gone^uins^ where the French have taken j^clllfllcn : 
Toward the Fall dwtils tiie Nation ot Halves near 

At if. 

^J p^oyage wto North AmcvicsL* 129 
mrtt Holland or Torli : On the South of the fame Ri- 
ver is fituated New England or Bofion, where are ma- 
ny trading Ships: On the South-weft hFirginia^ 
which together with New. Holland was formerly call- 
ed New Sweedland : On the Eaft is the Country of the 
Hurons^ fo called, becaufe they burn their Hair, and 
leave but a little' Tuft upon their Head, which 
ftares like a wild Boars^s Briftles. This Nation has 
|)cen almoft deftoy'd by the Iroquois^ who have in- 
corporated the Remainder among themfelves. I 
have added many other Countries towards the North 
of the River of St. Laurence in the general and parti- 
cular Map, which I have publiftied in the iirft Volume 
of our difcovery. 

i The great Bay called Hudfon\ is on the North of 
thisRiver^ it was difcovered by iheSiei/r Defgrofeliers 
Rocbechouartf with whom 1 was of en in a Cauoo du- 
ring my ftay in Canada. The Engli/h have given him 
'a Penfion , and Mr. Blathwait^ firlt Secretary of War 
to William the Third King of England^ told me the 
iaft Year, that Sieur Dcfgrofeliers was then living in 

\ This Eludfon^s Bay is fituated on the North of New 
France^ and of the River of St. Laurence ; it has above 
four hundred Leagues Extent, and by Land it is not 
far from Quebeg^ as it may be obferved in my Charts : 
Notwithftanding we count it eight hundred Leagues 
from Quebec by the River to the Sea. And the Na- 
vigation it felf has fomething of difficulty, becaufe of 
lithe continual Fogs. 

; While I was at Quebec., the Canadins told me that 
Sieur Defgrofeliers allured them he had great trou- 
ble to get thither by reafon of the Ice, which was 
feven or eight foot thick, which was driven from 
the Northward with whole Trees, and the Earth 
it fclf together. Birds were feen which had there 
buiic their Nelts, fo that they looked like fo many 
ijUttle Illands. 1 do not affirm that it's altogether 
■'' iuft 

1 JO A Voynge into North America. . 

Jufi: as I fay : But the faid Sim Defgrofeliers and othcrt 
have alTured me, that tbey have palTed through Ice 
for two Leagues together, and that it's prodigioudy 
thick, one piece upon another, driven by the Winds 
higher than the Towers of great Cities. So that we 
are not to admire what Sea-men tell us, that upon 
thofe great Banks of Ice they have placed their For- 
ges, and made Anchors. 

The Englijh have in Hudfon's-Bsiy the Forts of Nel- 
fmz^d Neufavam. The Court of France ordered 
here^fore the Traders in Canada to drive the EngUPi 
henc^ ; but they had notice of ky and prevented 
the^anadim^ by fending four great Ships to their 

In the Coui;rtries to the North of the River of 
St. Laurence are found Mines of Iron and Steel, which 
would yield 40 or 5-0 per C^t. There are Lead^ 
Mines which would yield ahout^o per Cent, and Cop- 
per which would yield 18 : And according to all ap- 
pearance there might be found Mines of Silver and 
Gold. Miners were fent thither while I was there : 
but the French are too quick in their Enterprizes ; 
they would be rich too foon, and threw them up, be- 
caufe they did not prefently find what xhey fought 

Mejjieurs Gcnim^ the Father and the Son, who 
were fcnt thither to fee the Work go on, then told 
me, that fince the Company did not perform their 
Contraa, they had taken a Refolution to return home 
to Parts. That if the French who were in Canada 
had had as much Patience as other Nations, as Mr.^tf- 
nin ka. told me at that time, they had without doubt 
gain'd their Point. 

In fhort, all the Countries upon the River of 
St. Lnuvence produce all forts of Herbage and Seeds. 
There are all forts of Materials, as Oak, and all other 
forts of Wood fit for building of Ships; and the pro- 
digious quantity .of Firs furnifh Pitch in abundance. " 


'A ^ ^ 'g^ tnto North America. i j i 
Above all dii?. the Firs of which we have Ipoke, 
and Aflies fit to make Potafhes of, which may yield 
more than a hundred and fifty thoufand Livers a Year, 
and which alone are fufficient to fubfifl a great num- 
ber of poor People \ all thefe things, I fay, are ca- 
pable of producing a confiderable Profit for the 
fubfiftence of the Colonies which may be eflablifhed 

That which is moft remarkable is, that thofe who 
are Mafters of thofe Countries may keep in awe a- 
bove a thoufand VefTels which go every Year to fifh^ 
and who bring back Whale-Oil, and a great quantity 
of Salmon, and Poor- Jack, enough to furni(h whole 
Kingdoms. All thofe. Ships rauft of tsp^jity come 
to the Fkrced Ifland, where our Recoltfi have a little 
MiiTion-Houfe near the Fifhers Huts, becaufe there is 
no other convenience in thofe Countries. There is no 
Fortrefs at the entrance of the River, at lead I faw 
none. An Eftablifliment in this place without doubt 
would gain the Trade, and make it very advantagi- 
■ous,in cafe a good Colony were fettled there, which 
were very eafy. 

In the Defcription which we have publiflied of 
Louiftam, and the Countries of the South, which 
may truly be called the Paradife of Jmtrica^ we have 
made mention of all the Animals, of which we have 
fpoke here above-, but befides them, there are a great 
quantity of Bulls and wild Cows, which have a frilled 
Wool \ they may be tamed and made fit for labour : 
befide they would ferve for Food, and might be 
Ihorn every Year like Sheep, and as good Cloth 
made of them as any in Europe. The Savages that 
dwell in thofe Countries were never able to deftroy 
thefe Beafts, becaufe they change their Country ac- 
cording to the feafons. 

There are many Medicinal Herbs which are not 

. in Europe, wliofe EfFeds are infallible, according to 

the Experience of the Savages : They coie with 


1^2 J Voyage into North America. 

them all forts of Wounds, the Tertian and Quartan 
Agues ^ fome of them purge well^ and allay the 
Pains in the Reins, and fuch like Maladies. There 
are likewife great quantities of Poifons, as the Rind 
of the wild Gourd, and others which they make ufe 
of to deltroy their Enemies. Serpents are common 
in fome Parts, particularly Adders, Afpicks, and 
Rattle-fnakes ^ they are of a Prodigious length and 
bignefs, and bite dangerouily poor Paflengers : But 
they have Sovereign Remedies againft their biting. 
There are in thefe Countries Frogs of a ftupendous 
bignefs, their croaking is as loud as the lowing of 

There U^jjf^f all fo^'^s of European Trees, and 
many of dilefflttt fpecies from ours, as I have already 
mentioned : Thofe are, for Example, the Cotton 
Tree, and many others. Thefe Trees take deep 
rooting, and become very tall, which Ihews the good- 
iiefs of the Soil. But the greateft advantage that 
may be drawn from our Difcovery between the fro- 
zen Sea and New Mexico coniifts in this, as I have 
faid, that by the means of thefe Countries of the 
South, a Paflage may be found to China and Ja^an 
without being obliged to pafs the Equinoctial Line. 


Of the Methods of the Savages in their Councils . Their 
crafty Policies againfl their Enemies^ and their 
Cruelty againjl the Europeans ^ and bow a flop may 
he put to them. 

IT often happens that the Savages exercife great 
Cruelties againft the Europeans, when they pre- 
tend to have been infulted. Thefe Barbarians make 
Proclamacion of War by three or four old Men in 
ail' their Villages : They do it with fo loud a Voice, 


A VojdgB into North America . 133 

and fo dreadful a Tone, that all that are in their Ca- 
bins, as well Men as Women, treipble for fear. 

Prefently all "the antient Men, and all thofe who 
are to Ihare in their Counfels, meet at one of their 
great Cabins,where the Chief of their Nation dwells: 
There 6ne of their Chiefs fpeaks to them always in 
this manner \ My Brethren, and my Nephews, one 
of fiich a Nation has killed one of our People. For 
tho' they have but a fmall occafion of Difcontent, 
they alway give out they are killed : We muft then, 
fays the Chief, make War upon them, extirpate 
them, and revenge the Evil they have done. If all 
thofe that aflift at the Council anfwer one after ano- 
ther, N^tho^ or Togemkl ^ and if they fmoak in the 
Calumet^ or Pipe of War, whilft a little Savage takes 
care from time to time to ram it with Tobacco \ 
this is taken for an unanimous Confentof the Nation, 
and their Allies. Then one may fee from time to 
time Troops of Souldiers marching to furprife their 
Enemies, tho' they be often very innocent, and 'cis 
wholly upon the falfe fuggeftion of fome ill-minded 

One day the Iroq^uois pretending an Injury done 
by a French- man of Canada^ they would not attack 
the whole Nation, but contented themfelves to 
difcharge their Fury upon two of them, whom they 
iikilled with Hatchets j after they tied their Bodies to 
I great Scones, and call them into the River to con- 
ceal this black Action ^ and there had never been 
lany thing known of it, if after fome time the Ropes 
■had not broke, and the River brought their Bodies 
:to the Bank. 

The Savages perceiving that they were fufpeded^ 
bccaufe they were forbidden to come near the Fort and 
jthe Houfesof thelahabitants, began to fear left the 
[Canadim Ihould revenge this barbarous Action : To 
: prevent the' Effects of it, they went up to the three 
Rivers, and held a Council of about tight hundred 

Men : 

1^4 J Fcyage hto North AmQncn. 
Men : The Refult of their Aflembly was, that they 
fhiDuld endeavour to fiirprizeand cut the Throats of 
all the People in Quebec^ the Capital Gity of Canada^ 
at that time but poorly inhabited. 

It's hard to keep Secrecy in a Council of fo many 
Men at once, who without doubt were not all of 
one fentiment : Providence therefore, that watched 
for the Confervatipn of this little growing Colony, 
permitted that one of the Savages, called Forien, 
whom fome of our Order of St. Framis had in- 
ftruded at the three Rivers two years together, who 
had a great kindnefs for them, gave Advice to one 
of our Friars, called Friar Pactficusy who prefentiy 
gave notice to the Government. This obliged them 
to intrench themfelves in a little wooden Fort, for- 
tified with Stakes, and ill-ordered Paliiadoes. Thi«i 
Savage was highly rewarded, and more wasprolt 
rnifed liim, to oblige him not only to difcover their 
further Deilgns, but alfo to endeavour to divert 
thera from their Ehterpri'ze againfl: the Canadins. 

This Sivage acquitted himfelf very well of his 
Commifiion : He manag'd this Affair fo happily, that 
he not onty made them to quit their former Defign, 
but fully perfwaded them to reconcile liiemfelves 
with the French, and to obtain Provifions, of which 
they ftood much in need at that time. The Savages 
fent to this end forty Canoos with Women to fetch 
in provifions. The Canadins furnifhed them with as 
much as the time would permit. 

The French received with a great deal of Joy 
the Propolitions of Peace, which were made them in. 
full Council by the S^va-g^Fonere on the part of the 
IroquoiSy whom he had appeafed. They were told \ 
that the Chiefs and Captains of the Nation fliould ! 
give up the Murderers to the Canadins to difpofe of i 
them as they thought good : To this efFed their An- 
tients Ihould have Orders to come to Qutbec to treat \ 
on this Affair. 


J Foyage mo North America. 135 
The Propofition which Foriere made to the Savages 
on this Subjed, at firft frighted them ♦, but after- 
wards refleding upon the Weaknefs, and the fweefi 
Temper of the French in Canada, and relying upon 
the Credit of Father Jofeph Caron a Recoled, whom 
they eiteemed their Friend, they perfwaded one of 
the two who was the lefs guilty, to go down with 
them to Quebec. In the mean time the Iroquois or- 
dered their little Army to make a halt half a League 
from the French Fort, to expeft the Succefs of the 

The Iroquois prefented their Criminals to the 
Canadtm, with a quantity of Bever Robes, which 
they gave to wipe away their Tears, according to 
their Cuftom. In effed they made up the Bufmefs 
by their Prefents : It's thus they commonly appeafe 
the Anger of thofe they have provoked, and en- 
gage their Allies, make Peace, deliver Prifoners, 
and as I may fay, raife the Dead : In fhort, there's 
neither Propofal nor Anfwer, hut by Prefents, 
which ferve inllead of Words in their Harangues. 

The Prefents which the Savages make for a Man 
who has been murdered,are many ^ but commonly it's 
not he that committed the Murder that offers them ; 
,but the Cuftom is that it be done by his Parents, 
Townfliip, or fometimes by the whole Nation, ac- 
cording to the Qyality of him who was killed. If the 
Murderer be met with by the Parents of the Defund, 
before he has made fatisfadlon, he's put to Death 
immediately. According to this Cuftom, before 
foriere, the Antients and Captains of the Savages 
'began to fpeak, who made a Prefenc of twelve Elk 
Skins to CwQQtf^n ihQ Canadins. . 

After they had treated, they made a fecond Pre- 
fent, and laid it at the Feet of the Canadins, faying. 
It was to clean fe the bloody Part of.the Place where, 
the Murder was committed, protefting they had no 
knowledge of this Affair till it was done j and that 


1^6 J Voyage mto North Ammca, 

all the Chiefs of the Nation had condemned the At- 
tempt. The third was to ftrengthen the Arms of 
thofe who had found the Bodies on the Bank of the 
River, and who had carried them into the Woods : 
They gave them alfo two Robes of Bever, to repofe 
upon, and refrefh themfelves after the Labour they 
had fufFered in burying them. The fourth was to 
wafh and cleanfe thofe who were polluted with the 
Murder, and to obtain the Spirit again which they 
had loft, when they gave the unfortunate Stroke. 
The fifth to efface all the Refentments the Canad'ms 
might have. The fixth was to make an inviolablei 
Peace with the French^ adding, that for the futur^i 
they would caft away their Hatchets, fo far that they 
fliould never be found j which was as much as to fay, 
that their Nation being in perfed Peace with the Eu- 
ropeans, they would have no ufe of any Arms, only \ 
for Hunting. The feventh was to evidence the De- 
fire they had that the Canad'ms would have their 
Ears pierced ^ which is to fay in their Language, that 
they would be open to the Sweetncfs of Peace, to par- 
don the two Murderers the Fault they hadco.mmitted; 

They offered a Quantity of Chains of Sea-Purple- 
Shells, to light a Fire of Gounfel (as they phrafed it) 
at the three Rivers, where the Iroquois then were,' 
and another at Quebec. They added another Prefent 
of two thoufand Grains of black and blue purple, to 
ferve in Wood and Fewelfor thefe two Fires. 

Here the Reader is to obferve, that the Savages 
feldora have any aflemblies, but they have their Pipe 
in their Mouth j Fire being neceiTary to light their 
Pipes, they always have it ready in their Confults : io 
that it's the fame thing among them to light a Fire of 
Counfel, as to affemble to confult. The eighth Pre- 
fent was to defire a Union of their Nation with the 
Camdins j and then they offered a great Chain of 
Sea Purple, with ten Robes of Bever and Elk, to 
confirm all they had faid. 


A VojAge into North America. 1^7 

Whatfoever purpofe was made at Qmhec to'^yxm^ 
the Murderers, to prevent the like Milchiefs for the 
future, they were obliged to'defift: from it, and par- 
don the Murderers \ becaufe they were not in a con- 
dition to refill fuch a powerful Enemy : fo all was 
concluded, and two Hoftages were demanded of the 
Savages for the performance of their Promifes. 
They put into Father S^o/fiJib'sHands two young Iroquois 
Boys, called N'lgamon and Tebachi, to be inftruAed. 
In conclulion, the guilty Perfons were fent back not- 
withftanding, upon condition that at the arrival of 
|the Ships which were expeded from Europe, this Af- 
ifair fhould have its final Decifion. 
j^ I remember when I was in Canada, I heard the 
trench often murmur that this Affair v/as managed 
thus, and that the Murderers fhould avoid the Stroke 
of Juftice. After this the Iroquois committed a great 
ipany fuch like Enormities, faying they fhould be 
quit for a few Skins of wild Bealls, inftead of thofe 
of the Camdins^ whom they would fiea off alive ; 
'and that thofe of their Nation would not fuffer 
fuch like Adions without a futable Revenge, tho 
ijChe whole Nation of the Iroquois fhoul,d perifh to a 

! In effedt thefe Barbarians grew every day more in- 
folent upon it, and defpifed the Canadins, as People 
pf no Courage ^ fo that whatfoever Face they put 
upon the Matter in their Treaty, it was only done 
out of Pilicy to advantage themfel'Ts by their Com- 
ttierce of Furs for the Merchandifes of Europe. 
i We fee at this day, that the War which the Iroquok 
iiave at prefent with the French in Canada^ furnithes 
as with continual Examples of their Cruelty. The 
Europeans ought to take away their Fire-Arms, to 
reduce them, and to make them relide in one 
Place, and to live after the mode of Europe : This 
would be the means to convert them to Chriftianity, 
The Spaniards took this Method with the Mexicans, 
D d who 


1^8 A Vo)Age into North America^ 

who dare not carry Fire- Arms, it being puniihed with 
Death ; neverthelefs they are not the worfe ufed^ 
and the iMexicans are as good Catholicks as any in 
the World, and carry the eafiell Yoak of any Sub- 
jeds in the Univerfe. 

Our firft Recolleds in the firft Colony oiCmada\ 
fiw a neceffity of overthrowing the Council of 
the Iroquois^ which are the moft redoubted Enemies 
of the Europeans : They obferved that all the Peaces 
which thefe Savages made, were only Feints to cover 
the Breaches of Former Treaties. Our Fathers often 
reprefented this to the Court of France, that to con- 
vert thefe Barbarians, and to hinder them from ta- 
king Meafures prejudicial to the Colony of Canada^ 
It was neceflary to found a Seminary of fifty or fixty 
yomg'Iroquois for feven or eight years only ; after 
which they might be maintained of the Revenue of the 
Ground, w hich might be cultivated during that time. 
That thofe Children offered themfelves every day 
to our Religious by confent of their Parents, to be 
inftruded and brought up in the Chriftian Religion. 
That the Iroquois and other Savages, feeing their 
Children educated in this manner, would form 
no more Enterprizes againfl: the Colony, as long as 
their Children were in the Seminary, as Guarantees 
of the Fidelity of their Parents. 


Of the . proper Methods to efiahli/Jj good Colonies, 
The Thoughts and Opinions of the Savages touching 
Heaven and Earth. 

THe Religious of our Order of St. Francis can pof- 
fefs nothing in Property ,neither can they accord- 
ing to their Inftitute, buy or poilefs any Revenues. 
There is no Order fo fit as ours to fupport the Colo 


A Voyage into North America. ~^^^' 139 

hies that are eftablifhed by the Catholicks in uime- 
rka: The Truth of what I fay is feenby thofe which 
the Emperor Charles the fifth feot into new Afexico j 
where are to be feen this day an Infinity of great 
Families, that have made great Advantages of the 
pifintereftednefs of our Religious ; the belt Lands 
have not been fwallowed up, as we fee in Canada^ 
where we fee the richell and mod fertile Places in the 
hands of fome Communities, who have laid hold of 
them during the abfence of the Recolleds^ who not- 
withfianding are the firft Mifiioners of Canada^ ha- 
ving near fourfcore Years ago attempted the planting 
of the Gofpel there. 

The People of New France having earncflly defi- 
red our Return, after a long forced abfence, we 
found that the befl: Lands of our Eftablifhment of the 
Convent of our Lady of Angels, were fei^ed upon^ 
where I have often renewed and marked the Bounds 
which remained, to prev^it the Defigns of thofe who 
would feize upon the Remainder : But my Defign is 
not to tax or offend any body, tho I publi(h thofe 
things that may difpjeafe fome, I fhall fpeak nothing 
but Truth. 

I (hall not fpeak here of the great advantages 
which have accrued to the four parts of the World 
by the Miflions of our RecoUecls, it would require 
large Volumes •, I (hall only relate here the Labours 
of our Religious in this Age, and the great Difcove- 
ties made by us in America. When the French Co- 
lony oi Canada was eltablifiied, ourRecolkds asked 
nothing of the Government, but a dozen Msn fie 
for Hasbandry-AfFairs ^ which were to be command- 
ed by a fecular Mailer of a Family, for the Subfiitence 
of fifty or fixty young Savage Children, whilll our 
Religious extended themfelves on all fidesin the Mi(^ 
fion to draw others to Chriltianity. There Rel igious 
expofe their Lives, and fubjed themfelves to all forts 
of Trouble and Fatigue, in order to plant the Gof-. 
pel all over the World. D d 2 Gur 

140 J Voy^.ge into North America. 

Our Religions long ago advifed that Chriftian Re- 
ligion, and the Authority ot Juftice, fhould be fup- 
ported by a good Garrifon, eftablifhed in fome con- 
venient Place in the Northern America^ which might 
keep in fubjedion more than eight hundred Leagues 
of Country all along the River of St. Lawrence : 
There is no way to approach thither, but by the 
Mouth of this great River. This would be the true 
means to make Trade flourilh : The Power of the 
Prince would be augmented, and his Dominions far 
extended by the PoflelTion of this great River. 

There might be joined to this many great Countries 
which might be feized upon in this vaft Continent up- 
on the River Mejchafipi, which is far more conveni- 
ent than the River of St. Lawrence to eftablifh Colo- 
nies in ; for here may be had two Harvefts a year, and 
in fome places three, befides a great many other ad- 
vantages. To which may be added, that by this means 
a great many Countries would become tributary, and 
might be joined to thefe new Colonies. To this I 
would heartily contribute, being ready to facrifice the 
remainder of my Days to fuch a.good work. 

Fh-p, To bring to a liappy conclullon fo noble an 
Enterprize, it's neceilary that the Princes or States, 
which would make uie of our Difcoveries,fhould very 
exactly adminifler Jullice. The beginnings of all 
Colonies are difficult. It's neceilary therefore to 
prevent Thefts, Murders, Debaucheries, Blafphemies, 
and all other forts of Crimes, which are too common 
with the Europeans that inhabit America. 

Secondly^ A Fort ought to be built at the mouth of 
the River of St. Lawrence^ and above all at the mouth 
oi Mefchafipi^ which are the only places where Ships 
can come. Then the Inhabitants might extend them- 
felves, and clear the Ground twenty, or twenty five 
Leagues round about. They might have feveral Har- 
vefts in the Year, and might employ themfelves in 
taming wild Bulls,which might be made ufe of feveral 

ways : 

A Voyage /;^/<9 North America. 141 
ways : beiides, advantage mull be drawn from Mines 
,and Sugar-Canes, which are here tar more frequent 
than in the Ifles of yimerica, the Ground being richer 
and fitter for Canes ^ among which may be ibwa 
great quantities of feveral forts of Grain, which never 
come to maturity in thofe lilands. The Climate of 
the Countries which are betwixt the frozen Sea and 
the Gulf of Mexico^ is far more temperate along 
the River Mefchaftpi than in the llles above mention'd. 
iThe Air is of the fame Temperature as in Spain^ Ita^ 
ly^ and Provence. The Men and Women go always 
iwith tlieir Heads bare, and are taller than the Euro- 

As to the Sentiments thefe Barbarians have of 
[Heaven and Earth ^ when they are asked. Who is he 
[that made them ? fome of their more antient and 
I abler Men anfwer. That as to the Heavens they know 
|not who made them. If you have been there, 
I fay they, you mull know fomethingof the matter : 
iit's a foolifliQueltion, fay they, to ask what we think 
jof a place fo high above our Heads :; how would you 
\ have us to fpeak of a place that never none faw ? 
;■ But, fay they, can you lliew by the Scripture of 
t which you fpeak, a Man that ever came from thence, 
! and the manner how he mounted up thither ? When 
! we anfwer, that our Souls being unfettered from the 
( Body, are of infinite agility, and that in the twink- 
|ling of an Eye they mount up thither to receive the 
Irecompence of their Works from the hand of the 
Mailer of Life ; thefe People, who have, a great 
indifference for whatfoever is faid to them, and 
i are cunning enough in feeming to approve in outward 
\ appfearance whatfoever is thought covenient to pro- 
pofe to them i being harder prefled, they anfwer. 
It's well for thofe of your Country *, but we Ameri- 
\ cans do not go to Heaven after Death : We only go 
to the Country of Souls, whither our People go to 
hunt fat Bealls, where they live in greater 1 ranquil- 
U d 3 lity 

142 A Voyage into North America . 

Hty than here. All that you fay is good for thofe that 
dwell beyond the great Lake j for fo they call the 
Sea. They further fay, that as to themfelves they 
are made in another manner than the People of £«- 
rope : So that their Converiion does folely depend up- 
on the good will and pleafure of God, whb'^muft wa- 
ter our planting. 

As to the Sentiments of the Savages relating to the 
Earth, they make ufe of a certain Genius which they 
call yl^/Ci^^oc^f, who covered all the Earth with Water, 'i 
which feems to retain fome Tradition of the Deluge. 
Thefe Savages believe that there are between Hea- 
ven and Earth, certain Spirits in the Air, which have 
power to predid future things \ and others that are 
excellent Phyllcians, for the cure of all forts of Mala- 
dies. This makes them very fuperftitious, and to 
confult the Oracles with great exadnefs. 

One of thefe Mafter-Juglers, who pafles foraWi- 
!z:ard and Conjurer among them, made a Cabin be e- 
lefted with ten great Stakes well fix'd in the Ground, 
He made a dreadful Noife about confulting the Spi- 
Jits, to know if there would quickly fall abundance 
of Snow, for the better hunting of Elks and Bevers. 
This famous Jugler cried out all on a fudden, that he 
fdw great f|:orc of Elks whicii were ac a dillancc, but 
that they were coming uithin fevcffor eig! t Leagues 
of their Cabins. This made thefe poor People re-^ 
joice exceedingly. 

' lt*stobeob{ervM that when the Jugler,or pretend- 
ed Prophet, mifies the mark, they have no lefsefleem 
tor him \ i:'s fufficient that he hath guelled right three 
or four times, to gain him a laiiing Reputation. I 
told them that the great Mailer of Heaven, who go- 
verns ail things, ought only to be addreiled in our 
Petitions and NeccrftLJe^ Tiiey aniwered me that they 
knew him nor, and that they would be glad to know 
whether he could fend them Elks and Bevers ; fo 
blind are thefe people, I told them once that we Eu- 
" ' ' ropeaus 

A Voyage into North America . 143 

ropeans knew how all things weremade,and by whom- 
They-told me that if I would go and live with thenn 
they would fend their Children to be intruded. 
Thefe Sentiments of the Savages let us fee, that' the 
greateft good that can be done among them, is to 
baptize cheir dying Infants. 

The Miflions of the Northern Amerka are far diffe- 
rent from others. There is nothing to be found a- 
greeable to Nature, nothing but what contradids the 
inclination of the Senfes: One muft fubmit to infinite 
JFatigues, and barren and ingrateful Labour. Not- 
with Handing thofe who apply themfelves with zeal, 
confefs they find a fecret Charm which inclines them 
to this work \ fo that if any NecelTuy diverts them 
from it, they are much perplexed. 

This fecms to me to be a good Prefage for the Mif- 
fions of thefe Countries, and that God Almighty will 
not fuffer them always to remain in the Shadows of 
Death \ fince by his Grace he makes the Miffioners 
find fo much pleafure in thofe Labours, fo contrary to 
Flelh and Blood, 

Patience is abfolutely neceflary for this Employ. 
All along our Travels in America we din*d upon the 
Ground, or upon feme Mat of Bulrufhes when we 
were in the Cabins of fome Savage, A Fagot of Ce- 
dar was our Pillow in the Nighty our Cloaks our 
Coverlets ^ our Knees our Table y fome Bufhes tied 
together, our Seats ; the Leaves of Indian Corn, our 
Napkins. We had fome Knives, but they were of 
no ufe to us for want of Bread to cut. Except in the 
time of the great Hunting, and certain Seafons of the 
Year, Flefh-meat was fo fcarce that we were oft fix 
Weeks, or two Months, without eating any, unlefs. 
it were a morfel of a wild Dog, or fome piece of a 
Bear,or Fox,which the Savages gave us at their Feafts. 

Our common Food was the fame with the Savages, 
viz.. Sagamite^ or Pottage made of Water and Indian 
Corn with Gourds : To give it a Relifh, we put into it 


144 ^ Voyage into North America. 
Marjoram, and a fort of Balm, with wild Onions 
which we found in the Woods and Fields. Our ordi- 
nary Drink was Water. If any of us was indifpofed, 
while the Sap was up in the Trees,we made a hole in 
the Bark of a Maple, and there dropt out a fweet 
Sugar-like Juice, which we faved in a Platter made of 
the Bark of a Birch-tree j we drank it as a Sovereign 
Remedy, tho it had but fmall effeas. There are in 
the Valleys of thofe Forefts great ftore of Maples 
from whence may be drawn diftill'd Waters. After 
a long boiling, we made of it a kind of reddifh Sugar, 
much better than that which is dr^wn from the ordi- 
nary Canes in the Illes of America. 

Our Spanilh Wine failing us, we made more of 
Wild Grapes,which were very good ^ we put it into a 
little Barrel, in which our Wine was kept that we 
brought with us, and fome Bottles. A Wooden- 
Mortar and an Altar-Towel was onr Prefs. The 
Fat was a Bucket of Bark. Our Candle was Chips of 
the Bark of Birch-tree, . which laflcd a fmall while. 
We were forced to read and write by the light of the 
Fire in Winter, which was very inconvenient. 

While we were at the Fort of Frontmac^ about 
lixfcore Leagues from Quebec towards the South, we 
made up a little Garden, and paled it in to keep out 
the Savage Children : Peas, Herbs, and whatfoever 
Pulfe we fowed there, grew extremely well. We had 
had great ftore, had we had proper Tools to work 
with at the beginning of the eftablilhment of that 
Fort, which was but then fortified with great Stakes : 
We made ufe of fliarp-pointed Sticky becaufe we 
had no other Husbandry-Tools. All our Confolation 
was, in the midfl of tfaefe Fatigues, to fee the Gofpel 
pf Chrifl advanced. 

The Savages feera'd to have fome Inclination j they 
were attentive and diligent in coming to their Pray- 
ers, tho they had none of that opennefs of Spirit 
which is neceflary to enter into the Verities of Reli- 

J P^oyagemtoNonh Amtvicz, 145 
gion. Thejr came to feek Inflruftion with a Spirit of 
Interefc, to have our Knives, Awls, and fcch like 

I owe the following Thoughts to an excellent Reli- 
gious Man of our Order, whom I (hall name in my 
third Volume, if it pleafe God I perfedt rayDelign. 

I make a great deal of difference between the 
Zeal, the Labours of true JMilTioners, and the pretend- 
ed Succefles which have been fo often bragg'd of, 
without any probability of Truth. The Jnflice we 
are obliged to pay to the painful Fatigues of Apoilo- 
lical Men in New-France^ is that they cannot be ex- 
preffed : They equal the Enterprizes, Courage, and 
Sufferings of St. Paul^ who was expofed to great Dan- 
gers, to Famine, Thirft, &c. Their Silence it felf 
was great and laudable among the Calumnies of their 
Enemies. But the Condud of the Miflioners in the 
Chriftian World is juftified by it felf, and puts them 
above fuch-like Reproaches, as well in regard of Ca- 
nada^ as any place elfe. 

Formerly it employed all my Thoughts, as well as' 
thofe of other Miffioners among the Iroquoh, to civi- 
lize thefe Savages, to make them capable of Laws 
and Civil Policy, and to put a ftop to their brutal 
Sallies as much as pofllble. I have done my utmoft 
to difabufe them, and fliew them the folly of their 
vain Superftitions *, and fo I prepared the way of 
our Lord to the utmoft of my power. But it muft 
be confefTed the Harvefl was little •, thofe people are 
as Savage as ever, always fixed to their antienc 
Maxims, to their profane Cuftoms, to Pride, Drun- 
kennefs. Cruelty, being even uncapable of Inftrudi- 
on and Obedience. They are the fame they were 
thirty or forty years ago. Since the French oi Cana- 
da made a Peace with them, and that the Jefuits be- 
came their Miffioners, altho' they had built as many 
Churches and Chappels as they had deftroyed, thefe 
I Iroquois^ who may juftly be called the unconq^i^i^ble 


1 46 J royage^ into North America. 

^biliftines, have made no progrefs in Faith : To fp^ 
ruth, we fee the quite contrary at this day. Thefe 
Jarbarians maintain a cruel War with the French. 
( mull confefs it*s hard for me to concive that Chri- 
Xlians fhould have a War with fuch brutal People 
whom I had managed with all the dexterity I could' 
during the fix or feven Years I was among them \ 
fometimes by Embaffies, which I was charged with ; 
fometimes by the Inftrudions I gave them for Read- 
ing and Writing, and for Religion it felf We conti- 
Bued this warlike Nation in Peace as much as pofllble. 
^ The Iroquois^ who call the Religious of our Order 
Chitagon, that is to fay, nahd Feet^ have often re- 
gretted our Abfence about the Lake Ontario, or Fron- 
tenac, where they had a Miffion-houfe. I have often 
heard fay, that when a Prieft of St. Sulpitius^ a Je- 
fuit, or any other Ecclefiaftick of Canada, asked them 
how it happen'd that they gave them nofnareof their 
Game, as they were wont to give the naked Feet } 
They anfwered, that our Eecoklfs liv'd in common as 
they did, and that they took no Recompence of all 
the Prefents that tiiey made them : That they nei. 
ther took Furs, of which all the Europeans are fo 
greedy, nor any other Recompence, for all that our 
Keligious did for them. This fhews, that oncmufl 
begin by the Animal part with thofe People, and af- 
ter proceed to the Spiritual. And that if, as in the 
Primitive Church, the Chriftians of this Age were of 
one Keartj and one Soul, and wholly dilintercfled, 
without doubt this Nation would,be ea'fier converted. 
It's trae, that while I was a Miffioner at Fort Fron^ 
enac, among the Iroquois, and that the Jefuits were 
battered here and there in their Country, thefe Re- 
:gious ferved to other pnrpofes than my felf: For 
^ thofe Barbarians are wholly led by Senfe, they 
en looked upon the Jefuit MifTioners as Captains, 
•d Men of coufiderable Qiiaiity, as Envoys, and 
:rpelual Refidents of the French Colony of Canada, 

A f^oynge into North America. 147 
)pho maintained the Alliance which was among them, 
who difpofed of Peace and War, who ferved for 
Hoftages when they went to trade in the inhabited 
parts of Canada \ otherwife thefe Barbarians would 
have had perpetual Diffidences, and would have been 
afraid of being detained for want of Hoftages, and of 
this Security for their Lives and Goods. 

It's obferved, that the Miffioners of whom I fpeak, 
undertake the Tutelage of the Savages, of which 
they acquit themfelves very well. , They draw thefe 
Barbarians into their Relidences, and exercife them 
in clearing the 'Ground of their Settlements, which 
contributes much to the Advantage of the Colony^ 
and the Church it felf. To their Reputation and 
2:eal mud be attributed many eonliderable Foundati- 
ons for this MilTion, which they have obtained from 
many powerfpl and 'zealous Perfons, whofe Liberali- 
ty they manage as well as the annual Gratifications of 
the King for "the fame purpofe. 

Beiides, thefe Miffions are the places where true 
Saints are formed, by the Labours of an indefatiga- 
ble Zeal, a fervent Charity, accompanied with Pati- 
ence and Humility, and by a great Difintererrednefs ; 
by an extraordinary Sweecnefs, and by a lively and 
pure Faith : but it's a kind of an Apoftlefliip diffe- 
rent from that of other Nations. 

But to fpcak here one word of the Progrefs of 
thefe Miffions. Is it polTible that this pretended pro- 
digious number of converted Savages fliould efcape 
the Knowledge of a croud of French Canadins, who 
go abroad every Year from home at leaft three or 
four hundred Leagues, to the utmofl: Borders of the 
difcovered Countries, x.o trade, where fome of them 
fojourn whole Years for to barter their Commodi- 
ties ? How fiappen'd it tliat thefe devout Churches 
difappeared when I travelled through the middle of 
the Countries ? How comes it to pafs, that fo many 
Men of Senfe ihouid notdifcern them .-^ 

. ' Befides, 

1 4^ J VoyAge into North America, 

Befides, it's well known that the Savages comcii 
every Year in great Troops into Canada with their 
Canoos loaden with Furs. There is to be feen a Con- 
courfe of all forts of Savages, who are as it were the i 
feled People of all thofe different Nations. All thei 
Country are Witnefles, that in their Manners and 
Doings nothing appears but Barbarity, without any 
lign or mark of Religion. All the Proof they can 
give, is, that like Idols they aflifl: at our Mylleries 
and Inftruc^ions : for the reft we may fee them indif- 
ferent, without difcovering any Faith or Spirit of Re- 
ligion: It may be called rather an effed of their Cu- 
riofity : Some of them come upon the account of In- 
tereft, others upon a Motive of Fear, or fome parti- 
cular Efteem they have for the Perfon of fome Miffio* 
ner, whom they often regard as a coniiderabk Chief. 
AH therefore that can be done, is to draw out of 
the Woods fome Families which fhew the moll Doci- 
lity, and todifpofe them to fettle in fome inhabited 
Place. There are two Villages in the Neighbour- 
hood of Quebec^ and two other higher up upon the 
River of St. Lawrence^ near Mont-royal^ which are 
feparated from the Commerce of the Europeans. It's 
therefore in thofe Parts that the Church of the Sa- 
vages is to be found. Tho' their Language as well as 
Manners are altogether favage, yet for all that thofe 
JVeophytes are kept in their Devoir. Great pains is 
taken to educate them in Piety, yet not much is 
gain'd upon their Spirit. There are fome that are 
Chriftians in good earnelt ^ but there are many entire 
Families who^efcape from the Miflioners after having 
abode with them ten or twelve Years, and return to 
the Woods to their firft mode of living. 

It may be repiy'd by fome, that we fee many Chri- 
ftians in Europe fwerve from their Duty, and difgrace 
their Character by a Libertine Condud ^ but we do 
notdifcourfe here of the Corruption of the Manners 
of the Savages, but of their adhefion to Chriftianity : 
It's certain they quite apoftati^e from it. The 

A Voyage into North America . 1 49 

The contrary has been declav'd in Frame^ in feve- 
al Relations, which have been publilh'd upon this 
lubjed, which were order'd to be read to the Penfio- 
'laries of the Ur felines. It's faid, that there are a 
jreat many Indians converted, and others ready for 
:he Sacrament of Confirmation, and that fome of 
:hem have received the lefTer Orders. Would to God 
:hat all thofe Churches fpoke of in the Relations were 
IS real, as all the judicious People of Canada know 
they are chimerical. If they were formerly, what's 
become of them now ? after alraoll an Age they are 
no more to be feen ^ and yet the Colony of Canada 
increafes. The Trade is greater than formerly, and 
it's better known, fo that the pretended number of 
Converts would be eafily difcovered. 

When formerly thefe Relations were read to Per- 
fons who had not that knowledge of Canada we have 
at prefent, it gained Credit with every body ac- 
cording to their inclinations. It was eafy to impofe 
'Upon People in this refpect. But as to me who have 
been upon the Place, and who have always fpoke my 
mind with a great deal of Candour and Liberty, I 
content my felf to appeal to all the Inhabitants of 
New France^ who are at prefent fifteen or fixteen 
thoufand Souls 5, I am aflured they will confefs inge- 
inuoufly, there is fcarce any Chriftianity among the 
! Savages at this day, except fome particular Perfons, 
: and thofe in fmall numbers, very fickle and incon- 
li ftant, ready at every moment for any fmall Intereft 
\ to abandon their Religion. 

It may be that fome Advances are made towards 
1 the civilizing thofe Barbarians, and to make them 
more polite than they were. But all the Inhabitants 
of thofe Countries know, that they are no more 
Chriftians than formerly. Notvvithftanding it's ve- 
ry probable that they would have adhered better to 
the Chriftian Religion, if they had trod in the fteps 
of the Religious of our Order, ir they had kept a 

lb"' id 

1 5© A VojAgtlnto North America.' 

folid Peace with the Iroquois and other Savage Nati- 
ons, and if they had been mingled among the Euro- 
peans, to make them more docible and more trada* 

While I was in the MilTion of Canada, I bethought 
me one day to ask fome judicious Men, how it hap- 
pen'd that we had no more Annual Relations of the 
Miffions of Canada. When thole whom I had asked 
gave me no Anfwer, a certain Perfon who thought 
ho ill, told me, that the Court of Rome had order'd 
that the Relations of foreign Miflions Ihould be ex- 
adly true; That the Congregation De propaganda 
.Fide had orderM that no more fhould be publilhec! 
that were not of publick Notoriety, and clear as the 
Sun at Noon. This feem'd to me to be a judicioufc 

Refleding upon this, we ought to admire the Judg-i 
mentsof God upon thefe barbarous Nations, and to 
acknowledge his Mercy toward us, that he has been 
pleafed to let us be born of Parents illuminated with 
the bright Rays of the Chriftian Faith, in a Country 
where we are betimes formed to Piety, and all man- 
ner of Vertues ; where the multitude of interiour 
Graces and exteriour Helps prefent us the means to 
fecure our Salvation, if we be faithful. 

We ought to give him the Glory that is due t6 
him for the excellent Lights we have received, and 
which diftinguilh us fo advantageoufly from fo ma- 
ny Nations who are in the^ Darknefs of Error and 
Blindnefs, This ought to oblige us to make our 
Eledion fure by all forts of good Works, fetting. be- 
fore our Eyes the account we rauiloneday give before . 
the dreadful Tribunal of God, of the ule wc havi 
made of all his Graces and Benefits. 


'A Voyage into North America. i ji 


the Hijiory of the Irruption which the Englijh made 
/«fo Canada in the Tear £528. The taking 0/ Que- 
bec, the Metropolis 0/ Canada, in the Tear 1629. 
The mofi honourable Treatment they gave the Re^ 

I coleds. 

1 Thought my felf obliged to publifh the Obferva- 
tions which I have drawn from the Reverend Fa- 
ther ralentine le Roux^ Provincial CommifTary. o 
our Recole^s of Canada^v/ho is a Man of fmgular Me 
|rit. I have told you in my firfl Volume, that I com 
municated to him my Journal of the difcovery I mad 
of all the River of Mefchafipi. This Man, who h. ^, 
a deep and piercing Judgment, has publifhed whr 
] he knows of the Intrigues of Canada under a boi 
rowed Name ; and he fhews in his Work, that th 
Gondud of Providence is always admirable, and tha 
fhe accomplifhes her Defigns by vvrays impenetrable 
in their Beginning, in their Progrefs, and in thei 

The Colony of New France, fays this clear-fighted 
Religious for a long .time flonriflied more and more ; 
j great difcoveries were made, Trade advanced, the 
') People encreafed, Chappels and Oratories were built 
; in many places, and the Country had a new face ot 
j government : Bat God permitted all this to be ruined 
by the defcent of the Englifh, who pretend that their 
I Soveraign is not only King of three Kingdoms, but 
I alfo of the Sea. 

Some Englifh, zealous for their Nation, armed a 
fleet in 1 62 8 , to feize upon Canada^ in the Reign of 
Lewis XIII, Father of the Prefent King. Two. Tur- 
tles, of which great Flights are in this Country, fell 
"of themfelves in a very calm time into the Fort of 
^Quebec^ the gtk of Ji^ the {ame Year. The Inhabi- 

F: I .<! 

A Vojage into North America. 1 5^ i 
CHAP, xxxvr. 

1>e Hijiory of the Irruption which the Englijh made 
into Canada in the Tear i528. The taking of Que- 
bec, the Metropolis 0/ Canada, in the Tear 1619. 
The mofi honourable Treatment they gave the Re-, 


Thought my felf obliged to publifh the -Obferva- 
tions which I have drawn from the Reverend Fa* 
:her ralentine k Roux^ Provincial CommilTary. o 
)ur RecolecJs of Canada^v/ho is a Man of fmgular Me 
:it. I have told you in my iirit Volume, that I com 
nunicated to him my Jom^nal of the difcovery I mad 
)f all the River of Mefchafipi. This Man, who h. 
3 deep and piercing Judgment, has publifhed whr 
he knows of the Intrigues of Canada under a boi 
rowed Name j and he Ihews in his Work, that th 
eondudt of Providence is always admirable, and tha 
fhe accomplifhes her Defigns by v/ays impenetrable 
in their Beginning, in their Progrefs, and in thei 

The Colony of NeTi> France, fays this clear-lighted 
Religious for a long .time fionriflied more and more ; 
great difcoveries were made. Trade advanced, the 
People encreafed, Chappels and Oratories were built 
in many places, and the Country had a new face of 
government : Bat God permitted all this to be ruined 
by the defcent of the Englifh, who pretend that their 
Soveraign is not only King of three Kingdoms, but 
alfo of the Sea. 

Some Englifh, zealous for their Nation, armed a 
fleet in 1628, to feize upon Canada^ in the Reign of 
Lewis Xlir, Father of the Prefent King. Two, Tur- 
tles, of which great Flights are in this Country, fell 
of themfelves in a very calm time into the Fort of 
Quebec^ the 9th. oiji^ the {ame Year. The Inhabi- 
'*^ tants 

1 5 2 A Voyage into North America, 

tants o{ Canada took it for a prefage of the Change 
that happen'd. ° 

The Englifh in their RouU feized upon a French 
Veflel which was at the Mouth of the River of St. 
Fr^ that part of the Ifle which is called Pimd 
becaufe of a fmall Cape of Land which Ihoots out in- 
to the Sea, in the middle of which is a great Arch 
which is naturally pierced in the Rock, under which 
the Chakups that fifli for Poor Jack pafs when they re- 
turn from fifliing. The Englifh fail'd with a fair 
Wind,and advanced up the River as far as Tadoufac, 
which IS a River that falls into this, and comes from 
the Countries which are towards Hudfonh Bay,as may , 
be feen in the Maps. 

The Englifh found a Barls, which they made ufe of I 
to land 20 Souldiers : Thefe were fent to feize upon 
Cape Tourment, fo called, becaufe of the danger the 
Ships are m there' during the Tempefts, which are 
more frequent here than in any part of the River. 
Two Savages who lived among the Europeans having 
difcovered them, gave advice to Qiiebec, which is but 
about feven or eight Leaugues from the Cape. 

_ Monlieur ChampUn, who was Governour of that 
City, entreated Father Joftph Caron, Superiour of 
the Recoleas,to go near the Englifh Fleet in a Canoo of 
Bark, to know the Truth. The Advice was but too 
true. He found it confirmM about five Leagues from 
Quebec, and had no other time but prefently to run 
a-ihoar, and fave himfelf in the Woods. The two 
Religious we had at Cape Tourment came by Land to 
Qiiebec^ with the Sieur Faucber, who was Comman* 
dant there, to give an account of the taking of Cape 
Tourment. The Englifh there feized upon all the Ef- 
fcas valuable, and the Inhabitants fled- into the- 
Woods. There were but three that fell into the hands 
ot the Enghfli ; one of whom was called Pwer^ with 
his Wife and his Niece. Soon after they appeared be- 
fore Qi^cbec^ accompanied with an Officer of Mr, JCirL 
Admir.ll of the EngliHi Fleet. This 

A Voyage into North America. 153 

This Officer funimoned them by a Letter from the 
Admiral to furrender the Place : but the Governour, 
who W£fs a gallant Man of his Perfon, tho much em- 
barafs'*d with this Invafion, remaining firm and un- 
daunted, made them fo fierce an Anfwer, that the 
Englifh, who will rather peridi than defift from an 
Enterprize, believed by this anfwer that the Fort of 
Quebec .was in a better condition than they thought it 
vfas. So this time they let it alone, and putting off 
their Defign to a more convenient time, they fet fail 
for England. 

The Englifh General then puttmg off the Defign 
to the Year following, contented hirafelf with taking 
a great number of Prifoners, which he carried into 
England^ and among the reft a young Savage Huron^ 
called Lewis of the Holy Eiith^ who had been baptized 
two Years before by the Archbiflipp of Rouen. The 
reft of the Prifoners, douhii^ with a defjgn to 
be the more valued, faid, that that Savage was the" 
Son of the King of Canada. The Engiifli General 
believed that fo confiderable a Prifoner would m.uch 
facilitate the Gonqueft of the whole Country the 
Year folio v^ing. But he was much furprized when 
after he had taken Quebec^ he underftood that the 
Father of this Savage was a poor miferable Hurdn^ 
who had neither Credit nor Power in his own Nati- 
on. This was the Reafon that Che Son was reftored 
in a pitiful Habit : The Englifli took from him all 
the Equipage they had given him^as fuppofing fie had 
been the Son of a King. The Reputation this Sa- 
vage was in for fome time was the Caufeof his Ruin, 
and it may be of his eternal Damnation-, for being 
among the^. Savages, he loft all the Ideas of Chriftiaa 

In the fright that every body was in upon the Ar- 
rival of the Englifh, many Savage Mountaineers 
came to offer their Service to the RecolecJs of Quebec : 
among the reft the above-mentioned 'Ni^aga lUfcou^ 
E e ■ wl o 

154 ^ Voyage into North America. 

who having been inftruded and baptized by Father 
Jofe^h Car on, endeavoured to do the bell fervice he 
could to his Benefador. As loon therefore as he 
could make his Efcape from the Englilh, he repre- 
fented to Father Jofc^h^ that if the Enemy did the 
fame at Quebec they had Uonc at Cape Tourment^ the 
Savages would fin (^ no Retreat any more fot their 
Comfort diirU g Vv^inter : i beg of you Father, fays 
this Savaf,e, that you would be pleafed to let two or 
three of you. Friars go along with me^ they will 
fay Prayers far ts, and inftrud our Children, and 
thofeofour Nation who have not as yet feen any 
Naked Feet^ for fo they cai! our Recoleds : I'll fup-. 
port them ; they Ihall be treated as my felf, and we'll 
com^ from time to time to vifit you. 

Father Jofeph liked well this Proprofition : the Sa- 
vage took two alon^with him, which he led to a 
place where this Incnan dwelt, who likewife begg'd 
ihntFrhr Germfe Mohier^ a Lay-brother, might be 
one of them : they ddigned to pafs that Winter a- 
mong the ^Igonquins. They prefently therefore de- 
parted for the three Rivers, and run a great many 
rifqqes in the Journey : Their Canoos were bilged 
abput fifteen Leagues below the three Rivers, fo thaE 
^they were forced to go the reft of the Journy tho- 
' row the Woods. They thought to be carried by the 
Tide, which flows up'theRiver of St. Lawrence above 
a hundred and thirty fix Leagues from the Sea: At 
laft by tlie help of a Canoo which they light upon by 
chance, they came to the three Rivers, where were 
Villages ereded by the Mountaineers and Jilgonqums : 
thefe Savages were expeding there the Harveft-time 
for their Indian- Corn. They made great demon- 
ilrations of the real AfFedion they had for them, 
of whom they had heard much Difcourfe from Father 
to Son. 

Being there, tiiey underftood the Englilh were 
gone out of thoi^liver, and that before that they had 


A Voyage into North America. 155 

fought and vanquilhed the French Fleet which came 
into Canada. This News obliged Monfieur Cba^np- 
lin^ Governour of Quebec^ as well as all the reft of 
the French, to defire Father Jofeph to come back. 

While things paflcd thus, twenty Canoos were 
feen to arrive,condufted by the Hurons^ who b?-oughc 
along with them Father yofeph de la Roche DMon^ 
Recoled. The Grief of A^(?p^^/z Bufcon is not to be 
exprelTed when he was to part with this Religious : 
But the Order was peremptory. I cannot here for- 
get the dexterous Contrivance of a young Chriftian 
Savage to rid himfeif out of the hands of the Eng- 
lifh, or rather to prqcure fori!^ Prefent from the 
French : He was called Peter Antony Arehuanon^ and 
had been baptized in France^ and educated in a Col- 
ledge at the'ExpencO' of thePrince of Guimeni : He 
was at Tadoujfac when the Englifh jippeared there, 
and fo was taken Prifoner with the reft, and carried 
aboard : he was interrogated in French and Latin, 
but made as if he underftood nqthing of what he was 

Captain Michel a French-mari, who out of Difcon- 
tent had a longtime before gone over to the Englifh, 
knew this Savage, and that he underftood both Lan- 
guages: He ggve an Sccount to the General of it, 
who kept him for an Interpreter for the Englifh 
when they Ihould go totraffick with the Indians. Pe- 
ter 'Antony could no longer conceal his Knowledge of 
the two Languages, and that he was a Chriftian ; 
but he bethought him of a Stratagem : He pre- 
tended he would really efpoufethepartof the£«g///^. 
He told the Admiral he was to keepfome meafures 
with the frffwcfej and above all, thnPhe was m.uch 
obliged to the RccoUeffs who had converted him, and 
who had taught him what he underftood of Latin 
and French. He begg'd of the Admiral, that hs 
would not carry him to Quebec, that he could be 
more ferviceahle to him if he would be pleafed to 
E e 2 let 

156 J VofAge Into N orth Americai^ 
let him go to the thtsee Rivers with Canoos loaden 
with Providons and Merchandizes ; and that he 
would induce a great number of Savages to come 
and trade. The Admiral believed what he faid 
aid granted him all he demanded : But this Man fee- 
ing hiinfeif out of the hands of the EngUjh^ who 
had treated him very civilly, went ftraight to the Rid 
Ijland^ ciofs'd the River of St. Lawrence^ came to the 
River of PFo/w^, and afterwards the Admiral heard 
no farther tidings of him, 

( They had a hard Winter of it at Quebec^ for they 
wanted all forts of NecefTaries ; and becaufe the Ships 
which brought Provifions were feized on by tht Eng-^ 
lijh, they were therefore obliged to divide the fmall 
Provifion that was left. Oqr Religious might have 
had their (hare as well as others, but they contented 
themfeives with Indian Corn, and the Pulfe they had 
fown. Madam jHebers made them; a Prefent of two 
BaiTels of Peafe, which are extraordinary good and 
large in Canada , befides they had Raifins, and had 
made a Provifion of Acorns in cafe of nccellity, and' 
they were fo happy as to catch foraeEels, which are 
plentiful in that River. Providence multiplied their 
Provifions fo, that they were able to furnifh three 
Seminaries of Savages, and many more who were in 
great Necefllty. • ■ , 

The Jeiiiits, who for fome time had made ufe of 
one Half of our Houfe,havirigbuilt one for themfeives, 
where they now dwell, did their utmoft to fuccour 
the French. 

Early in the Spring Monfieur deCh^mpUn, feeing 
the Necefllty we were in all Winter, which was very 
Iharp in Canacji^ infomuch that for the moft part the 
Snow was five or fix foot deep, and continued fo, for 
it feldom rains in Winter, begged of Father Jofeph 
^ to grant him a part of our Lands towards Hair-pointy 
or Point aux lievres : Some other private Perfons 
granted other Lands ; They were plowed in hafte, 


A Voyage into North America. 1 57- 

and there was foWn bearded Wheat, Peafe and In- 
dian Wheat, at the beginning and middle of May, 
They were forced to do fo,becatife Wheat there can- 
not endure the Winter as in our Parts of Euro^e^ 
becaufe of the extreajD Cold. 

The faid Skur Chawplin had fent People towards 
Gafpee^ which is between the Pierced 1/land and Bojlon, 
which l^longs to the Englifh, to fee if they could 
hear any tidings of any French Veflei ; they went 
in a Chaloup, but could hear no news of any. But 
they were allured that the Gafpejien Savages offered 
to maintain twenty entire Families. The Algojjquins 
and Mountaneers offered larger Supplies. A Ship 
was equipped to go into Frame \ the Skw de Boulc^ 
Sieur Champliri's Brother-in-law, was made Captain 
of her ', he took the Sieur des Dames Goraniillary.of 
the Company, for his Lieutenant. 

Being come near Gafpee in the Bay of St. Laurence^ 
they happily met with a French Ship commanded by 
the Sieur Emeric dc Cacn^Yj^o brought themSuppli^?. 
He told them that the King did fend the Sieur de 
RafiUy to fight the Engli/h, and fave the Country. 
The Ship was laden, and the Sieur de BouUe returned, 
towards Quebec^ and then was taken by an Engjifh 
Vedel, and was made a Prifoner of War with all his 

In the interim the Hurom arrived at Quebec with 
twenty Canoos, we bought their Indian Corn : Mon- 
iieur de Champlin gave one part to the Jefuits, who 
had taken upon them the charge to take care ofTe- 
veral ^ and our RecoUe&s having alfo rcceiv'd afupply 
of Viduals, fubfifted till the arrival of thQEngli/h^ 
which was not long. 

The Englipj Fleet furprized the French in Canada ; 
they appeared in the Morning the 1 9th of July 1 629. 
over againll the great Bay of Quebec^ at the Point 
of the Ifle of Orleans. The Fleet confifted of three 
Ships, and fix others which ftay'd at TadouJTac^ and 
E e :j followed 

15^ J Fdjage i^ol<^OYt\i AmQvk3.o 

followed them. The Miffioners, Jefuits, and RecoU 
leBshad Orders to retire into the Fort oiQuebec with 
the Inhabitants. Father Fakntine le Roux afliired us 
there was only Powder for three or four Difcharges 
of Cannon, and eight or nine% hundred Loads for 

Mr. A'/V^, General of the Englifh Fleet, fent an 
Englilh Gentleman to Sicur de Champlin to fummon 
the Place, and to deliver a very honourable Letter. 
The miferable ftate of the Country, which had nei- 
ther ^Provifions nor Ammunition, for there had come 
no Supply for two Years paft, obliged the Governor 
to return a more fupple Anfwer than the Year palt. 

He therefore deputed Father Jofe^h Caron^ Superior 
of the RecnUeBs^ and fent him aboard the Englilh Ad- 
miral, to treat of the Surrender of Quebec upon ad- 
\'antagious Terms \ and above all, to obtain fome de- 
lay, if poflible. Father Joft^h demanded fifteen days, 
but the Englilh General knowing the weak con- 
dition of the place, would admit of no delay. The 
Father infilled ftill upon fifteen days, upon which 
the Englilh call'd a Council, and the Refult was, they 
would only grant them that day till night. The 
Adtpiral gave orders to Father Jofe^h to return to 
Qiiehec with this Anfwer, and that they Ihould there 
make the Articles of Capitulation ready, which 
fliould be pundually perform'd. 

The Englilh Admiral in a very civil -and obliging 
manner told Father 'Jofe^h^ that he with his Religious 
might return to their Convent, and bid hini be of 
good chear,for no harm ihould be done themjhappen 
what would. 

Two French Prifoners, the one called BaiUi^ for- 
merly GommifTary of the Company of Merchants, 
and Peter Le Roy^ by trade a Waggoner, had done i\\ 
Offices to the Jefuits with one of the Englilh Cap- 
tains : They pcrfwaded him. that he Ihould find with 
them great Riches. This was the Reafon that this 
' " . .. ■ . Captaid 

AVcyttge f^^c? North America. i<9 

Captain told Father JofepJf In a heat, that if the 
Wind had proved good, they would have begun with 
their College firft. Father Jofe^h at his return told 
fhem of the defign, on purpofc that they might take 
care of their Affairs in the Articles of the Treaty 
which were to be made. 

Father Jofeph having receiv'J this Anfwer from the 
Admiral,' who Ihewed him the Ships with ail the 
Ammunition, and the Souldiers with their Arms j 
in conclufion, he was fet a fhoar, and made his Re- 
port to Monlieur Chamflin at Quebec. 

A Council was held, and they were divided in their 
Sentiments. Two French, Men who had accompa- 
nied Father Jofeph^ obferved tlfat the Englilh were 
but few in number, and that they had not above two 
or three hundred iVl en of regular Troops, with fome 
others that had not the Mein of Souldiers : Del»des, 
they confided much in the Courage of the Inhabitants 
of Quebec ; they were therefore much inclined, as 
weiTas the Jefuits, and our Religious, to run the risk 
of a Siege. But the Experience that Monfieur Cham- - 
/>//■« had of the Bravery of iUq EngUfJ}, who would 
rather perifli than defift from an Enterpiize which 
they had once begun, advifed the Council rather to 
furrender upon honourable Terms than ruin alj. 
The Articles of Capitulation were drawn up accor- 
ding to Monfieur CbampUn^s Advice : Father Jofepb 
was commifltoned to carry them aboard the Englifh 
Admiral j and all things beiag adjufted, they de- 
manded time till the next day. 
' At the fame time the Savages that were lovers of 
our Religious, and above all, the afore-mentioned 
Chaumin, folicLted Father Jofepb and our Friars, that 
they would be pleafed to grant, that two or three 
of our Religious might retire into the Woods, and 
from thence into their Country. Altho Chaumin 
was not yet well confirmed in theChriftian Religion, 
he gad a very great love and efteem for our Reli- 
E e 4 gious. 

i6o A Foydge into North America. 

giou?, becaufe they liveti in common as the Savages 
do. Then having deliberated on this Propofition, 
they confider'd on the one fide, that the English \ 
would not be any longtime in pofleffion of the Coui^-i 
try,an€l that fooner or later the King of 0ance would 
ie-entcr by Treaty, or fome other ways: that in t^e 
interim it would advance the common good amongft 
the Savages^sf^ho Oifered to entertain our Religious ; 
and that \^^liSn the Country leturned under the Do- 
minion of Trfc, our Religidus might ftill be found in 
Canada^ a id in efcate to continiie their ordinary La- 
bours, and fuppoi t their begun EftabFirrinjenr. They 
were the more invited to embrace this Propofal, be- 
caufe the Engiiih General had given fo great marks 
of Friendship to Father ^o/cpi? T in conclafion, two 
of our Religious offered to go. Father Joje^h at the 
fame time did not go far off, and during this he 
thought it good to lofe no time, fince fhey muft de- 
part and efcape, as fome of the French did, who 
v/ent away with the Savages in a Canoo ^ and it was 
not little Grief to the Miffioners to be flopt by force 
in thsirjufl; Defigns. 

The Council of Quebec and the other Chieftains 
oppofed their departure, and it was concluded for 
divers Reafons politick and purely human j which 
whether it was for the Reproach they pretended to 
have reafon to fear in France^ or whether it was the 
diflrull: of Providence towards our Religious, or 
whether, in Ihort, il; was they did nbt believe the 
French would return again into Canada^ they were . 
forced to yield. 

. This afforded matter to build a Coryplaint upon 
at Court, and particularly by our Friars of the Pro- 
vince of St. Denis^ againft Father |^o/epi^, as not ha- 
ving that Firmnefb and Zeal which he ought to have 
had on this occafion j and that the Savages who had 
put all their Confidence in the RecoUei^s^ had been 

J Voyage Into Noiti nerica. i6i 

i)etter difpofed to the Chriftian Religion than ever 

.' Father Jofeph juftified himfclf the befl he could, 
and affirmed he had done nothing but executed the 
Orders of the Council cf Quebec, as the Anfwcrs 
make evident^ wiien he gave an account to the De- 
iinitor of his Province at his returp, giving an ac- 
count of his Miffion. 

The next day, being the loth of July, in the Year 
1629. the Sieur cle Champlin having hQcn on board 
the Englifh Adnnral, the Articles of Capitulation 
were figned by both Parties ^ after which the Englijh 
went afhore, and were put in polleflion of Canada 
by the Sieur de Chamtlin. 

Father Valentine de Roux, an antient Commijfaire^ 
Provincial of the Friars of Canada, whom I faw at 
my return from my Difcovery, hath all the Articles . 
of Capitulation made by the French at Quebec with 
the Englijh, when the Englijh took pofleiTion v he faid 
the Sieur de, Champlin faved with his ^Family all his 
EfFeds, and even, found fome advantage by this 
Treaty by the good Entertainment the Englijl^ IhewM 
him. The French Inhabitants who ., i^e then in the 
Country had every one twenty Grovyrfej. and ail the 
reft of their Goods were to remi^n lo the. Conque- 
rors ^ and from this was made thVgreat Complaint, 
becaufe there were found fome particular. PeiTons who 
were enrich'd upon this occafion. Thoie'^VYho were 
willing to (lay in the Country,obtained great Ps^\zv\- 
tages of the Englijh, but moft. of all the Family of 
IVloniieur Hebert^ whom I have often converfed with 
at Aiount Royal^ when I palled by to go to the Fort 
of Frontenac, The Religious, I confels, were much 
indebted to the Generolity of the Englijh for divers 
fingular Favours, which has always made me have a 
great Elteem for that brave Nation : They kept 
punctually their Word given by their Admiral, not 
■ . ■ fuffer- 

1 62 A Voyage imo North America. 
fuiFering any Injury to be done to the-Conventofour 
Lady of Angels at Quebec^ nor to our firft Refidence, 
which was the place where now ftandsthe Cathedral 
Chnrch of Qmhec^ our Religious not having been 
re-eftablifhed there lince. But notwithftanding all 
the Diligence that the Englifti OfEcers made ufe of 
in our favour, they could not hinder but one of their 
Souldiers flole from us a Silver Chalice: But the 
EngliOi Officers, who are naturally generous, teftified 
much Trouble at it to our Religious, and fwore fo- 
lemnly to take Revenge on the Party if he could be 

The Jefuits, who came not into Canada till four- 
teen or fifteen Years after our Friars (who by coh- 
fequence were the firft Miflioners of America^ met 
wi^ a Treatment far dilFererit; their Houfe was 
pillaged, and all that was found was given as a Prey 
to ih^ Souldiers ; and they were obliged to imb^rk 
the next day with the Steur Cham^Iin, and all the 
Fnmh exxept twenty feven, who let fail towards 
Tadoujac : But the two Brothers Lewis and Kirky 
the one Admiral, and .the other Vice- Admiral of the 
Englijh^ permitted our Religious to flay at Quebec: 
The £n^lijh teftifying then publickly, that they 
left us in Canada, to inftrud the Natives in the 
Principles of the Chrillian Religion, and that with 
the confent of the King of England, that we might 
be hindred from returning into Frame. They had at < 
the fame time as much familiarity with them in all 
things, to fay or do, c- make Vifits, with th€ fame 
liberty as before the taking of ^eki- j alfo they were 
to far from hindering the exercife of the Romilh Re- 
ligion, that they prayed them to take from them 
Wine for the Mafs j which they knew was before de- 
pute for thC'Ordinary Service of the Church, which 
there they heartily offered. Our Recolleds lived fo 
above fix Weeks after the taking of ^efe^c, and re- 
ceived much Civility from the Engliih, who folicited 


I A Voyage into N orth America . 1 6 j 

hem to ftay amonglt them, having liberty to inftrud 
be Natives who dealt with them. This continued 
ill the pth of September following, when they em- 
arked us aboard the Sieur Pontgrave, who remained 
t Canada^ becaufe of his indifpofition, with a de- 
■gn to rejoin the Sieur Champlin, the Jefuits, and 
U' the French of Canada, who were ordered to 
)afs to Tadoujfac, the day after the taking Qj^ebee. I 
eave you to think how great Sorrow the Miffioners 
i?ere plunged into, when inforted to abandon a Mif- 
ion fo long followed, and with fo much application. 
tThe hopes that our Friars had of returning infome 
jood time into Canada^ made them hide in feveral 
)laces part of their Utenfiis, and clofed \xp in a Cafe 
)f Elk-Skins,putinto a good Box, which no Air cguld 
^et into, the principal Ornaments of the Church, 
he Englifh Fleet fee fail the 14th of September for 
England, and arrived at Plimouth the i8th of OBober^ 
where our Recolleds 'llaid five or fix days^ after 
vhich they were conduded to London, with fome 
more French ; from London they got to Calhce the 
14th of the fame Month,' and from thence to our 
[ionvent of Paris. .^ 

The Publick may remark, that the Englilh having 
conferved our Convent .of Quebec, and that of our 
Lady of Angels, the lafl of which was found in good 
eftate to receive the Jefuits at their return into Ca- 
nada, whilft their Houfe was making ready •, our 
Religious having told them of the place wher^e they 
had hid their Ornaments, gave power to the Jefuits 
to make ufc of them, or any thing they had there, 
as by their confent declared to Father John the Jefuit^ 
which they were pleafed to accept, apd made ufe of 
our Goods as their own ', alfo of our Houfe, of our 
Church, and of our Lands, of which one part they 
hold at prefent, from a place called the Grtbanne, 
into the fide of the Convent of our Lady of Angels. 
trom which it is to be obferved, that a Letter attri- 
i buted 

iH ^^^M^i^to North Amtvkti, \ 

bnted £Q Father t> AUe^nam Jefliit, and related in tl 
iSth Tome of the French Mprcury, muft be a Fora 
ry : For there he, amongft other things contrary^, 
Truth, niakes him fay that he was of ?he Sentimen 
of his Provincial, tQ whom he writ, to dedic^f 
4 ' their Church to our Lady of Angels, ^nd that o 
was confecrated to St. Charles -, which clearly demo 
ftrates that this Letter was not Father V Mcmani 
asisfaid: He was better vers'd in th^ Hiilorv c 
^mertja than to be ignorant that the firfl Church 
Canada belonged to the Recolleds, who were the fir 
Miffioners, and that it was confecrated under th 
mmQ of our Lady of Angels. ^" 

CHAP. xxxm. 

Howthe Religious of the Order ./^^. Francis, m ihu^ 
fffl|^;'^y^^/^^^ hahhahle World, have been he- 
fore the Jefutts, 

T Cannot but follow the -Sentiments of Father r^- 
X lenttne le Roux^ whom I -have mentioned in thei 

publi/h under the Nameof Father C^.i/?/^«i, c/.rr 
It is a great Glory, and a great fubjed of Confola-i 

Lto h '"\"f P'^i' "^' ^^^ ^^^^"^^^^^^ °^St. Fmt 
t£5,to have had the advantage to be the firft Fore- 
runners of the Reverend Fathers of that Company of 
fir^"'^?" •^" P^'^^'^ '^y preaching the Gofpel, and 
firft digging and preparing the Vineyard of bur 

£ajt and mfl, in ^y;^,.in Barbarj, in T^r^v, and ee- 

■ Sj.^^^f;«, have lince walked in the Steps of the 
Children of St. Fr^w/V. ♦ 

great in Credit, m Merit, and in Wealth, having 


A Voyagt into North America. i6^ 

;[C dew of Heaven, and the Fat of the Earth ^ the 
icceiver-General, vvhofe Name I have forgot, made 
lis Difcourfe ih my Prefencc^, 2t the Table of Mon- 
eiir Comte de Frontenac^ Governour- General of Mrr- 
\'xance : That eight Friars Minors were fen t in the 
I'ear of our Lord 1500, and Preached the Gofpel at 
'allecute^ and Co^him;, there receiving the Crown of 
Martyrdom, all except Father Henry, who at his 
:Cturn into Spain was made Confeflbr to the King of 
hrtugal^ and Biihop of Ceuta. 
[ In 1502., there was ordered a great Miflion of our 
Religious, who opened the way much farthei' to ad- 
rance the Standard of the Crofs ; and there made a 
/ery great progrefs of the Gofpel, by theCoriverli- 
3n of a prodigious number of thefe People. 

In the Year 1510, our Religious of the Order of 
5t. Francis built the famous College or Seminary of 
God, the capital City of the Eajl-lndies ^ and our Re- 
ligious had the Condud of it, ^ and what accrued to 
it, for the fpace of 28 Years ^* till at the laft, in the 
Year 1542, our, Religious gave it to S>x.. Francis Xave- 
rius, that he might aDpIy himfelf wholly, with his' 
Difciples, to Preach /the Gofpel to thofe barbarous 
Nations •, 6f which the Hiftorians of thofe times give 
evidence, ^and the Life of St. Francis XaTjerius^rhQ 
firf^ Edition, does declare j ^bove all Father //or^ce 
Tcrcelin, in a later Edition, alloweth it : But a cer- 
tain late Author of the Jefuits has been pleafed to fup- 
prefs this mark of Acknowledgment, which of Juftice 
is due to usw 

t ' It is well known we have had the honour both in 
the Eaft and Wefl-lndiesy and even in Japan, where 
we have been (harers with the Fathers in the Crowo 
of Martyrdom \ our Religious having planted the 
Gofpel in the Kingdom of rbx«, part of the Eaft of 
Japan, as I have fhewn in the Preface of this Book : 
and it is in thefe vail Countries where the Jefuits have 
been afterwards introduced, fupported, loved, fa- 

.06 J r^ ojage into North America. 

voured, and joined with them in the AlDoftolical La. 

It is not lefs evident m other parts of the World • 
the Rchgious of St. Francis having fupported and im' 
ployed CO this day, as powerful Miffioners as any nocii 
the beginning of their Order. J 

AkxanderthQ Fourth, in the Year i2<'4 Phm 
Teftimony inoneofhisEpiflles, that our Religioul 
had fpread themfelves in all. Countries, not only of 
Schifmaticks but amongft thofe of Infidels. Remark 
the words of the Sovereign Pontiff. 

''Alexander^ &c. To Our welLbeloved theFriarsi! 

^minors, who have been .fent Miffioners intotha 

Land of the Sara^eKs, Painims, Greeks^ Buhariam 

Cumamans^ Ethiopians^ Syrians^ Iberians, JacobiteZ 

Nubians^ Nefioriam, Georgians, Armenians, Indi^ 

am, Momfolites, Tartars, the Higher and Lower« 

^^Hungary, to the Chriftian Captives among thc.e 

c« J a ' ' ^° ^^^^"^ unbelieving Nations of thee 

^^ halt, or m any otheV parts where they are, wiflii- 

" toed^ai^^^^^^' ^^^ ^^"^^"^ them pur Apoftolicfc 
In I zpi, our Reverend FatlTer Jeromid' ^fcole- af- - 
terwards created Pope Nicholas the Foufth, with hi&i 
Diftjples, not only managed the Reconciliation of the ; 
Greek with the Latin Church, but preached alfo the : 
Oolpel in Tartdry, and- by this means the Religious ; 
otour Order were fent for by the Princes of the 
Higher and Lower ^m^^w^, in izSp, and continued I 
their Conquefts m 1332. 

Turhy, withtheKingdomsandCountries under the*: 
Grand Sigmor, have been, and are yet the Theaters ; 
ot the Zeal of the Religious of St. Francis, and aredc^- 
monflrations of our Travels. In the Holy Land, and' 
other places, now fubjeft to the Turks, t-he-^hrilti- 
ans are yet governed by ihQ direction of the Children 
ot St. Fr^Km Thofe who keep the Sepulchre of our 
Lord Jefus Chnft, have done conliderable Service to 


JVoyagewtoNonhAmcnc^i, 167 

}€ Reverend Fathers Jefuits v others of them upon 
Ivers occafions have willingly ferved them. 
Hillory maketh mention, that in the Year i.342« 
ur Miflioners went into Bofnia and Sclavoma, a- 
jongffc the Infidels, amongft the great T^rr^n *, who 
iow poflefs CWw^, and into FerftdiMedta^ and Chal- 

In 1370 our MifRon was reinforced by Vrban the 
Ifth with 60 of our Religious ♦, the Order bemg then 
lonoured by a great number of Martyrs. 

The EmbafTy of Eugenia the 4tb, and the Miflion 
►f 40 of our Religious to Prejler John in 1439. fup- 
wrted afterward by a greater Number, is well 
mown, as well as the Redudion of thefe States by 
htm to the Obedience of the Chnrch of Rome. 

I fliould never hare done, if I Ihould undertake to 
jive an account of all the famous Miflions we have 
jeea honoured with through all the World ', in 
which the Reverend Fathers Jefuits have fmce fpread 
themfelv-es, and are now entred into our Labours, 
3r rather we have the Ajl vantage of continuing theq^ 
with us, and ading together in perfeft Union for the 
Glory of God, and Propagation of his Gofpel, 
which we only feek. r « - 

It is for this reafon, that our Recokas ot Pans 
called into Canada the Jefuits to help them, that 
they might bbour together for the gaining of Souls : 
But it is remai Auble, that when the Englilh had refto- 
red Canada lg the FrenchX after Four Years abode 
(here, the Jefu-cs," who had better Help^ for return- 
ing thither than cur Religious, and as it were by In- 
trigues, a Bar was put (o the Return of our Reco- 
leds. It was a fenfible trouble to fee, that fince we 
had preceded all the Jefuits in all other . IVJiQions of 
;the Chrifli^n World, that of A^cw France'vih the on- 
. ly Place where we had not the Coiifolation to conti- 
nue with them in the ApofloliCal Labours j a.nd 
by fo much the more, becaule that reciprocal Chari- 

' ry. 

1 62 A Voyage into North America. 

ty, which was not ia the leafl diminifhed between the 
two Bodie?; perfwaded us that the jefuits, full df 
Vertne and Merit, had much regretted our abfence 
as feems to be evident by their Letters at that time.' 
^ It would require a Volume to defcrib^ the Difficul- 
ties that our Religions have had, to return into our 
Miffions oiCmada, and the Intrigues that fome have 
made ufe of to hinder it : but nothing was omitted as 
to that. In concluiion, about thirty years after the 
Deputies of Canada^ who were impatient for the re- 
turn ofourRecoleds, told our Religious mortf than 
they were willing to know, and more than Charity 
wc^uld permit to publifli •, the Deputies told our Re- 
ligious, they wanted fpme to make Curats at Quebec^ 
and in fome ot{ier places $ that their Confclences were 
much troubled to have to do with the fame People, 
both for Spirituals and Temporals, there being no 
Perfons to whom they might comjm'unicate the diffi- 
culties of their Confciences, but to the Jefuits ^ and 
that the Recolefls not being fufFered to be ^mongfl: 
tiiera was a great lofs. 

The piredtops of the Company of Canada dif- 
courfed us to the like purpofe, parti culary Monfieur 
Roje^ in company of Monlieur Margonne^ Berhuhier^- 
and others ^ who fpeaking to our Recoleds, exprefs'd 
lumfelf in thefe terms. ' My Fathers, it had been ' 

* better you had returned into Canada then any o- 
' thers j it is a high Injuflice done to them, and the 
^ Inhabitants^: we now fee where the Fault lay, pre- 
' fcnt your Reafons, and yon, and thofe of the- 
' Country, fhall have all the Jnftice we can do you. ' 
The Secretary of the Company likewife fpoke thus to^ 
the Religious. ' At other times, my Fathers, 1- 

* have^b^n-againll: you, for which I have begged 

' God's pardon : I was miftakcn at that pfefent ^ I , 

* fee well I have offended ^ and I pray God you may Jl 
' be fufFered to retura into Canada^ after fo long *' 
'time, there to take charge of your Cures : you 


A Foyage into North America. i Sg 

* are. much longed for^ for the repofe of Gonfcicnces. 
Father Zachary Moreau, Recoled, who died the 
death of the Juft In my Arms, in oar Convent of 
St. Gertnains en Lay^ and Paul Huett^ who hath been 
my Father and Mafter from my Youth, at our Convene 
^f Recoledts at Montergir^ faid to the Deputies of t]&e 
Company of Canada j * That tho they would even 
permit us to return, we would not pretend to ex- 
ercife the Fundion of Curacs, left we ihouM give 
Jealoulie to any : But if the Reverend Fathers the Jc- 
fuits fhould do us the fame Favour that our antient 
Fathers had done them, in the Year 1625, when our 
Father Jofe^h le Caron, Superiour of our Convent of 
Queheo^ permitted them, and even pray'd them ouE 
of love to exercife the Fun(tiion of Cures by turns. 
But all at laft ferved for nothing ; the-Company 
fent back our Religious to the Council of Quebec^ 
to amufe them •, becaufe the Council was tompofed 
of a Governour, and Perfons who were Creatures 
of the Reverend Fathers Jefuits, as were the Supe- 
riour of the Million of the Sindic^ and of the Inha- 
bitants, whom they eafily 'gained to hinder our re- 
turn into Canad^. The Father Provincial ^of the 
Jefuits, and the Father jL' AUsyjiont Superiour of the 
Pitofelt Hoafe, was then in Frj^ce^ Superiour of the 
Miflions, which all centered to prolong our return. 
The Reader may jadgc, that if the Reverend Fathers 
Jefuits had begn in oar place, and our Recoleds in 
theirs, whether we fliould have been wanting topuc 
a value upon their Requefts, and employed our Cre- 
dit to ferve them : (tar Recoieds ftood firm for them 
againfl: the whole Country, who were againft their 
coming into Canada ^ and after their arrival, when 
the Governour and Inhabitants oppofed their Recep- 
tion, in the Year, 1^15, wc fupported them. 

True Charity, which is right and firaple, perfwad- 
cd us the Reverend Fathers Jefuits would not be 
wanting to make us a willing return of the likc> upon . 
Ff ' this 

1 70 J Voyage into North Americao 

this prefent occafion ; tmd they afTured us by -their 
Letter the Year following, that it was only want of. 
Power and Credit in the Council of ^e&ec,that they 
could not do us the Service they defired. 

from thistt is eafie to judge, that there was not one 
favourable Refolution given towards our Religious : 
The Diredor-General of the Company, Monfieur 
Lauzo}^, appearing to be carelefs of our return, and 
.in it a very great Obftacle ; . he palling in quality of 
Governour of Canada^ having often promifed our 
"Re-admiffion .* and afterwards going Governour, pre- 
tended not to be wanting to da us good Offices. The 
Mai-quefs de Denoville, v/ho after the great Difcovery 
I had made, went over in quality of Governour of 
Canada^ made us the like Promifes of Monlieur 
Lauzon^ for the progrefs of our Difcovery : befides, 
the Marqpefs had Orders to fupport our Recoleds in 
their Inftitute, from the Court of France \ but it pro- 
ved quite contrary. The Court afterward recalling 
him from his Government, it was given to Monfieur 
the Count de Frontenac^ who hath been in my time a 
true Father to our Recoleds, and a great fupport to 
our Miffions in Canada j as I ha\« fpoke at large in 
my Defcription of my Louifiana, and more in ray 
former Volume. • . ♦ 


J Ifojage Mo North America. i J i 

CHAP, xxxvni. 

Of tk Sentiments that a Mi Ijtoner ought to have oftb$ 
little Progyefs they find in their Labours, ^ - 

ALL the Ahriftian World acknowledge foracer- 
tain and undoubted Truth, and Maxim of Rfi- 
ligion, and one of the chief Principles of Faith, that 

the Vocation and true Converfion of PeopW and Na- 
tions, is the great Work and Mercy of the Power of 

^God, and of the triumphant Efficacy of his Grace 
and Spirit. 3ut if this be true, of Nations that are 
Infidels and Idolaters^ , which are already under fbme 
Laws and Rules, and fo better prepared to receive 
the Inflrudions of CI;riftian Religion^ the Apollo- 
lick Man ought much more to acknowledge this de- 
pendance upon the Soveraign Lprd, in ' refped of 
thqfe barbarous Nations who have not any regard of 
any Religion true or falfe, who live without Ruk, 
without Order, without Law, without God, with- 

\out Worlhip, where Reafon is buried in Matter, and 
incapable of reafoning the molt common things of 
Religion and Faith. 

Such are th^FQa^U of Canada^ all along the River 
of St. Lawrence^ and generally a prodigious quantity 
of People, of fundfy Nations j which I have given an 
account of in my Louifiana^' or former Book. And 
that which 1 offer is that they would in earnefl ac- 
knowledge, that the Work of the converfion of fo 

■ many blind Nations, is a|?ove our flrength, and that 
it only apperttms to the Father of Spirits, as faith 
St. Paul^ who hath the Hearts of all Men in his Hands, 
and who only is able to remove the Vail which cover- 
eth the Eyes of thefe Barbarians, and to clear their 
Underftanding, to diiTipate the Chaos ©f darkne^, 
wherein they are buried, to bend their Inclinaft ,4^, 
foften their hard and inflexible Hearts, and civilize 
F f 2 then)^ 

I jF at A VoyAge into North America." • 

them, and make them capable of thofe Laws which 
right reafon fuggefls ^ and fo fubmit themfelves to 
that which Religion prefcribes. 4 

This is the Foundation of a true Apoftlefliip, in re- 
fpedt of the Natives of Canada, and all our great 
Difcoveries twelve hundred Leagues beyond it. They 
ought to have all Moral and Theological Vertues, 
who ate defigned for fb great a work as theConver- 
I5'9nx)f fo many Nations •, for whofe Salvation I would 
willingly expofe my Life.- But before one facrifices, 
and wholly devotes himfelf to this great Miflion, he 
ought to lay it down for a certain Principle, That 
none can be drawn efficacioufly to JefusChrift, if the' 
Father of Lights do' not draw him by the force of his 
vidorious Grace ? This his invifible Spirit breathes 
where and when he pleafes j that the moments of 
Grace arc known to God,and in the hands of the Pow- 
er of the Father •, and that having called all Men to 
Faith, in the preparation of his good Will, common 
to all, he gives them in his own time, exterior,- in- 
terior, and fufficient Grace to obtain it : That the 
work is not only of him that runs, nor him that 
wills, but principally of him who illuminates and 
touches the Heart. The Glory does not belong to him 
that preaches, nor to him that plants, nor to him 
that waters, but to him that gives the increafe. That 
^a Sacrifice of all Nature is not able to merit of r/^ibf, 
the firll Grace of Creation, which does not fall under 
that head. That it's in' vain to endeavour to. ered a 
Spiritual Edifice, if God do not aflifl: by his preparini 
and preventing Grace. 

An humble Simplicity muft be the fole of all their 
Apoftolical Laboi;i s, and a profouncf Annihilation o: 
themfelves, and fubmiffion co the holy Will of God 
When their Zeal has not its eftcft, they muft be con- 
tent to fay, We have done our part, as to what is 
i^ttqukcd of our MiniHry, but we are unprofitable 


A Voykge into North America. 1 7 1 

I now beg of my Lord God upon my Knees, wit^ 
my hands lifted up to Heaven, that he would be plea- 
fcd to continue and imprint in my Heart even to'death, 
the Sentiments of Submiflion to the Will of God, and 
my Superiors, touching the ^alvation of the Souls of 
io many Savages, who are in the darknefs of Igno- 
rance; that I may make an intire Sacrifice of the refl 
of my days in fo laudable an Affair, expofing my 
Soul to all the Events of the Providente of God, liv- 
ing and dying ; and that I may be fo happy as to leave 
Sentiments truly* Apoftolical, full of light, capacity^ 
Vertue and Grace, of Zeal and Courage to undertake 
any thing for the Gonverfion of Souls, to fuffor pati- 
ently the greateft difficulties, and the feverefl: Con- 
tradidlions, for the accoroplifhment of their Mini- 

I beg of God from the bottom of my Heart,that all 
the Miffioneq^of the Univerfe may with me be of the 
number of the Veflels of Eledion, deftinated to carry 
the Name of our Lord to People and barbarous Nati- 
ons, to the utmofl: ends of the World ; and that the 
adorable Providence of God would be pleafed to for- 
tify his Militant Church with a number of Workmen, 
to labour in his Vineyard, to fecond,the Labours of 
^11 other Orders, Secular and Regular, ir the new e- 
Itablifhments of the Kingdom of Jefus Chrift. 

Ff cj An 

t 174 3 

An Account offej^eralNew Difcove^ 
• n>j i» North- America. 

' . ' ■ — — 

Of NeW'Frame. • 


MR. Joliet, who was fentby Count frontenac^ 
to difcover a Way into the South-Sea^ 
brought an exad: Account of his Voy- 
age, with a Map of it j but his Canow being over- 
fet, at the Foot of the Fall of St. Louis, in fight of 
Mentroyal^ his Cheft and his two Men^ were loft ; 
therefore the following Accfount contains only what- 
he has remembred. 

I fet out from the Bay of Puans in the Latitude 
of 42 Degrees 4 Minutes, and having travell'd 
about 60 Leagues to the Weftward, I found a Por- 
tage J and carrying our Canows over-land for half a 
League, I /smbark'd with fix Men on the River 
Mifconfing^j^hich brought us into the Mefchafipi in the 
Latitude of 42 Degrees and an half, on the 1.5th of 
June^ 1674.?. This Vnriage is but 40 Leagues from the 
Mtjiffip. This River is but half a League broad; its 
Stiiam is gentle to the Latitude of 38 degrees j 
fa. a River, -fVom the Weft-lS[orth which runs into 
it, ixHcreafe^ fo rauch its Rapidity, that we cou'd 
m .;e but five Leagues a Day in our Return, The 
:- ■ ' g^ ;. told us, tliat the Current is not half fo great 
V'ir^5 er. The Banks of that River are covered 
•OS down to the Seaj byt the CotxoA- 
■ ;):g, thatl have iei^nfoine Caii<)WS 
- - , atoiclreg^^ eighty Fo^ long, and tlireer 
■' ' ' "'\ ' '■ •■ ■ h"oad. 

J New Difcovery, he, 175 

broad, which carry thirty Men. I faw 180 of 
thofc Wood«n-Ganows ia one Village of the Sava- 
ges confifting of 300 Cabins. Thfey have abun- 
dance of Holly Trees, and other Trees, the Bark 
whereof is Whioe^ Grapes, Apples, Plums, Ghef- 
nuts, Pomgranates, Mulberries, befides other Nuts 
unknown«o Europe ; plenty of Turky-Cocks, Par- 
rots, Quails, Wild-Bulls, Stags, and Wild-Goats 
Thefe Savages are affable, civil and obliging ^ and 
the firft' I met with pref^nted me with a Pipe or 
Calumet of Peace, which is a Protedion even ma 
Fi^ht Their Women and Old Men take care ot the 
Culture of the Ground, which is fo fertile as to af- 
ford three Crops of Indian Corn every Year. They 
have abundance .of Water-Melons , Citruls, and 
Gourds. When they have fown their Corn, they 
Po a Hunting for Wild Bulls, whofe Flefh they eat, 
and the Skin fervesior their Coverings, having 
drefs'd the farffe with a fort of Earth, which ferves 
alfo to dye them. They hav.e Axes and Kmves 
from the French and Spaniards, in exchange of tneir 
Beavers, and Skins of Wild Goats. Thofe who live 
near the Sea have fome Fire-Arms. . • 

• The Miffijfip* has few Windings and Turnings, 
and runs diredly to the South, and having follovv'd 
its CourfetiUtlje'53d Degree of Latitude, I re- 
folv'd to return home, feeing that River did not 
difcharze it felf into Mar rermejo, which we look d 
for as alfo becaufe the Spaniards obferv'd our Moti- 
ons for llx Day« together. The Savages told me^ 
that, the Spaniards live within thirty Leagues to. the 

Weftward. , _ ' , , j r. 1 

The faid M. Joliet adds. That he*ad f^t down 
in his Journal an exad Defcription of the Iron- 
Mines they difeover'd, .as alfo of the Qiiarnes ct 
Marble, and Cole-Pits, and Places where they find 
Salt-Petre, with feveral other things. He had a ho 
obferv'd what were the fitteft Places to fettle Coio- 
F f 4 nies, 

\'j6 A New Difcovery of 

nies, &c. The Soil is very fertile, and produces a- 

bundance of Grapes, whicli might make delicious 


The River of St. Levois^ which hath its Source 
near Mijftchigamn^ is the biggefl, and the moll con^ 
venient for a Colony, its Mouth into the Lake be- 
ing very convenient for an Harbour, ^t is deep 
and broad, and well ftock*d with Sturgeons, and 
other Fifties. The Stags, Bulls, Wild-Goats, Turky- 
Cocks, and other Game, are more plentiful on the 
Banks of the faid River than any where elfe. There 
are Meadows ten or twenty Leagues broad, encom- 
pafs'd with fine Forefts vbehind which are other Mea- 
dows, in which Grafs grows fix Foot high. Hemp 
grows paturally in all thai Country. • 

Thofe who fliall fettle ttiemfelves there,need not be 
obliged, as we are here, to beftow Ten Years la- 
bour for felling down the Trees, and grubbing up 
the Land, before it is fit for Corn j for the Ground 
is ready for the Plough in that fortunate Country, 
where they may have good Wine. Their young 
Wild Bulls may be eafiiy learn'd to plough their 
Land ^ and their long curl'd Hair, or rather Wool, 
may ferve to make good Cloth for their Wearing* 
In Ihort, that Soil wou'd afford any thing necefl^ary 
for Life, except Salt, which they might have another 

An Account of M. La Salles Voyage to the River Miflif- 
fipi. pireSed to Count Frontcnac, Govemox of 

TH E River oi Niagara "^s Navigable for three 
Leagues, that is, frutti the Fall to the Mouth 
of the Lake Erie-j but the Stream is fo rapid, 
that it is alraoil impoffible for a Bark to fail up into 
the Lake, without a flrong Gale, and the help of pany 

• Men 

fever d Coumries in America . 177 

Men to hale from the Shore at the fame time. But 
befides all this, it requires fo many other Precauti- 
ons, that one cannot exped always to fucceed. 

The Mouth of tlie Lake Erie is full of Sands, 
which make it dangerous •, therefore to avoid that 
Danger, and not venture a Ship every Voyage,' it 
vs-ill be fafer to leave it at an Anchor, in a River 
which runs into the Lake fix Leagues from the 
River Niagara, afid is the only Haibour and An- 
chorage in this Lake^ 

There are three great Points which advance above 
ten Leagues into it j but being chiefly made up of 
Sand, they are fo low that there is great danger 
of running a Ship againli them before th^y i are dif- 
cover'd, and therefore a Pilot mufl be very skilful 
and careful to fleer a Ship in this dangerous Lake. 

The Streight or Canal between the Lake £?-/>, 
and the Huron^ is very rapid, and no-lefs difficult 
than that of Niagara, though much deeper. The 
Streight of Mijftlikinac between the Lake //«- 
ron, and that of the lUimis^ is attended with no lefs 
Difficulties, for the Current is commonly, againit 
the wind. There is no Anchorage 'in the Lake 
Huron^ nor any Harbour in that of the Illinois^ up- 
on the Northern, Weltern, and Southern Coafts. . 
There are many Hlands in both Lakes, which make 
the Navigation of that of the Illinois very perilous j 
for there being no Harbour to run into for Ihelter, 
and the Storms being very terrible on that Lake, 
'tis a great Providence when a Ship efcapes being 
dafh'd in pieces againft .thofe lilands. However, fonie 
Canals and Anchorages may be difcover'd in time, 
which will remove thofe great Difficulties, as has 
hapned in the Lake of Frontenae, the Navigation 
whereof is now gafy, whereas it was at fir'fl: as -dan- 
gerous as that of the Lake Huron or Illinois. 

The Creek through which we went. from the 
L^ke of the lllimis^ into the Divine River, is fo 


1^8 ' New Difcovery of 

ftallow, and fo much exposM to the Storms, that 
no Ship can venture to get in, unlefs it be in a great 
Calm. Neither is the Country between the faid 
Creek and the Divine River, fit for a Canal j for 
the Meadpws between them are drownM afcer any 
great Rain, and fo a Caaal will be immediately 
fill'd up with Sands .• And befides, it is impoffible to 
dig up the Ground, becaufe of the Water, that 
Country being nothing but a Morafs : But fuppofing 
it were poflfible to cut the Canal, it wou'd be how- 
ever ufelefs '-, for the Divine River is not navigable 
for forty Leagues together ^ that is, from that Place 
to the Village of the Illinois^ except for Canows, 
who have 'hardly Water enough in Summer-time. 
Befides this. Difficulty/there is a Fall near the Vil- 
lage. * ' • 
• We have feen no Mines there, though feveral 
Pieces of Copper are found in the Sand when tlis 
River is low. There is the bell; Hemp in that 
Country I have feen any where, though it grows 
naturally without .any culture. The Savages tell us, 
that the7 have found near this Village fome yellow 
Metal j but that cannot be Gold, according to 
their own Relation, for»the Oar of Gold cannot 
•be fo fine and bright as they told us. There are 
Coal-Pits 6n that River. 

The 'Wild Bulls ajre grown fome what fcarce fince 
the lUinois have been at War with^ their Neighbours, 
for now all Parties are continually Hunting of ' 
them. The "Navigation is eafy from Fort Crevecoeur 
to»the Sea j and New- Mexico is nojt above twenty 
Days Journey from the faid _ Fort. The Nations of 
the Metontonm, who live within Ten Days Journey 
from' the faid Fort, came to fee M. la Salle^ and 
brought a Horfe's Hoof with them< They told us. 
That the Spaniards make a cruel War upon them, 
and that they ufe Spears more comraonly , than 


fever d Countries m America. 179 
"ire- Arms. One may go by Water from Fort 
7revecoeur to the Habitation of thefe Savages. 

There are no Europeans aC^the Mouth of the River 
Colbert for Miffifftp ^ j and rtfc Monfter of which 
Vf. Joliet gives fo dreadful a Defer iption, is a Fancy 
)f fome Savages, 'and had never any^ Original. It 
s within a Days journey and a half fcom Fort 
yevecceur '■, 4)ut had M. Jolict gone down th« River, 
le might have feen a more terrible one. That Gen- 
lema'n has not confiderM that the Mofopocla, of 
/vhom he takes notice in- his Map, were altogether 
kllroy'd before he fbt out for his V(f\^age. He fets 
iown alfo in his Maps feveral Nations, which are 
lothing but Families of i\K Illinois. The Vronevoa, 
Cnxcanlica, Tamaroa^ Koracoenitonon^ Chinho, Caoha^ 
Choponfca^ Amonoha, Canha^ Ocanja, and Ve vera I 
Dthers, make up the Nation and the Village of the 
[Uinois, confifting of about 40o'Cabine8 covered with 
Ruihes, without any Fortffications. I»have told- 
1800 fighting Men amongfl: them. They have Peace 
:iow with all their Neighbours, except the. Iroquois - 
3fld it wou'd be eafy to reconcile thSm, were it not 
to be fear'd that they wou'd afterwards fall upon 
the Outto'uatSy whom they mortally hate, and di~ 
fturb thereby our Commerce v fo^that we muit 
leave them as they are •, for as lortg as they (hall 
have occafion for us, they will be ready to comply 
with any thing that we can defire from them, and 
keep in awe the Nations inltabiting to the Weft- 
ward, who are much afraid of the Illinois. 

The Banks of feven or" eight Rivers, which dif- 
charge themfelves into the Mififfip^ or Colbert-River-.^ 
the lead v/hereof runs abovd 300 Leagues, are co- 
Ver'd with Fine Timber for Building Ships. 

M. la Salle has feen forae Savages of three Nations 
through which FerdinaM Sotto pafs'd with his Army, 
vip. the Sicachia, Cafcin^ and Jminoya : They told 
him that we might go by Water frqin Crevscoeur into 
their Country. ^'^ 

loo A New Dijcovery of 

It is highly neccfTary to carry on this Difcoverv • 
for the River inhabited by the Sicacbia^ which in all 
likelihood isthetruea«i^^.,«^, had its Source near 
Cjrolma and confequcntly very near the Habitation 
of th^ EngU/h, about three hundred Leagues to the 
Eallward of the MiffiMpi in the Frehh Florida at the 
foot of .the A^alachin Hills : For had the EnM no- 
tice of It, they might by means of this River-Trade 
with the llltnot^^ Mamis, Nadouefflans, and other Sa- 
vages, fpoil for ever our Commerce, 
.u^flr ^^"^^^ has been as hard in the Country of 
the Illmots as at fort Frontenac ; ^br though he Wea- 
ther was there in January as temperate as in Provemei 
yet the River was Itill frozen on the ii^d of Anarch \ 
and therefore 1 conclude 'tis much the fame Climate 
as the gountry of the Iroquois. 

.u '^^^ ^°r?"^^^ ^^'^^^^ ^^^ ^3''^^ of the Illimls and 
the UkQErte is ^vov9 of IVlountains for a hundred 
Leagues together from whence fpring a great num- 
ber of Rivers, which run to the Weflward into the 
Lake of th^llUmis, to tlie North into the Lake Hu- 
ron to the Eaft loto the Lake Erie, and to the South 
into the Riv^ oko. Their Sources are fo near one 
another, that m three Days Journey I crofsM twfen- 
tytwo, the leaft whereof is bigger- than that ofiei- 
Mcu The to|lD of thefe Mountains are flat, and 
thll of Bogs and MorafTes, which being not frozen, 
haveproyd an mfupportable difficulty and trouble 
in our Voyage There are now and then fome 
Plains which I take to be very fertile ; they are co- 
ver d with Bears, Stags, Wild'-Goats, Turkey-Cocks. 
and Wolves, who are fo fierce as hardly to be frigh? 
ed away by the Noife* of our Guns. There is a Ri- 
ver m the bottom of the Lake Erie; within Ten 
Leagues ot the Canal, which may very much fhort- 
en the way to the Illinois, it being navigable for 
Canows till withm two Leagues of theirs; but the 
mpft convenient of aU is itjie River O^f^w, which be- 

fevernl Cfunfxks w America. iSi 

Bg navigable for 5 irks, will fave all the trouble of 
nakinga Comimstiication between the Lake of the 
^'mois and the Divine Riva\ and the great Expences 
)f making the faid River navigable to Fort Crewcoeur. 
One mufl: not fancy that the Ground in the Coun- 
try of the lOimis is ready for the Plough *, fome of 
them are too dry, others too wet*, and in fliort, 
all require fome Toif and Trouble j bu& I am fure ' 
they can fufficiently recompence in a little time, 
thofe who will be at the pains to cultivate them. 

The Nations through which we have pafs'd have 
receiv'd us very kindly, becaufe of our Calamet of 
Peace, which is a fafc Condud and a fuificieiit Re- 
commendation amongll the Savaiges. 

The Illinok offer'd to accompany us to the Sea, m 
hopes, as we told them, that we would fupply them 
that way with European Commodities ; for the want 
of Knives, Axes, &c. makes them very officious. 
Th^ young Calves may be. eafdy tam'd, and very 
ufeful for fetlingonr Plantations. The Illinois have 
alfo many Slaves which may be of gre^t ufe to us. 

Xhereare as many' idle Fellows Amongll them as 
among other Nations, and a great many more Wo- 
men than Men. They marry feveral Wives, fome- 
timesnine or ten, and comtftonly all Sifters if they 
can, thinking they agree better in their Family. • 

1 have feen three Children who have been Bap- 
tizM j one caliM Petcr^ the other Jofeph^ and the 
third Mary^ who neverthelefs are like to live as their 
FatJier, who has marry'd three Sifters •, for they 
have no farther Ghriftian Inftrudion j Father jil- 
louez., wjio BaptizM them, having left that Country, 
unkfs one would think that the Stick that Father 
left amongft them, as a Mark that the Country be- 
longs to him, has any extraordinary Virtue to pro- 
mote Chiiftianity. Thele are the only Chriftians I 
have found amongft them, vvhich } am fure cannot 
be fuch but;« Fide EcckfKc, 


1 82 A Nem Difiover^ of 

Father AUouez. lives now in a Village of tht Min- 
mis^ Mofihutens^ and Ochiakemns^ who have quitted 
their own Nation and Ancient Habitations, to con- 
federate themfelves with the Iroquois againft the lUu. 
mis \ and for that purpofe they fent laft Summer 
an EmbafTy into the Country of the Iroquois^ with 
a Letter of Father ^Uouez. -The end of that Era- 
baily was, cs I have faid, to 'oblige them to unite 
themfelves with them againfi: the Illinois ; and they 
were negotiating the Alliance, when I arriv'd at the 
Village of the Tfomontouam -^ and upon notice there- 
of, a Woman was fent to tell them to run awayi 
for fq^r the Iroquois fhouW kill them. They . had i 
however no delign to do them any harm, as it ap- 
peared afterwards , for the Iroquois having overtaken 
the faid Arabafladors, they were kindly us'd 5 but 
they enter'd upon noBufinefs, as long as I continued 
there.^ I met with one of the faid Ambafladors lince 
that time in their own Country, who told me Yuch 
horrid things, that I cannot intirely believe them j 
and 1 rather fufped the Miamis to' be Contrivers 
thereof. However, Father Allouez. had no focner 
intelligeace that I was arriv'd at ^the Village of the 
Illinois^ than that they lent one Jlionfo^ one of their 
Chiefs, with four • large Kettles, twelve Axes, and 
twenty Knives, to psrfaade the Illinois that I was 
Brother to the Iroquois ^ that my breath fmell'd like 
theirs ^ and I eat Serpents ; that I was fent to be- 
tray them, and atTack them one way, while the 
Iroquois fliould attack them by another ^ that I was 
hated by all the Blad Gowns, who forfook me be- 
caufe I defign'd to deftroy the Miamis^ having ta- 
ken two of them Prifoners ^ and, laftly, that I un- 
derftood Phyfick enough to poyfon all the World. 
Their Suggeftions were fo ridiculous and fo falfe, 
that I had no great difficulty to convince the Illinois 
of the Malice of my Enemies j and Monfo was ill 
great danger of iofing bis Life for his pains. They 


Jeverd Countries in America. i8j 

told him he had an Iroquois Serpent uader his 
[Tongue, meaning his Bafenefs and Malice ^ that his 
Comrades who had been AmbafTadors into their 
Country, had brougtit that Venom, and had breath- 
;ed in the Malice of th^lroquois in fmoaking in their 
]Calum€t. I vv'as obliged to intercede for him, for elfe . 
they would have murthtr'd him. 

'Tis certain, that their Defign is to engage Count 
[Frontenac into a War with the lYoquois ^ and having 
tri'd in vain feveral ways to fuceeed, they think 
there is no better . than to perfuade the Nation of 
the Miamis, who are -our Confederates, to fettle 
themfelves near the Illinois^ and make an Alliance 
with them, infomuch that the Iroquois cannot ^tack 
one Nation, without breaking with the other, and 
thereby oblige your Lordfhip either to forfake our 
Allies, or declare Wars againft the iroquois. This 
is not a rafli and groundlefs Judgment j for thefe* 
Miamis^ with whom Father -^//owes: lives, ha^kill'd 
feveral Iroquois this Winter j and having cut the Fin- 
gers of another, they fent him back to tell their 
Nation that the Midmvs are joyn'd with the lUinois 
againft themi Perhap|»^hat Pftrfidioufnefs obliges 
Father ^Eouez. to quit them next Spring, as I un- 
derftand he deligns to do. Howgver, i am^ confi- 
dent to ftop the Progrefs of this Cabal, if your 
Lordfhip conies this Year to weep for the Death of 
the Omntake, who have been kill'd j for the Illinois 
have promis'd me to releafe fome Slaves, and for- 
bear their Exciirfions againft the Irqiwzi,' who having 
been informed of my Good Offices, have exprefb*d 
a great Gratitude thereof. This Weeping is a com- 
mon Ceremony among the Savages, when any of their 
Warriors have been kili'd. . 

I do not wonder that the Iroquois flieuld talk of 
invading bur Allies ^ for they are every Yc^r pro- 
vok'd *, and I have feen at MiMilifiaoJiifiak y amongft 
the Poutouatmits ^nd the Mi^mis^ the H cads cffe- 


1^4 -^ ^^^ Difcovery of 

veral Iroquois^ whom they have kili'dby Treachery,' 
as they were a Hunting lali Springi This is come 
to the Knowledge of the Iroquoia j for our* Allies 
have been fo impudent as to boaft of it; and efpe- 
cially the Poutouatamits, whp dancing the Calumet ac 
MiffiUnaokinak before three Jlgmiz.y or Envoys of the 
Jrociuois^ boafted of their Treachery, and held in 
their Hands feveral Heads of Hair of Iroquots'^s. 

I cannot forbear to take notice of the Difcourfe 
I had with a Savage of the Nation of the Wolf ^ 
who being convinc'd of the Truth of the Chriftian 
Religion, and prefled by fome Miflionaries to em- 
brace the Catholick, and by fome EngUJh Minillers 
to ^brace Theirs, was in great perplexity which 
of the two he (hould chufe ; fpr, as he told me, thefe 
Men are very unlike the Apoflles -, the former be- 
caufe of their great Covetoufnefs, and the latter be- 
caufe of their being Marri'd. But havingobfcrvM in 
the RtcoUeCp's both Chaftity and tfie Contempt of the 
Rfches of the World, he was Bapti2:*d by them. 

I havefeen in this Country abundance of Green 
Parrots, bigger and finer than thofe of our Iflands. ^ 

A Difccvery of fome New Countries and Nations in ths 
Northern- America. By Father Marquette. 

ON the 13th of May^ \6:]'^. I embark'd with 
M. Joliety who waschofen to be our Diredor 
in this Undertaking, and five other French'mtl^^ 
in two Cmows made of Barks of Trees, with 
fome Indian Corn and boiFd Flelh for our Sub- 
fiftence. We had taken care to get from the Sava- 
ges all the Intelligence we could, concerning the 
Countries through which we defign'd to travel, and 
had drawn a Map of the fame, according to their 
Relation, in which we had marked the Rivers, 


fever at Countries in America, i S 5 

and the Name of the Nations we were to meet, and 
the Rhombs of the Wind we were to make ufFof 
in our Journey. 

The firft Nation we met with^ is callM the JNT^- 
t'ion of the Wild-Oats : I went into their^River to vifit 
that People, to whom we have preach'd the Go- 
fpel for feveral Years, and amon^ whom there 
are many good Chriftians. The WildOats^ from 
which they ha\,e got their Name, is a fort of Corn 
which grows naturally in the finall Rivers, the bot- 
tom whereof is Owzie, as alfo in marfiiy Grounds, 
It is much like our European Oats : the Stem is knov- 
ted, and grows about two Foot above the Surface 
of the Water. The Corn is not bigger than ours, 
but it is twice as long, and therefore it yields much 
more Meal. It grows above the Water in June^ 
and the Savages gather it about Septemker in this 
manner : They go in their Canows into^hofe Ri- 
vers, and as they go they fliake the Ears of the Corn 
in their Canows, which cafily falls, if it be ripe : 
They dry ic upon the Fire ^ and when it is very dry, 
they put it into a kind of Sack made with the Skin 
of Beads j and having made a Hole in the Ground, 
they put their Sack therein, and tread on it till they 
fee the ChafF is feparated from the Corn, which 
they Winnow afterwards. They pound it in a Mor'*' 
tar to reduce it into Meal, or elfe boil it in Watef^^' 
and feafon it with Greafe, which makes ic near as 
good aSoUr Rice. ■ 

I acquainted that Nation with the Defign I had 
to travel farther into the Country, to difcover the 
remoteft Nations, and teach them the Myfteries of 
our Holy Religion j at which they were mightily 
furprizM, and did their utmoft to diflwa'de me- 
from that Enterprize. They told me that I fliould 
pieet fome Nations who fpare no Strangers, whom . 
they kin without any Provocation or Mercy; thac- 
theWar thofe diflerent Nations had one with the 
C g other, 

iS6 A New Difcovery of 

other, fliould daily expofe me td be taken by their 
Warriors, who are perpetually abroad to furprize 
their Enemies: That the great River was exceed- 
ingly dangerous, and full ot dreadful Monfters, 
who devour'4 Men, and even the Canows them- 
felves. They added, that a Devil ftopp'd the Paf- 
fage of the faid River, and funk thofe who were fo 
bold as to comdliear the place where he Hood ^ an,d, 
in ihort, that the Heat was fo excglTive in thofe 
Parts, that we fhould never be able to preferve our 
Health. • 

I return'd them my hearty Thanks for their good 
Advices ^ but told them I would not follow them, 
iince the Salvation of a great many Souls were con- 
cerned in our Undertaking, for whom I fhould be 
glad to lofe my Life. I added. That I laugh'd at 
their pretended Devils and Monfters, and that their 
Informations would oblige us to ftand the more 
upon our Guard to avoid any Surprize, And fo 
having pray'd to God with them, and given them 
fome Inftrudion, we parted from them, and arriv'd 
at the Bay of Puans^ where our Fathers make a coji* 
fiderable Progrefs towards the Converiion of thofe 
Ignorant Nations. ; 

The Name of this Bay founds better in the Lan- 
guage of the Savages than in ours ^ for according 
to the Word they make ufe of, one may call it as 
well the Salted Bay, as the Stinking Bay j for they 
call the Sea after the Same Name. This oblig'd us 
to enquire whether there were in that Country any 
Salt Springs, as there is on€ among the Iroquois ; but 
we could find none ', and therefore we think that 
this Name was given to this Bay, becaufe of the 
great quantity of Mud and Owze that is there, 
from whence fuch Vapours arife, that occafion the 
mpft dreadful Thunders that ever I heard in any. 

This Bay is about thirty Leagues long, and about 


feverat Countries in America. 187 
eight broad, that is to fay in its greateft breadth ; 
for it grows narrower, and forms a Cone at the ex- 
tremity j where one may eafily obferve, that this 
Bay has its fetled Tides jufl as the Sea.- This is not 
a proper place to enquire whether the Flowing and 
Ebbing of the Water of this Bay, may be properly 
callM a Tide, or whether they are occalion'd by 
the Winds, which never, or very feldom fail to blow 
from the fame Point upon the Moon's afcending 
our Horizon j but this I may fay. That in the great- 
eft Calm, the Waters in this Bay flow and ebb ac- 
cording to the Motion of the Moon j though I will 
not deny but that the Winds, which move the Wa- 
ters towards the middle of the Lake, may contribute 
to this efFed. 

We left this Bay to go into a ' River that dif- 
charges it felf therein j and found its Mouth very 
broad and deep. It flows very gently ^ but after 
we had advanc'd fome Leagues into it, we faw it 
was interrupted by feyeral Rocks and rapid Streams j 
and fo fhallow in fome places, that it would hardly 
bear our Canows. The bottom is full of Flints ; 
which are as fo many Razors that cut the Canovys, 
and made it impoflible for our men to walk therein, 
to make the Canows more light, when the Ihal- 
lownefs of the Water did not permit us to row 
away. It is full of Buftards, Ducks, and Teals, be- 
caufe of the Wild Oats in the Marfhes thereabouts. 
However, we conquer'd thefe Difficulties, and came 
to an Habitation or the Miamis^ Maskoutens^ and 
Kikabeux j but before we arriv'd at the Village, I 
had the Curiofity to tafte the Mineral Water of a 
River near it, and found a Simple of a wonderful 
Virtue againft the Venom of the Serpents. A Sa- 
vage who knew it, had fhown it to Father Mouez.^ 
vvho had often occafion to try its Virtues, God ha- 
ving been pleafed to provide that Country with that 
wonderful Antidote againft the Serpents, who are 
G S 2 very 

1 88 A New Difcovny of 

very dangerous in thofe Parts. The Root of that 
Simple is very hot, and talles like Gunpowder j they 
chew ft, and apply it to the part of the Body flung 
by the Serpents ^ and this without any other My- 
ftery cures the Wound *, and the Serpents havefuch 
an Antipathy againll the Herb, that they run away 
from any Man who has rubb'd his Body with the 
fame. It produces feveral Stalks about a foot highj 
the Leaves are fomewhat long ^ the Flower is white, 
and the whole looks like our GilUfiowers. I took 
one into our Canow, the better to examine it. 

This Bay of Puans had been hitherto, as one may 
fay, the Vltima ThuU ofthe French^ for they never 
durft advance further into the Country. This Vil- ' 
lage, as I have intimated, confills of three feveral 
Nations, viz,. Miamis^ Ma^hutensy and Kikabeux, 
The firft are more civil than the other, and better 
fhap'd, as well as more liberal. They wear long 
Hair over their Ears, which looks well enough. 
They are accounted valiant Men amongit their 
Neighbours •, but are fo cunning, that they feldom 
return from their warlike Expeditions without 
Booty. They are apt to learn any thing, for they 
love to hear the European's Talk j and Father AUouez. 
told, me. That they had fuch a violent defire to be 
inilriiRed, that they often difturb'd 1^ Reft to as'k 
him Qiieilions about what he had told them the 
Day before. The Mashutens and Kihabeux are more 
Clowniih V and there is as much difference between 
the Miamvs and them, as Betvj^een our Boors and 
Citizens. As the Rind of Birch-Trees are fcarce in 
this Country, they are oblig'd to make their Ca- 
bins with Rufhes^ which ferve as well for covering 
the fame, as for Walls. It rauft be own'd that 
thele Cabins are very convenient ', for they take 
them dowii when they pleafe, and carry them by 
fmall Parcels where-ever they will, without any trou- 


fever al Couniries in America. 1JS9 

When I aniv'd there, I was very glad to fee a 
great Crofs fet tip in the middle of the Village , 
adoiiiM with feveral white Skins, Red Girdles, Bows 
and Arrows, which that good People had ofFer'd to 
the Great Ma:iitou, to return him their Thanks for 
the care he had taken of them during the Winter,' 
and that he had granted them a profperoos Hun- 
ting. ' Manitou is the Name they give in general to. 
airSpirits whom they think to be above the Nature of 

Their Village is.*fituated on a Hill, from whence 
one may difcovcr the largefl Meadows in the World, 
adorn*d at certain distance with Groves and Woods. 
The Soil is very fertile, and produces a great quan- 
tity of Indian Corn. They preferve alfo Plums and 

As foonas lie were arrlv'd, M. Joliet and I defir'd 
the eldelb of the Savages to meet us, and I told 
them that M. Joliet was fent by the Governor of 
Canada to difcover new Countries, and I from God 
Almighty to teach them the Knowledge of their 
Creator, who being abfolute Mailer of all his Crea- 
tures, will have all Nations to know him ^ and that 
therefore to comply with his Will, I did not value 
my Life, which I freely expos'd to all manner of 
Dangers ^ Concluding, That we vf anted two Guides 
to put us in our Way, which we delir*d them to 
grant us. We enforc'd our Compliment with fome 
Prefents that were kindly receivM by the Savages j 
who anfwer'd us likewife with a Prefcnt, i^iz,. a maty 
which was our Bed during our Voyage. They grant- 
ed us alfo two Guides, to accompany us for fomc 
Days. The* next Day, being the 10th of Jme^ the 
two Miamis who were to conduct us^ imbark'd with 
us in fight of all the Inhabitants of the Village, who 
could not admire enough that ieven Europeans Ihouid 
venture upon fo dangerous and extraordinary an Un- 
dertaking. " , 

C g ? Wq 

190 A New Difcovery of 

W6 were inform'd, that within three Leagues of 
thcMaskoutens, there was a River which 
runs into the ^ MijfiffipU and that we *^ewe/,m calls 
were to go diredly to the Weft-South- it Msfchafipi, 
Weft, to find it j but there arcfo many 
MoraOes and Lakes between it, that had it not been 
for our Guide, we had never been able to find it • 
and the River upon which we row'd^ to find the 
Place we were to Land and carry our Canow into 
the other, was fo full of Wild-Oats, that it lookt ra- 
ther like a Corn-Field than a River ^ infomuch that 
we couM hardly difcover its Ghanftel. As the Mia- 
ntis frequented this Place, they conduded us to 
the ufual Place of Portage^ and help'd us to carry 
our Canow over-land into the other River, diftant 
from the former about two Miles ^nd a half j from 
whence they return'd home, leaving us in an an- 
knowh Country, having nothing to fely upon but 
the Divine Providence. We made a Solemn Vow in 
chis place, and refolv'd to ufe fome particular Pray- 
ers every Day to the BlefTed Virgin, to recommend 
our Perfons and Enterprize to her Protedion, and 
afterwards embark'd. 

This River is call'd Mefconfin : It is very broad 
but the Sands make its Navigation difficult j and this' 
Difficulty isincreas'd by an infinite Number of lOands 
(cover'd with Vines. The Country through which it 
flows is very fine ; the Groves difpos'd at cer- 
tain Diflances in the Meadows, make a noble Pro- 
fpec^ y and the Fruit of the Trees difcover s the Fer- 
tility of the Soil. Thofe Groves are full of Wallnut- 
Trees, as alfo of Oaks, and of another fort of Trees 
unknown to us in Europe, the Boughs whereof are 
arm d with long Thorns. We law no other Game 
in thefe Meadows but abundance of Wild-Goats 
and Wild-Bulls. Within thirty Leagues of this 
Place where we embark'd, we found fome Iron- 
/AinQs :, and one of our Company, who liad for- 

feverd Countries in America. 191 
merly feen fuch Mines, told us that thefe were ex- 
traordinary good : They are not above three Foot 
deep and are fituate near a Row of Rocks , the 
f ooc'whereof is coverM with fine Woods. After 
having row'd ten Leagues further, that is, forty 
Leagues in all from the Place where we embark'd, 
we came into the AfiMiffipi on the 17th of June, 
The Mouth of the Mefconfin is about forty two De- 
grees and a half of Latitude. Jhe Satisfadion I had 
to fee this famous River, is almoft incredible , for 
though the Savages had often fpoken of it to. our 
Men, none of them had been fo bold as to venture 
fo far in this unknown Country. This oblig'd me 
to conlider this River with a greater Attention than 
otherwife t wou'd have done, as the Reader will per- 
ceive in perufing the following Account. 

The MiJJiJfipi is form'd by feverl Lakes in the" 
North-Country, from whence it runs to the South. 
Its Channel is pretty narrow at the Mouth of the 
Mefconfin^ being ftreightenM by a Row of high 
Mountains on the other fide •, but however its 
Stream is very gentle, becaufe of its depth : for we 
found there nineteen Fathom Water. But a little 
below that Place, it enlarges it felf, and is aboutf 
three quarters of a League broad. Its Banks are 
very fine ^ but three Days after, we difcover'd a 
much better Conntiy. The Trees are higher, and 
the Iflands fo beautiful, that I verily believe there 
is nothing like it in the World. The Meadows are 
cover'd with an infinite number of Wild-Goats and 
Bulls, and the River with Buftards and Swans 
without Wings, becaufe their Feathers fall in this 
Country about that time. We faw extraordinary 
Filhes, and one of them was fo big, that our Ca- 
now was like to be broke into Pieces, becaufe ic 
run againft it. We faw alfo a very hideous Sea- 
monfter ^ his Head was like that of* a Tyger 9 but 
his Nofe was fome\^at Iharper, arid like a Wild- 
G g 4 Cati 

?92 A New Difcovery of 

Cat ^ his Beard wa. long ^ his Ears flood upright 
the Colour of hs Head beine Gr^v \[^5 
Neck Btek. He look'/ up„rus''fo7fo„,r ,,f 
but as we came near him, our Oars frighted h,m 
T^i Th<s is the only one we faw We Ith^ 
^"fr^<?f Sturgeons, and another fort of Ifl 
fomewhat like our Trouts evr^ni- rVs^^X-^ 

the Not ^^^ "l^.^ '^""' andX'ttyt"eS 
the Nofe a Bone like a Woman's Busk, three Inches 
broad, and a Foot and an half long , the End 
whereof ,s flat and very broad, infomich that 
when they leap out of the Water , the Weight of. 
that Bone makes them fall backwards. wTfaw alfo 
abundance of Turky-Cocks on the Banks of the RU^ 

rJl^^W"""' "^^'"^i^^e call mid-BuUs, are not 
much unlike ours ; they are not altogether folong 
but twice as big: We ftot one Sf them and' 
tlurteen Men had much ado to drag him ffom ?Se 
Place where he fell. Their Head is of a prodki 
ous.bigneft, their Forehead broad and flaf and 
their Horus (between which there is af I'eaft a 
Footanda halfdiftance ) : are all blact IJ t 
ionger than thofe of oLT4"«tattlf ?S 

IZZnX^^'^f^' and Wir Head b17, 
VoiJ^ t7 t S''0"lders, are cover'd w th long 

" ilv Tuff n/V" % '^'^'^' '^ '^'" F°^^S 

over^tLiVEvef nf P','"' ^-^''"^ falling. down 
over ii,en byes , blinds them in a manner and 

makes them ook dreadful. The reft of the Bodv 

IS cover'd with curl'd Hair, or rath r Wool iTke 

our Sheep, but much thicker and ruffer Their 

Hair falls m Summer-time, and then tSeir *in c 

mort dowiL Ihe Savages make ufe of their 
Skins for Gowns, which they paint with feveral 

'>eit Uilh of the Savages, who dcllroy abundance; 

fever al Countries in America. 195 

of them, though they are very fierce and dange- 
rous •, and if they can but take a Man with their 
Horns,, they tofs him up, and then tread upoa 
him. The Savages hide themfelves when they have 
fhot at them, tor elfe they (hou'd be in great dan- 
ger of their Lives, thofe Beads being fiercer when 
wounded ^ they follow them at certain diftances, till 
they have loft io much Blood as to be unable to do 
chem any hurt, or to defend themfelves. They 
Graze upon the Banks of the River i and I have 
feen above four hundred together. 

We continu'd to fall down the River, having 
feen nothing for above a hundred Leagues, but 
Bcafts and Birds t, however, we were always upon 
our Guard, and efpecially during the Night, for 
fear of any Surprize. We landed in the Evening 
to drefs our Supper, and made but a little Fire, and 
then left the fiiore, calliug an Anchor near the 
middle of the River, "where we lay, as the fafeft 
Place, and yet one of us watchM always by turns. 
On the 25th of June we went a-lhore, and found 
fome frefti Traces of P^en upon the Sand, and then 
found a Path which led into a Meadow. We call'd 
our Men together, and it was refolvM that our 
Men fnou'd continue in the Canows, while 
M. Johet and I fhou'd follow thac Path, and en- 
deavour to find the Habitation of the Savages. This 
Undertaking was very bold, yet Relying upon God 
Almighty, we. went on, and within ten Leagues 
from thence, dilcover'd a Village on the Banks of 
a River, and two other Villages on a Hill within 
half a League from the former. Having again 
implor'd God's Protection, we adyanc'd fo near 
to the Savages, that we cou'd hear them talk, and 
therefore thought it was time to give them no- 
tice of our Arrival, which we did with a loud 
Cry, and then ftopp'd. The Savages immediately 
came out of their Cabins, and feeing but two 


"194 -^ ^^"^ 'Dtfcovery of 

Men, they were not frighted, and efpecially be- 
caufe we had acquainted them by our Cry, with 
our Approach \ therefore they fent four of their 
Old Men to talk to us, and fee who we were, 
and what Buflnefs we canve upon. They carri'd 
two Pipes adorn'd with Feathers of feveral Co- 
lours, which they prefented to the Sun, without 
fpeaking a Word. They march'd fo flowly, that 
we began to be impatient ^ and when they came > 
near us, they ftopp'd, and us'd many Ceremo- 
nies. We were very glad to fee them coverM 
with Cloth, for thereby we judg*d they were ei- 
ther our Allies, or Friends of our Allies ^ and 
therefore I fpoke to them, and ask'd them who they 
were ? They anfwer'd. That they were Illinois, and 
prefented us their Pipe to fmoak, defiring us all 
to walk to their Habitations. Thofe Pipes are 
callM both by the Savages and Eurofeans^ Calumets j 
and therefore I Ihall make ufe of their Word for 
the future, having often occafion to mention thefe 

They conducted us to a Cabin, whke an Old 
Man waited for us, in a very extraordinary Poftnre, 
which, as I underftand fince, is the ufual Cere- 
mony they ufe for the Reception of Strangers. 
This Man flood before the Cabin, having both his 
Hands lifted up to Heaven, oppofite to the Sun, 
infomuch that it darted its Rays through his Fin- 
gers, upon his Face ; and when we came near him, 
he told us. What a fair Day this is fmce thou comcfi to 
*vifit us ! All our People wait for thee, and .thou /halt 
enter our Cabin in Peace. Having repeated the Com- 
pliment to M. Joliet, he conduced us into his 
Cabin, where abundance of People crowded to 
fee us, keeping however a great Silence, that we 
heard nothing a great while, but now and then 
thefe Words, Tou have done well^ Brothers, to come 
0ndfee uu 

I As 

fever d Countries in America. 19$ 

As foon as we fat down, they prefented us, .ac- 
cording to Cuftom, their Calumet^ which one muft 
needs' accopt, for elfe he fliouM be lookt upon as 
an open Enemy, or a meer Brute; however, it is 
not necefTary to fmoak ^ and provided one puts it 
to his Mouth, ic is enough, While the Old Man 
fmoak'd in our Cabin to entertain us, the Great 
Captain of the Illinois fent us word to come to his 
Village, where he defign'd to confer with us^ and 
accordingly we went to him, being attended by 
all the Inhabitants of this Village, who having 
never feen any Europeans before, accompain'd us 
all the Way. We met that Captain at the Door 
of his Cabin, in the middle of Ten Old Men ; 
all of them were (landing, and each had his Calu- 
met towards the Sun. He made us a (hort fpeech 
to congratulate our happy Arrival in that Coun- 
try j and prefented us his Calumet^ wherein we 
were obiig'd to fmoak before we went into his 

This Ceremony being over, he conduded us, 
and defir'd us to iit down upon a Mat, and the Old 
Men of that Nation being prefent, I thought fit 
to acquaint them with the Subjed of our Voyage, 
and therefore I told them, i. Tiiat we defign'dto 
vilit all Nations that were on that River, down to 
the Sea. 2. That God Almighty, their Creator, 
took pity on them, and had fent me to bring them 
to the Knowledge of his Being, and therefore ex- 
peded a full Submiffion from them. 3. That the 
Great Captain of the French had commanded me 
to tell them, that he had fubdu'd the Iroquois^ and 
wou'd have every Body to live in Peace. 4 We 
defir'd them to tell us whatever they knew con* 
cerning the Nations we were to meet along the 
River. We cnfoic'd every Point of our Speech 
with a Prefent, and then fate down. The Cap- 
tain of the //^/«c?/j anfwer'd, That he was very glad 


ig6 A New Difcovery of 

to hear of the great Adions of our Captain, 
meaning the Governor of Canada^ and defw'd lis 
to remain amongH: them, becaufe of* the great 
Dangers to v»'hich we fhou'd be expos'd in conti« 
nuing our Voyage ^ but I told them that we did not 
fear to lofe our Lives for the Glory of God *, at 
which they were, mightily furpriz'd. He prefented 
us with a Calumet^ the moft myfterious thing in the 
- World ^ of which I fhall give an Accouut in ano- 
ther Place. • 

The Council being over, we were invited to a 
Feaft, which v^e were obligM to accept. The firlt 
JVJefs wa^ a Difh of Sagamite^ that is, fome Meal 
of Indian ^Coxti boiPd with Water, and fealbn'd 
with Greafe ; The Mafter of Ceremonies holding 
a kind of Spoon-full of that Sagamite^ put fome 
thrice into my Mouth , and then did the like 
to M. Joliet. They brought for a Second Courfe, 
three Fifhes in a Dilh, whereof he took a Piece, 
and having took out the Bones, and blown up- 
on it to cool it, he put it into my Mouth, juft 
as a Bird feeds his young ones. The Third Service 
was a huge Dog, whom .they kill'd on purpofe ; 
but underltanding that we eat no fuch Creatures ; 
they brought a Piece of Beef, and fervM us as be- 

As foon as we had done, we j^-ent to villt the 
Village, which conllfts of near three hundred Ca- 
bins, being atterided by an Officer, to oblige the 
Savages to make room , and not crowd upon us. 
They prefented us with Girdles and Garters , and 
fome other Works made of the Hair of Bears and 
Bulls. We lay m the Cabin of the Captain, and the 
next Day took our Leave of him, promifmg to re- 
turn in Four Moons. They conduded us as ix: .;.s 
our Canows, with near eight hundred Perfons y^ho 
exprefs'dan extraordinary Joy for our kind ^' s 
they call'd it. 

fever d Countries in Amtncz, 1.97 

It will not be improper to relate here what I 
obferv'd of the Cuftom and Manners of this Peo- 
ple , which are very different from what is pra- 
ctis'd among the other Nations of the Northern- 

The Word Illinois in their Language Hgnifies Men^ 
as if they did look" upon the other Savages as Beajls j 
and truly it mufl: be confefs'd that they are not al- 
together in the Wrong, for they have more Huma- 
nity than all the other Nations that I have fcen in 
America. The fliort time I vemain'd with them, did 
not permit me to. inform my felf, as much as 1 de- 
fir'd, of their Cuiloms and Manners , but here is 
what I was able to obferve^ They are divided into 
feveral Villages, vvheieof fome are very remote 
from thofe that Ihave feen. They call them Perouarca-^ 
but as they live fo far one from the other, their 
Language is alfo very difl'erent. However, it is a 
DialetS; of the Algonquin, and therefore we were 
able to iinderftand what they faid, and to converfe 
with them. They are good-natur'd Men, tradable 
^ndeafy-: they keep feveral Wives, and yet they 
are exceedingly jealous ; They obferve with great 
Care their Behaviour •, and if they find them in any 
Fault as to their Chaftity, they cut off their Nofes 
and Ears^ and I faw feveral who carry'd' upon 
their Faces the Marks of their Infidelity. The 7///*- 
mis are very v;ell fliap'd, and very dextrous : They 
are good Marks-men with their Arrows and fmall 
Guns, with which they are fupply'd by the Savages 
that have Commerce with the Europeans. , This 
makes them forifiidable to the other Nations inhabi- 
ting to the Weftward, who have no Fire-Arms. 
The Illinois knowing how much they are frighted 
at the Noife of their Guns, make Excurfions very 
far to the Wcllward, and bring Slaves from thence, 
which they l^arter with other Nations for the Com- 
modities they want. Thofe Nations are altogether 

198 A New Dlfcovery of 

ignorant of Iron Tools ', and their Knives, Axes, 
and other Inftruments, arc made of Flints, and other 
fiiarp Stones. 

When the Illinois go upon any Expedition, the 
whole Village mull have notice of it *, and therefore 
they ufe to make an Out-cry at the Door of their ' 
Huts the Evening before they go, and the Morning 
they are to fetout. Their Captains are diftingui(h'd 
from the Soldiers by Red Scarfs, made with the 
Hair of Bears or Wild Bulls, that are curioufly 
wrought. They have abundance of Game •, and 
their Soil is fo fertile^ that their Indian Corn never 
fails, and therefore they never labour under Famine. 
They-fow Beans and Melons, which are excellent, 
and ' efpecially thofe whofe Seed is Red. They 
greatly efteem their Citruls, though they are none 
of the belt. They dry them up, and keep them 
till the Winter and Spring. Their Cabins are very 
large j they are made , cover'd , and pav'd with 
Mats of Marilh-Rufhes. Their Diflies are of Wood i 
but their Spoons are made of the Bones of the 
Skulls of Wild-Oxen, which they cut fo as to 
niake^ them very convenient to eat their Sagamite, 
They have Phyficians anjongft them , towards 
whom they are very liberal when they are fick, 
thinking that the Operation of the Remedies they 
take, is proportionable to the Prefents they 
make unto thofe who have prcfcrib'd them. They 
have no other Clothes but Skins of Bealls, which 
ferve to cover their Women j for the Men go molt 
of the Year Itark-iiaked. I don't know by what 
Superftition fome of the Illinois and Nadouejfians wear 
Womens Apparel When they have taken the fame, 
which they do in their Youth, they never leave it 
olF^ and certainly there mull be fome Myftery in 
this Matter, for they never Marry, and work in the 
Cabins with Women, which other Men think be- 
low them to do. They may go however to their 


fever al Countries in America. 199 

Wars, but they muft ufe only a Club, and not Bows 
and Arrows, which are fit, as they fay, for Men 
alone. They affift at all the Superftitions of their 
Juglers^ and their folemn Dances in honour of the 
Calumet, in which they may ling, but it is not law- 
ful for them to Dance. They are call'd to their 
Councils, and nothing is determinM without their 
Advice*, for, becaufe of their extraordinary way of 
Living, they are look'd upon as Manitous^ or atleaft 
for great and incomparable Genius's. 

I muft fpeak here of the C^/wfw^ f, the moft my- 
fterious thing in the World. The Scepters of our 
Kings are not fo much refpeded •, for the Savages 
have fuch a Deference for this Pipe, that one may 
call it. The God of Peace and War, and the uirbiter of 
Life and Death. One, with this Calumet^ may ven- 
ture amongft his Enemies, and in the hotteft En- 
gagement they lay down their Arms before this Sa- 
cred Pipe. The lUinois prefented me with one of 
them, which was very ufeful to us in our Voyage. 
Their Calumet of Peace is different from the Calumet 
of War *, They make ufe of the former to feal their 
Alliances and Treaties, to travel with fafety, and ro 
ceive Strangers j and the other is to proclaim War. 

It is made of a Red Stone like our Marble j the 
Head is like our common Tobacco- Pi pes, but lar- 
ger ^ and it is fixt to a hollow Reed, to hold it for 
fmoaking. They adorn it with fine Feathers of fe- 
veral Colours ; and they call it, The Calumet of the 
Sun, to whom they prefent it, efpecially when they 
want fair Weather or Rain, thinking that that Pla- 
net can have no lefs refpeft for it than Men have, 
and therefore that they Ihall obtain their Defires. 
They dare not wafii themfelves in Rivers in the be- 
ginning of the Summer, or tafte the new Fruit of 
Trees, before they have danc'd the Calumet, which 
they do in the following manner : 


200 A New Difcovery of 

This Dance of the Calumet is a folemn Ceremo- 
ny amongfl the Savages, which they perform upon 
important Occafions, as to confirm an Alliance, or 
make Peace with their Neighbours. They afe it alfo 
to entertain any Nation that comes to vifit them ^ and 
in this Cafe we may confiderit as their Bails. They 
perform it in Winter-time in their Cabins, and in the 
. open Field in the Summer. They chufe for that 
purpofe a fet Place among Trees, to ihelter them- 
felves againfl; the Heat of the Sun, and lay in the 
middle a large Matt , as a Carpet, to lay upon the 
God of the Chief of the Company, who gave the 
Ball ^ for every one has his peculiar God, whom 
they call Manitoa. It is fometime a Stone, a Bird, 
a Serpent, or any thing elfe that they dream of in 
their Sleep ; for they think this Manitoa will lup- 
ply their Wants, by FiQiing, Hunting, and other 
Enterprises. To the Right of their Manitoa they 
place the Calumet^ their Greal Deity, making round . 
about it a kind of Trophy with their Arms , 
viz^ their Clubs, Axes, Bows, Qiiivers, and' Ar- 
rows. , 

Things being thus difposM , and the Hour of 
Dancing coming on,^ thofe who are to fing, take 
the mofl: Honourable Seats under the Shadow of the 
Trees, or the Green Arbours they make in cafe the 
Trees be not thick enough' to fiiadow them. They 
chufe for this Service the belt Wits amongd them, 
either Men or Women. Every' Body fits down af- 
terwards, round about, as they come, having firft 
of all faluted the Manitoa^ which they do in blow- 
ing the Smoak of their -Tobacco upon it , which is 
as much as offering to it Frankincenfe. Every Bo- 
dy, one after another, takes the Calumet, and hold- 
ing it with his two Hands, dances with if, follow- 
ing the Cadence of the Songs. This Vreludium be- 
ing over, he \^'ho is to begin the Dance^ appears in 
the middle of the AfTembly, and having taken the 


feveral Countries in kmtnz2L^ 2oj 

Calumet^ prefents it to the Sun, as if he wou'd in- 
vite him to fmoke. Then he moves it into an in- 
finite number of Poflures, fometimes laying it near 
the Ground, then ftretching its Wings, as if he wou'd 
make it fly, and then prefents it to the Spedators, 
who fmoke with it one after another, dancing all 
the while. This is the firfl Scene of this famous 
Ball. / ^i 

The Second is a Fight, with Vocal and Inflru- 
mental Mufick j for they have a kind of Dram, 
which agrees pretty well with the Voices. The 
Perfon who dances with the Calumet, gives a Sig- 
nal to one of their Warriours, who takes a Bow 
and Arrows, with an Ax, from, the Trophy alrea- 
dy mention'd, and fights the other, who defends 
himfelf with the Calumet alone, both of them dan- 
cing all the while. The Fight being over, he who 
holds the Calumet, makes a Speech, wherein he 
gives an Account of the Battels he has fought, and 
the Prifoners he has taken, and then receives a 
Gown, or any other Prefent, from the Chief of 
the Ball. He gives then the Calumst to another 
who having aded his part, gives it to another, and 
fo of all others, till the Calumet returns to the Cap- 
tain, who prefents it to the Nation invited unto that 
Feafl:, as a Mark of their Friend (hip, and a Con- 
firmation of their Alliance. I can't pretend to be 
fo much Mafter of their Language as to judge of 
their Songs, but methinks they are very witty. 

We parted from the lUinovs towards the middle of 
June^ about Three a-clock, and fell down the Ri- 
ver, looking for another catPd Pakitayioni, which 
runs from the North- Well into the MiJftJJlp^ of 
which I Ihall fpeak anon. As we follow'd the 
Banks, I obferv'd on a Rock a Simple, which I 
take to be very extraordinary. Its Root is like 
fmall Turnips link'd together by fome Fibres of 
the fame Root, which taftes like Carrot?. From 
" ~ H h that 

202 A 'Netv Difcovery of 

^hat Root fprings a Leaf as large as oaie's Hand, 
and about an Inch thick, with feme Spots in the 
middle 5 from whence fpring alfofome other Leaves 
each of them bearing five or fix yellow Flowers, 
like Uttle Bells. 

We found abundance of Mulberries as good and 
as big as ours \ and another Fruit which we took 
at firft for Olives, but it taftes like Orange. We 
found another Fruit as big as an Egg and having 
cut it into two Pieces, we found the mfide was di- 
vided into fixteen, eighteen, and twenty fmall 
Cells or Holes, and in each of them a Fruit like 
our Almonds, which is very fweet, though the Tree 
flinks : Its Leaves are like our Walnut-Trees. We 
faw alfo in the Meadows a Fruit like our Filbirds : 
The Tree which bears it basics Leaves much broader 
than ours ; and at the end of the Branches there is a 
kind of a Purfe like a Turnbole^ m which the Filbirds 
are lockM up. 

Along the Rocks I have mention'd, we found 
one very high and fteep, and faw two Monfters 
painted upon it, which are fo hideous, that we 
were frighted at the firft Sight, and the boldeft 
Savages dare not fix their Eyes upon thera. 
They arc drawn as big as a Calf, with two Horns 
like a Wild-Goat j Their Looks are terrible, 
though their Face has fomething of Human Fi- 
gure in it: Their Eyes are Red, their Beard is 
like that of a Tyger, and their Body is covei'M 
with Scales. Their Tail is fo long that it goes 
o'er their Heads, and then turns between their 
Fore-Legs under the Belly, .ending like a Fifh- 
Tail. There are but three Colours, viz. Red, 
Green, and Biack ^ but thofe Monfters are fo well 
drawn, that I cannot believe that t\\Q Savages did 
it ; and the Rock whereon they are painted is lb 
fbcep, that it is a Wonder to me how it was poflible 
to draw thofe Figures j But to know to what purpofe 


feveral Countries in America. 205 
they were made, is as great a Myftery. Whatever 
it be, our beft Painters wou'd hardly do better. 

As we fell down the River, following the gen- 
tle Stream of the Waters, and difcourfing con- 
cerning thofe Monfters, we heard a great Noife 
of Waters, and faw feveral Pieces of Timber, 
and fmall floating Iflands, which were hudled down 
the River Pekitanoni. The Waters of this River 
are fo muddy, becaufe of the violence of its Stream, 
that it is impoflible to drink of it, and they 
fpoil the Clearnefs of the MiJJiJJtpi^ and make its 
Navigation very dangerous in this Place. This Ri- 
ver runs from the NortJ-Weft ^ and I hope to dit 
cover, in following its Channel towards its Source, 
^om^ other River that difcharges it felf into the Mar 
Marvejoy or the Caliphornian-Gulf. The Savages 
told me, That about fix Days Journey from its 
Mouth, there is a Meadow of thirty Leagues broad, 
at the end wherof , diredly to the North- Weft', 
is a fmall River, which is almofb navigable for 
Cpows , aud runs to the South- Weft into a Lake, 
from which fprings a deep River , which runs di- 
redly Weftward, into the Sea, which certainly 
muft be the Mar hrmejo 5 and I hope I fliall have, 
one time or other, the opportunity to undertake 
that Difcovery, to inftrud thofe poor Nations who 
have been fo long ignorant of their Creator. 
But leaving this Digreilion , I return to the A<fif- 

About 2.0 Leagues lower than the Pckitamm^ 
we met another River called Ouahoiiskigou , which 
runs into the Mijfifipi ^ in the Latitude of 36" 
degrees , but before we arriv'd there, we pafs'd 
through a mofl formidable Place to the Savages , 
who believe that a Manitoa^ or Devil , relldes in 
that Place , to deftroy fuch who are fo bold as to 
come near it. They told us dreadful Stories to 
deter us from our Undertaking j but this terrible 
H hf a Ma^ 

204 ^A New Difcovery of 

Manltoa proves nothing but feme Rocks in a turn- 
ing of the River, about thirty foot high , againft 
wliom the Stream runs with a great violence ; 
and being beaten back by the Rocks and Ifland 
near it, the Waters make a great noife , and flow 
with a great rapidity through a narrow Canal, 
which is certainly very dangerous to unskilful 
Canow-men. This River Omhouskigou comes from 
the Eaftward ^ the Chuoamus inhabit its Banks, and 
are fo numerous, that I have been inform'd there are 
thirty eight Villages of that Nation fituated on this 
River. This People is much infelled by the Jro- 
quois ^ who make a cruel War upon them witl^- 
out any Provocation , but only becaufe they a^ 
a poor harmlefs Nation, unacquainted with any 
Arms. They take them without any refiftance, 
and carry them into Slavery. 

A little above the Mouth of the River, we faw 
fome Downs, wherein our Men difcover'd a good 
Iron-Mine : They faw feveral Veins of it, and a 
Lay of about a foot thick. There is alfo a great 
quantity of it adhering to the Flints, fome of 
which they brought into our Canow. There is 
alfo a kind of fat Earth of three different Co- 
lours, wz.. Purple, Violet, and Red, which turns 
the Water into a deep Blood-colour. We found 
alfo a red Sand very heavy : I put fome upon my 
Oar, which immediately became red ; and the Wa- 
ters could not wafh it away for a Fortnight toge- 
ther. We had feen no Reeds or Canes , but they 
begin to be fo thick in this Place, that Wild Bulls 
can hardly go throngh them. They grow very 
high and big, and their Knots are crown'd with 
feveral Leaves long and fliarp, the greennefs where- 
of is incomparable. 

We had not been troubled hitherto with Gnats, 
bat they began to hp very troublefbme to us a 
little lower in the Ouahoushgou. The Savages who 


fever d Countries in America. 205 

inhabit this Country are oblig'd to build their Huts 
n a different manner from the other, becaufe of 
thbfe troublefome Flies. They drive into the 
Ground big Poles, very near one another, 
which fupi^ort a large Hurdle, which ferves them 
inftead of a Floor, under which they make theic 
Fire j artd the Smoak drives away thofe Crea- 
tures, who cannot abide it. They lay upon 
that Hurdle , the Roof whereof is cover'd with 
Skins againfl; the Rain , and ferves alfo to fhelter 
them againfl: the Heat of ©the Sun. The fame 
Reafon oblig'd us to make a Cabin over our Ga- 

As we were eonHdering the Country, the Banks 
of the River being very low, we difcover'd feve-. 
ral Savages arm'd with Fire-Arms, waiting for us 
upon the Shoar , where the Stream of the River 
carried us. Our Men prepar'd themfelves to fight, 
and it was refolv'd to let them fire firft of all j 
and as we came near, I fpoke to them in the Lan- 
guage of the Jfiurons^ , and fiiew'd my Calumet of 
Peace j but they did not anfwer me, which we 
took for a Declaration of War. However, we 
refolv'd to venture to pafs; but when they had 
feen us at a nearer diftance, they defirM us in a 
friendly manner to come to their Habitations, 
where they enteirtain'd us with Beef and Oil or 
Bears, together with white Plums, as good every 
whit as ours. Thefe Savages have Guns, Knives, 
Axes, Shovels, Glafs-Beads, and Bottles wherein 
they put their Gunpowder. They wear their 
Hair long as the Iroq^uois do , and their Women 
are cover'd as they are amdnft the 'Hurom, They 
told us , That they were only within Ten Days 
Journey of the Sea; that they bought thofc 
Commodities from Europeans who live to the East- 
ward 3 tliac thefe Europeans had Images and Beads ; 
H h 3 that 

2q6 i^ ^^^ Difcovery of 

that they play uponlnftruments^ thatfome were 
cloath'd as I was, and that they were very kind to 
them. However, I could find nothing in them that 
could perfuade me thai rhey had receiv'd any Inftru- 
dions about our Holy Religior. » endeavourM to 
give them a general Idea of it, and prefented them 
with fbme Medals to put them in mind of 

The account given us by the Savages was a 
great Encouragement to us , in hopes to fee the 
Sea in a few Days j and therefore we row'd 
with an extraordinary vigour. The Banks of 
the River began to be cover'd with high Trees, 
which hinder'd us from obferving the Country, 
as we had done all along , but we judged from 
the bellowing of the Bulls , that the Meadows 
are very near. We faw Ibme Quails on the 
Water-fide , and Ihot a fmall Parrot , who had 
the half of his Head red , and the other part and 
the Neck yellow , and the reft of the Body green. 
We found our felves in this Place in the Lati- 
tude of 33 Degrees, fteering diredly Southerly 5 
and a little while afterwards we difcover'd a 
Village on the River-fide call'd Michigamea. The 
Savages made a great noife , and appeared in 
Arms, dividing themfelves into three Parties, one 
of which Itood on the Shoar, while the others 
went into their Wooden Canows , to intercept 
our Retreat, and prevent our efcape. They were 
arm'd with Bows and Arrows , Clubs , Axes , 
and Bucklers. Notwithftanding thefe Preparati- 
ons, we row'd diredly to the Shoar, where 
their main Body Hood •, and as we came near, 
two of their young Warriours flung themfelves 
into the Water to board my Canow , which ' 
he would have done, had not the rapidity of 
the Stream prevented his Defign 3 fo that they 


feverd Countries in America^ 207 
were forc'd to return a-fliore, having thrown 
at us their Clubs , which by good fortune went 
over our Heads. I prefented my Calumet of Peace,' 
but they were fo bufy that they could not fee .• 
However , as they advancM in a Body to 
Ihoot at us, the Old Men difcover'd my Ca- 
lumet 5 whereupon they made an Out-cry, com- 
manding their Youth to ftop, and two of therai 
advancM to the Water-fide ^ throwing their Ar- 
rows and Qiiivers into bur Canow , as a figa 
of Peace , defiring us by figns to come a-ifhoar , 
which we did , though with great apprehenii- 
ons. I fpoke to them in fix different Langua- 
ges , of which they underftood none j but they 
brought an Old Man who fpoke lUinois , whom we 
told ., That we defign'd to go to the Sea 5 and 
mad'e them Ibme fmall Prefents. They under- 
ftood what I told them on this matter 5 but 
very little , as I fear , of what I added concerning 
the CREATOR of the World. They an- 
fwer'd. That we fhould learn whatever we defir'd 
ten Leagues lower, at a great Village call'd AJtam^ 
fca^ and prefented us with their .S<;?^o»7f^f^, andfome 

We lay there that night in great Fears i and 
the next Morning embark*d again with our In-^ 
terpreter and ten Savages in one of their Wooden 
Canows, and met within half a League from 
Akamfca two large Canows full of Savages. The 
Captain was ftanding in the lirft, holding his Ca- 
lumet , of whif h he made feveral Motions , ac- 
cording to the Cuftoms of his Country. I flood 
up likewife in my Canow with mi Calumet , at 
which they were fo pleas'd, that they met us with 
all imaginable Demonftrations of Joy , attended 
with Songs and Shouts. They prefented us their 
Calumet to fmoak , and fomp Bread made of Iw- 
^ h 4 dim 

ao8 A Neiv Difcimery of 

ffCM, and then returnM home, biddineusto 
follow h.m, which we did atfome diftance^Jh', 
had m the mean time prepared a kind of Scaffold to 
rex:eiTe us, adorn'd with line Mats ; upon whkh we 
fat down, and the Old Men and WarrWrnear us 
the reft of the People ftanding off We found a! 
mongft them a young Man who fpoke fc?, much 
better than the Interpreter we had brought wi™ns 
from MuUgamea; and we defir'd him to arouaint 

COTiin^ rnn T'^"'''^ J '°M them con! 
snH th, v>V^a' ''■^ <^'^^"°n of the World 
and the Providences ; telling us by the Inter- 

Cnv' I^' '•'^y ft°"W tlfnk theLf dves very 
happy, rf we would remain with them to teach 

«.lf'^ ^°}u f '''"" "'^ "'^'■e within five Days tour- 

hadbe'eniL rh""^?''' *^'''^«'' ^"^ Glafs Beads, 
^tie^ bv^S M ? '" ^?'?'°§' °f °ther Gommo- 
aities, by lome Nations mhab ting to the Eaftward 

^e Savteerthn '■ ^f ^ Jo-mey of them : That 
ine bavages whom we had met with Fire-Arms 

with Sr/"'"'"' "'■° "'"'^ted their Comrrcl 
To great ot'trV' '"''.'^'^ ^"^ ftould be expos'd 
the! bec?uSo'r.'. '^^ ''"^ ^'"'"^^ to proceed far- 
on d,e R ter 'MM'^'^S" '^^P continually cruifing 
f„™» <•; '" the mean t me, they brought us 


feveral Countries in America, 209 

Thefe Savages are very courteous, and give 
freely what they have ; but their Provifions arc 
but indifferent, becaufe they dare not leave their 
Habitation to go a Hunting for fear of their 
Enemies. They have Indian Corn in great plen- 
ty, and at all times, having three Crops every 
Year. They roall it, or elfe boil it in great 
Pots of Earth, which are curioufly made. They ' 
go naked, and wear their Hair very Ihort, bo- 
ring their Ears, which they adorn with Rings 
of Glafs-Beads j but their Women are cover'd 
with Skins, having their Hair- divided into two 
Trefles, which they throw behind their Back, 
without any other Ornament. Their Feafts are 
without any Ceremony .• They ferve their Mtats in 
great Difhes, and every one eats as much as he 
pleafes. Their Language is very difficult, and I 
could never pronounce any Word of it. Their 
Cabins are made with the Barks of Trees, and 
are generally very long, they lie at the two 
ends, their Beds being about two foot higher 
r than the Floor. They keep their Corn in Pa- 
niers made of Ruflies, or in great Gdurds. They 
have no Beavers, and all their Commodities are 
the Skins of Wild Bulls. It never fnows in their 
Country, and they have no other Winter than 
fpme violent Rains, which makes the only differ- 
ence between Summer and Winter. They have 
, no other Fruic but Water-Melons, though their 
Soil might produce any other, did they know, 
how to cultivate it. 

They held a Council, wherein fome propofed 
to murther us, becaufe of our Comm.odities ^ 
but their Chief oppos'd that bafe Defign, and 
' having fent for us, danc'd the Calumet in our Pre- 
fence, which he prefented me with, to feal our com- 
mon Friendlhip. M. joUct aa^ I in the' mean time 


2IO A New Vifcovery of 

call'd our Men together, to ad vife .whether we 
ihou'd proceed any further, or return home from 
thence ^ and having confiderM that the Gulph of 
Mexico lying in the Latitude of 31 Degrees and 
40 Minutes, cou'd be within three or four Days 
Journey from the Akamfca^ and that therefore the 
MiJTtJJlp difcharg'd it felf into it, and not to the 
Eaitward of the Cape of Florida^ or into the 
Califorman-Seaj as it was expefted, it was refolv'd 
to return home. We confider'd likewife that the 
Advantage of our great Voyage wou'd be alto- 
gether loft to our Nation, did we fall into the 
hands of the Spaniards^ from whom we cou'd 
expedt no other Treatment but Death or Slave- 
ry ; and therefore it was more prudent to con- 
tent our felves with this Difcovery, and make a 
Report thereof to thofe who had fent us. So 
that having refted another Day, we left the Vil- 
lage of thQ jiliamfca^ on the 1.7th of July, ha- 
ving followed the Mijtjjip from the Latitude of 
42 to 34, and preachM the Gofpel to the ut- 
moft of my Power, to the Nations we vifited. 
We went up the River with great difficulty, be- 
caufe of the Rapidity of the Stream, and left it 
in the Latitude of 38 Degrees, and went in- 
to a River, which conduced ,us into the Lake 
of the Illinois^ which Way is much fliorter than 
the other, by the River Mefcoufin^ through which 
we came. 

I never faw a more pleafant Country than the 
Banks of that River. The Meadows are cover'd 
with Wild-Bulls, Stags, Wild-Goats *, and the Ri- 
vers and Lakes with Buftards, Swans, Ducks, Bea- 
vers. We faw alfo abundance of Parrots. Seve- 
ral fmall Rivers fall into this, which is deep and 
feroad, for ^$ Leaguoe, and theretore navigable al- 

fever d Countries in America^ is 1 1 

xnofl: all the Year long. There is but a Pariage of 
half a League into the Lake of the Illinois. We 
found on the Banks of the faid River a Village of 
lUimis callM Kuilka^ confifting of 74 Cabins. They 
receiv'd us with all the Kindnefs imaginable, and 
obtig'd me to promife that I wou'd return to in- 
ftrufi them, and live in their Country. Their 
Captain, with moft of their Youth, accompani'd 
us to the Lake of the lUimis^ from whence we 
return'd to the Bay of Puans-^ where we arriv'd 
towards the latter end of Septetnbery ^ having beerf 
about three Months in our Journey. 

Although my tedious Journey fliou'd bs attend- 
ed with jio other Advantage than the Salvation 
of one Soul, I Ihou'd think my Pains fufficiently 
rewarded, and I hope I may prefume fo much j 
for having preach'd the Gofpel to the Illinois of 
Perouacca for three Days together, in our Return, 
my Words made fuch an Impreflion upon that 
poor People, that as we were embarking, they 
brought to me a dying Child, to Chriften him, 
which I did about half ah Hour before he dy'd, 
by a fpecial J)rovidence of God, who was pleas'd 
to fave that innocent Creature. 


212 j4 New Difcovery of 

Frequent mention having been made in the 
preceding Journal^ of M, du Salles 5 it 
may he expeBec/ fome Account fhouldbs 
given of his latter Difcowries, the un-- 
fortunate Succefs thereof^ and his own 
Tragical End 5 which fo difcouragd 
the French, that they never made any 
further Attempt. 

MR, du Salles^ with divers French who did 
accompany him, fell down to the Mouth 
^ of the Great River, where it difembogues 
it felfiato the G\A^ oi Mexico -^ but neither he nor 
any of his Company underllanding Navigation, ov 
wanting Inftruments, fancied they were in the La^ 
titude of 27 Degrees, whereas really it was 29 ; 
and not being able to inform themfeives ot its Lon- 
gitude, or diftance from the molt Weflerly End of 
the Gulf, they prefum'd they were within a few- 
Leagues of the River of Magdalen^ which is 60 
Leagues North of the River of Valms^ and 1 20 
from the River Panuco^ as it is reprefented'in Hen- 
w^m*s Ghart, and on the Great Globe of Coro«d/i ; 
which great Miftake was the caufe of all his Mis- 
fort«nes : For after his return up the River, and 
through the great Lakes to Canada^ he cmbrac'd 
the next Opportunity of returning by Shipping for 
France ^ where he to the King and his Minifters 
gave fuch a favourable Reprefentation of the Coun- 
try, and Commodities therein contained, the Papu- 
le . >:;i 

fever al Countries in Amtncz, 21 j 

lonfnefs of the Country, Civility of the Inhabitants, 
far exceeding all the other Natives of America they 
had i^-: Knowledge of ^ that the King thereupon 
ovdei d him a Fleet, and a very conliderable Equi- 
page, viz.. a Man of War carrying 56 Guns, a great 
Fly-boat, a Patache, and a Brigantine, with things 
convenient for eltablifhing a Colony and Traffick 
with the Natives. This Fleet was' Commanded by 
M. Beaujeau^ an Experienc'd Sea- Captain, who was 
Victuali'd for a Year*, and M. du SaUes had under 
his Command 150 Land-men, who were to fettle 
in the Country. The Fleet pafs'd by Martinko and 
Guardaloupe, where they took in frefli Provifion and 
Water , together with divers Voluntiers •, and by 
M. du SaUe\ Direction, fail'd thence to the North- 
Weft end of the Gulf, in 27 Degrees. Wiien they 
arriv'd there, they were in great Confiillon, not 
being able to come near the Coaft of Florida^ by 
reafan of a long Bank Recifl', or as the French call 
it, Contre-cofte, which they fearch'd for fome hundred 
Miles. It was no where above a Musket- fliot over, 
and every twenty or thirty Miles there was a Breach, 
by which t4ie Water iflii'd out of a vaft Lagunc^ 
whofe breadth they could not learn. They went 
in their Ship-Boat above forty Miles, and could not 
gain fight of the main Land cr Continent. This 
Lagune was fnallow, in fome Places fix foot, in few 
above nine or ten j there are fcatter'd up and down 
in it divers fmall Iflands, upon one of them they 
found above four hundred Indians, who did not in- 
habit there, but cams accidentally, being upon 
fome expedition. They were all Archers, very pro- 
per goodly Men V their Hutts were cover'd" with 
Skins of the wild crook-back Kine, which the French 
call Pefikkus^ the Spaniards Ccrcobadcs^ or Crook- 
back. They convers'd and trafficked very friendly 
with the French divers Weeks, until an unhappy Ac- 
cident made a great Breach. 

M. du 

214 ' ^ Nerp Difcovery of 

M. du Salle, againft the Opinion of the Pilots; 
would adventure the Fly-boat through one of the 
Breaches into the Lagune, apprehending he had 
found a Channel of fufficient depth, through which 
he might p^fs to the Continent : But whether the 
Channel was too fhallow, or that they miftook it, 
the Fly-boat was loft, and the Frigat drawing lit- 
tle Water, efc^'d. The Indians upon the llland 
favM fome fmall matter of t\i.Q Wreck, which thfe 
Pnnch would take by force frorp them :' They offer'd 
in exchange Skins, and fuch other Commodities as 
they had. The FreHch when they could get no 
more, took two of their Piroques, or large Ca- 
nows ^ which being abfolutcly neceflary for them, 
and without which they could not pofllbly return 
to' the main Land from whence they came, occa- 
iion'd a Skirmifh, in which the French loll fifteen 
Men, and the Indians many more. M. du Sallts be- 
ing almoft diftraded, not knowing howf to find the 
Mouth of the River, took the Frigat, divers Boats 
and Pinnaces, together with a hundred and fifty 
Men, and Provilions for a Month, and crofs'd the 
Lagme, with an intention to fearch the Coaft till 
he found the Mouth of the Great River. M. Beaujeau 
waited ten Weeks, and heard no Tidings from 
him, it being in the Heat of Summer. They wan- 
ting Water and Provifions, befides abundance of his 
Men falling Sick of Fevers and Bloody-fluxes, he 
departed for trance , without any news of M. du 
Salle -J who after he departed from the Ships, ram- 
bled fome Days in the Lagune, and coafted the Main 
chieHy toward the Weft; which was diredly con- 
trary to the Courfe he fhould have taken, the great 
River being diltant above one hundred Leagues to 
the Eaft. But many believe M. du Salle was guilty 
of a wilful miftake ; for he pcrfuaded his Men, that 
fmce they could not find the River, and were come 
to the River of St. Magdalen^ being the North- 


Jeverd Countries in America. 21^ 

Weflerly end of the Gulf, which was not above 
two hundred Leagues from the rich Mints ofEndehe^ 
Santa Barbara^ la Parak, and others in the Province 
of Saceatecas^ where the Spanifirds are few, and not 
Warlike, they could not fail of rich and eafy Booty. 
This Propofition occafion'd a great Divifion amongft 
his men, and deadly Feuds : One part were ready 
to comply with his Projca ^ others for returning to 
their Ships j a third Party for fearching the Conti- 
nent towards the £ai^„till they found the Great 
River, and then return and Pilot the Ship thither 
and purfue their InftrucVions of Planting and Tral 
ding. From Words they came to Blows ^ many were 
kiii'd in the Scu^e, and amongfb others, M. du SaUe 
very treacheroufly by one of hjs pretended Friends. 
Upon his Death they divided, and took feveral 
Courfes. They that return'd to feek the Ship, found 
it departed, and were never heard of fince j others 
fcatter'd, fome Eafterly, fome Wefrerly, and Nor- 
therly. When I receiv'd this Account, which was 
above three Years after this difaftrous Expedition, 
not above Six were return'd to Canada^ and amongib 
them M. du Salle's Brother. 

So that the Providence of Almighty GOD feems 
to have referv'd this Country for the En^li/h^ a Pa- 
tent whereof was granted above Fifty Years ago to 
the Lords Proprietors of Carolina^ who have made 
great Difcoveries therein, feven hundred Miles 
Wefterly from the Mountains, which feparate be-' 
tvveen it Carolina and rirginia^ and Six Hundred 
Miles from North to South, from the Gulf of Mexico 
to the great Inland Lakes, which are fituated behind 
the Mountams of Carolina and Ftrgmia. Befides 
they have an Account of ail the Goafc, from the 
Capeof P/or/^^to the River Panuco^ the Northerly 
Bounds of the Spaniards on the Gulf of Mexico to- 
gether with moft of the chief -Harbours, RiVer's, 
and Illands thereunto appertaining ^ and are about 


ii6 A New Difcovery of^ Sfc. 

to ellablifli a very confiderable Colony on fome part 
of the Grett River, fo foon as they h^ve agreed 
upon the Boundaries, or Limits, which the Lords 
Proprietors of Carolina, who claim by a Patent pro- 
cur'd long after that of Carolana. But there being 
ipace enough for both, and the Proprietors gene- 
rally inclin'd to an Amicable Conclusion, the Suc- 
cefs of this Undertaking is impatiently expected : 
For confidering the Benignity of the Climate, the 
Healthfulnef^ of the Country, Fruitfulnefs of the 
Soil, Ingenuity and Tradablenefs of the Inhabitants, 
Variety of Produdions, if prudently managM, it 
cannot, humanly fpeaking, fail of proving one of 
the mofl conliderable Colonies on tl^e North Conti- 
nent of ^wmcrt, profitable, to the PUblick and the 


I Am inform'd a large Map, or Draught, of this 
Country is preparing, together with a very par- 
ticular Account of the Natives, their Cultoms, Re- 
ligion, Commodities, and Materials for divers forts 
of Manufadtures, which are by the EngUJh procur'd 
at great Expence from other Countries. 

F I N 1 S.